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什么是共和?

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发表于 11/6/2010 03:45:04 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 郭国汀 于 12/28/2010 01:58 编辑

什么是共和?
   
   
   南郭点评:全世界几乎所有的国家皆自称为“共和国”,法兰西有第一,第二,第三,第四共和国,中国民运也有人主张第二共和或第三共和,那么 “共和“到底何指?“共和”的实质?“共和”的要件?共和与民主的关系又如何?时下某些党用文人似乎以反民主辩中共专制为荣耀,长篇大论贬损民主价值,试图否定民主的普世价值;然而世界民主大潮浩浩荡荡势不可挡,一切逆历史潮流而动的家伙注定被抛进历史的垃圾箱。
   
   2010年5月5日
   
   共和要旨
   
   郭国汀
   
   苏格拉底非常谦虚谨慎,他说:“我仅知道一件事,那就是我什么也不知道”;“哲学始于一个人开始怀疑那些以前从未被怀疑过的信条”。[1]苏氏是人类公认的大思想家和大哲学家,他的高足柏拉图及徒孙亚里士多德均是人类不朽的人杰。反观台湾的李敖及大陆某些不知天高地厚之辈,屡屡口出狂言真是令人汗颜。谦逊永远是人类的美德,狂妄自大则永远是耻辱而非荣耀。苏格拉底主张“国家应当由其最智慧的人管理;暴民和大众毫无能力进行管理。他主张思想自由,及异议自由”。[2]“苏格拉底不相信民主,因为虽然理论上美妙,实际上不可行;他相信任何国家的人民大众均绝对不适宜行使统治权,只有那些合适的合格者才能被选任为官;公共职位要求经特殊训练的人担任;正如医生必须经过训练才能治病救人,或鞋匠必须经过训练才能制鞋一样,公共职位任职资格必须经过特殊训练”。马克思主义除了其阶级斗争,无产阶级专政,消灭私有制,暴力革命等谬论外,最离谱的理论之一便是严重违反苏格拉底早在2400年前提出的基本理论:管理国家的职位必须由该国最智慧者担任,胡说什么工人阶级是最先进的阶级。共匪政权则将该谬论发挥至极致“工人阶级领导一切”实质却仅是以工人阶级之名,行共产党独裁专制之实。从中央到地方,自1949年以降全部行政权力被未受过良好教育的文盲或半文盲没文化的武夫粗人独裁撑控,同时不断大批屠杀或精神阉割或驱逐冷冻吾国十分稀少的知识分子和读书人。因此,60年来中国实质上是由一个无知且极端自私自利的匪帮强盗管制,一个国家的悲剧莫此为甚。
   
   “间接民主是指人民选举代表代他们作出政治决定。直接民主则指所有的公民参与决定。间接民主亦称做共和政体” [3]。柏拉图之《共和国》(大陆译为《理想国》)在古罗马时代奉行。因为柏拉图亲历了古雅典直接民主政体处死他亲爱的老师苏格拉底,他始终对直接民主持否定立场,其《共和国》实质上即是对直接民主政体的修正。约翰密尔指出“由于除了在一个小城镇,所有的人不可能亲自参与所有的而只能参与非常有限的公共事务,因此,理想类型的最佳政府必须是代议制的”。[4]中共国徒具共和政体虚名,而无共和的形式更不用说共和的实质,因为全国人民代表大会代表并非真实自由选举产生,而是中共一党独裁撑控,且不分上、下两院,因而是典型的欺世盗名的假共和。
   
   柏拉图说:“感谢上帝让我生于希腊而蛮邦,生而为自由人而非奴隶,生为男人而非女人,但是最令我感谢上苍的乃是:我生于苏格拉底时代。”[5]
   
   亚里士多德在其《政治学》中认为:“城市是自然的产物,人本质上是政治动物”。[6]他对民主亦无好感,他将政府分为正确的和不正确的,并将民主归类于不正确的一类。[7]在更重要的方面,他认为最理想和最佳的政体乃是高度排它的,妇女和奴隶被排除参加政治生活,那些缺乏一定财产及缺乏良好教育和经验的人也应排除。[8]
   
   亚里士多德认为:共和政体“最伟大的任务乃是教育全体公民政体(国家组织形式)精神”及“再也没有比选择国家官员并令其负起责任更重要的任务”。[9]国体,政体或国家组织形式,普通国人绝大多数一无所知;中共流氓暴政下,全体国人完全被剥夺了一切政治选择权,更不用说选举国家和各级政府官员的权力,当然也就谈不上责令政府官员对人民负责了。唯有彻底推翻中共流氓暴政,国人才能行使政治选择权,行使国家各级政府官员的选择权,并对他们实行有效的监督和制约。令官员成为真正的公仆,人民才能成为国家真正的主人。
   
   “当法律终止及当法律被人的心血来潮和反复无常取代时,暴政就开始了”[10]。阿克顿勋爵精辟归纳道:“权力造成腐败,绝对权力导致绝对腐败。大人物几乎总是坏蛋。正直诚实和勇气是正义的生命,若无这些,法律即终结而暴政则开始”。[11]真正的法治能有效地抑制社会腐败,因为法律至上,使得全社会公平竞争成为可能,司法公正成为现实,进而司法正义和社会正义皆有起码的保证。而一个国家若无法治或法治被破坏,人治必然是朝秦暮楚反复无常,令社会成员无所适从,当权者必定大权独揽,而不受制约的权力制造腐败则是必然的。中共流氓暴政1979年甚至没有刑法民事诉讼法等基本法律,此后虽然陆续制定了大量法律、法规,然而由于一党极权专制独裁,司法不独立,媒体不自由,全社会所有的权力皆为共匪独揽,因此其根本无法避免阿克顿勋爵发现的政治学铁律。
   
   在欧洲和美国许多世纪以来,只有三种专业是公认的富于学识和荣誉崇高的:神学,医生和法律。这些专业区别于其他职业主因在于他们均涉及自由教育,特殊培训和高水准的自律。更重要的是,每个专业均要求由声誉良好的人士按照专业伦理规则出具证明某人具有良好的道德品质作业其执业的前提条件。“由于法律职业在整个历史进程中一直致力于追求正义,平等和个人自由,甚至反对政权本身,因此律师几个世纪以来,一直成为暴政和专制者的首要打击目标”。正如赢利是商业的主要目的,公共利益则是律师专业的主要目标。[12] 中国大陆由于共匪故意采取逼良为娼的司法体制,众多律师专业精神远远不足,职业伦理几无所知,既缺专业素质,又无职业道德,许多人沦为主要靠行贿谋生的职业娼妓。以至“法官受贿化,律师行贿化”早已成为公开的秘密。
   
   美国宪法之父马迪逊说“一个共和政体,我是指一个政府其体制是由代表运作……人民在政府中的作用体现为选举代表管理政府。谁能被选任联邦代表?不是富人比穷人更恰当;不是学者比文盲更合适;不是声名显赫的高贵家族的继承人比无名的和不幸的家庭的穷小子更合格……被选任者是美国人民伟大的群体”。[13]美国自1787年立宪建国以来的实践充分证明美国确实做到了不问出身背景,唯问本人是否有品德和才干,而选任总统及各级政府官员。美国梦便是人人机会均等,人人有机会充分发挥已之聪明才智,德才兼备之士有平等机会各得其所,而出身或财富或学识并非美国人最重视的,人最重要的价值在于品德和才能。
   
   “如果一个共和政体的灵魂是自由而非平等条件的话,则其实质则是多样性”。一个真正的共和政体必须包容“各种相互交织的利益”与“各不同阶级由于各种不同情感和观念”引起的冲突。由于共和政体保护各种不同和不平等的取得财产的能力,人们自然拥有各种不同等级和种类的财产”。[14]因此,共和政体强调的是真正意义上的公正与公道,而“均贫富”的乌托邦理想其实即不公正也不公道,仅是强行将聪明能干的人的能力抹杀,强行杀富济贫;表面上好象人人平等,而实质上人为制造真正的不公不义。因为在此种体制下的当权者必定最终演变成假公济私之徒,这是由人的本性决定的,也为所有的共产主义国家的社会实践充分印证为谬论。共和政体只保证法律面前人人平等,保障人人在政治,经济,教育,文化,娱乐,运动等各方面的机会均等,而不保证人人在上述领域一律平等。这就是自由共和宪政民主政体皆能最大限度使人民生活快乐幸福的根本原因。因为人人皆能各尽所能充分发挥已之创造性和独创性的才能,创造社会物质精神产品的同时,实现自我。[15]
   
   美国民主之父杰佛逊在一封给约翰亚当斯总统的信中写道:“人们中有自然贵族。其基础是德行和才能…也有人为贵族,其建立在财富或出身基础之上。而没有德行和才能…我认为自然贵族乃社会政府诚信和教学的自然珍贵的礼物…难道我们不能说那些能最有效地提供纯洁选择自然贵族为政府官员的政府是最佳政府?” [16]早期中共除了李大钊、陈独秀、瞿秋白、张国涛、张闻天等少数左派知识分子外,绝大多数是小知识分子或无知的无业流民;如今的中共流氓暴政官员基本上由极度无知、缺德乏能的流氓无赖组成,没有丝毫绅士基因,更不用说贵族精神了。故中共专制暴政唯讲“枪杆子里面出政权”的强盗土匪逻辑,而根本不懂或公然践踏人类社会最高价值--公平游戏规则。
   
   
   [1] F. L. Grant ,Rambling Comments on Platos Republic,7 Dicta  (1929-1930)  p, 16 . Socrates frequently said, "One thing only I know, and that is that I know nothing;" also, "That philosophy begins when one begins to doubt those beliefs which one had never before doubted."
   
   [2] F. L. Grant ,Rambling Comments on Platos Republic,7 Dicta  (1929-1930)  p, 16 Socrates taught that the state should be governed by its wisest men; that the mob, the great mass, are hopelessly incapable of governing. He proclaimed the right of free thought and the right to differ from the accepted thought of his day。Socrates, according to Plato, did not believe in democracies because although beautiful in theory, they did not work out in practice; he believed that the great bulk of the people of any country were hopelessly inadequate to rule, and that in the last analysis only those properly qualified to hold office should be elected to office; that public office requires specially trained men;-just as a physician must be trained to care for people who are sick, or shoemakers to make shoes, so must men be trained for public office.
   
   [3] WILLIAM R. SANFORD & CARL R. GREEN, BASIC PRINCIPALS OF AMERICAN GOVERNMENT 14 (1988). An indirect democracy is where "the people elect representatives to make political decisions for them." A direct democracy is where "all citizens take part in decision making. An indirect democracy is also known as a republic


[4] See John Stuart Mill, Considerations on Representative Government, in UTILITARIANISM, ON LIBERTY, CONSIDERATIONS ON REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT 234 (H.B. Acton ed. 1972). John Stuart Mill writes that the ideal form of government is a representative democracy. He states that "since all cannot, in a community exceeding a single small town, participate personally in any but some very minor portions of the public business, it follows that the ideal type of a perfect government must be representative. "
   
   [5] I thank God that I was born Greek and not barbarian, freeman and not slave, man and not woman, but above all that I was born in the age of Socrates."
   
   [6] Aristotle, Politics ,1.2 1253al-3. This passage has been translated in various ways. "From  these things therefore it is clear that the city state is a natural growth, and that man is by nature a  political animal." Id. (Rackham trans., 1972). "From these considerations it is evident that the polis  belongs to the class of things that exist by nature, and that man is by nature an animal intended to live in  a polis." Id. (Ernest Barker trans., 1962). "Hence it is evident that the state is a creation of nature, and  that man is by nature a political animal." Id. (Benjamin Jowett trans., 1905). For interpretations of Aristotle's statement that run counter to the traditional view, see SALKEVER, FINDING THE MEAN, supra note 20, at 72, 99-102, 170-74, 179-81, 202-03 (arguing that Aristotle sought to counter the extreme political view of human nature dominant in Greek society, to teach that political life is an end in itself, and to present a deliberative way of life as the supreme human good); Wayne H. Ambler, Aristotle's Understanding of the Naturalness of the City, 47 Prv. POL. 163, 169-72 & n.13 (1985) (suggesting that Aristotle's assertion of the city's naturalness contains certain internal contradictions, reflects the political orientation of the Politics, and thus is not Aristotle's only word on the subject; and referring to Aristotle's statement in Nicomachean Ethics 1162a16-26 that man is by nature more a conjugal than a political animal).
   
   [7] Aristotle, Politics 3.7 1279a22-31. Aristotle was no democrat. As is well known, Aristotle divided forms of government (or "regime") into correct and incorrect,and he classified democracy among the incorrect forms of government.
   
   [8] Aristotle, Politics. at 3.7 1279b4-9 (classifying democracy as a deviation from "polity," because in democracy the many poor rule in their own interest, whereas in "polity" the many rule for the common good). In important respects, moreover, Aristotle's proposals for an ideal or best regime were highly exclusionary. Women and natural slaves were to be excluded from participation in political life, as were men who lacked a certain level of property and a certain type of education and experience. Aristotle, Politics.. at 3.9 1280a31-34 (asserting that natural slaves and animals cannot be part of a state since they do not share in happiness or a life that is chosen); id. at 7.9 1328b39-1329a2 (maintaining that citizens cannot be farmers because they need leisure for acquiring virtue and engaging in political activity); id. at 1329a17-26, 34-38.
   
   [9] ARISTOTLE, The Politics of Aristotle 379 (J.E.C. Wetldon, D.D., trans., Macmillan & Co. 1905). Aristotle, who declared that the greatest task for a republic is "the education of the citizens in the spirit of the polity'"[9] and "there are no more momentous duties than those of electing officers of State and holding them responsible .... "。
   
   [10] Sol Jacobson,Where Law Ends Tyranny Begins, 55 Judicature (1971-1972)  p, 339 When law ends and is supplanted by man's whim and caprice, tyranny begins.
   
   [11] Acton, Letter to Bishop Mandell Creighton, April 5, 1887, reprinted in Aeton, Essays on Freedom and Power (Boston: The Beacon Press, 1949), p. 364. Lord Acton stated, "Power tends to corrupt, but absolute power corrupts absolutely。 Great men are almost always bad men." Integrity and encourage of the legal profession are the breath of justice. Without them, law ends and tyranny begins.
   
   [12] Sol Jacobson,Where Law Ends Tyranny Begins, 55 Judicature (1971-1972)  p, 340 For many centuries in Europe and America, only three professions were recognized as learned and honorable: theology, medicine and law.These professions were distinguished from other callings because they involved a liberal education, specialized learning and training and a high degree of self-discipline. More importantly, each profession required proof of good moral character supported by a sincere personal commitment to practice in accordance with the ethical precepts of the profession. Because the legal profession throughout history has been dedicated to the pursuit of justice, equity and individual liberty-even in opposition to the State itself-lawyers over the centuries have been the first target of tyrants and dictators. Rather than the primary goal of financial success as is true in business, the primary goal of a profession is the common good.
   
   [13] Federalist 10 (Madison) in Clinton Rossiter, ed, The Federalist Papers 84 (New York: Mentor, 1961) “A republic, by which I mean a Government in which the scheme of representation takes place .... Where the people fit in the government is as the electors of the representatives. Who are the electors of the federal representatives? Not the rich, more than the poor; not the learned, more than the ignorant; not the haughty heirs of distinguished names, more than the humble sons of obscurity and unpropitious fortune .... The electors are the great body of the people of the United States”
   
   [14]  Federalist 10 (Madison) in Clinton Rossiter, ed, The Federalist Papers at 79 (New York: Mentor, 1961) If the soul of a republic was liberty - not equality of condition - its substance was heterogeneity. A true republic must accommodate the conflict of the "various and interfering interests" of "different classes, actuated by different sentiments and views." "From the protection of different and unequal faculties of acquiring property, the possession of different degrees and kinds of property immediately results; and from the influence of these on the sentiments and views of the respective proprietors ensues a division of the society into different interests and parties."
   
   [15] Federalist 10 (Madison) in Clinton Rossiter, ed, The Federalist Papers at 78. (New York: Mentor, 1961)
   
   [16] DUMAS MALONE, The Sage of Monticello 239 (1977) (alteration in original). As Jefferson said in a letter to John Adams: “There is a natural aristocracy among men. The grounds of this are virtue and talents.... There is also an artificial aristocracy founded on wealth and birth, without either virtue or talents; . . . The natural aristocracy I consider as the most precious gift of nature for the instruction, the trusts and government of society.... May we not even say that that government is the best which provides most effectually for a pure selection of these natural aristoi into the offices of government?”


发表于 11/11/2010 13:56:55 | 显示全部楼层
GOOD
发表于 11/11/2010 02:17:39 | 显示全部楼层
有ZG特色,不解释,很给力
 楼主| 发表于 12/28/2010 03:09:35 | 显示全部楼层
唯真理是图 于 2009-11-2  除了对中共的全盘否定词之外,老郭这篇网文的价值相当大. 独裁与人治狼狈为奸,法治与民主相依为命. 中国现代民主进程与中国人的法制观念的普遍提高是同步的. 很像世俗社会法律的总纲. 的前四条专 ...

唯真兄诸多短评中的独到见解及对基督教原理的推崇,都是南郭极赞赏的,然而,唯真兄对中共极权流氓暴政的历史与现实及其本质的看法和对中共流氓暴政是否可以改良诸多原则问题,我与你确实有重大区别。尽管如此,我尊重阁下保留意见的做法,因为我理解阁下的处境而决不会强求。如果阁下能具体批驳吾对中共极权专制流氓暴政的论点论据,那更加欢迎。谢谢!
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