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[天主家园] 郭国汀:爱因斯坦宗教上帝相关言论选译

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发表于 12/18/2010 02:54:07 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
                爱因斯坦宗教上帝相关言论选译


       
                                                南郭点评:有神与无神论之争由来已久,事实上无神论主要是18世纪启蒙运动的产物,而自1856年达尔文的《物种起源》发表后无神论更是喧嚣。然而现代科学的进一步发现发明,尤其是1952年DHA的发现,及基因细胞学的发现,使得有神无神之争重现胶着。有一本书汇集了1600名世界着名科学家哲学家思想家信基督教名录,另一本书则收集了诺贝尔物理化学数学及和来奖获得者信神者的名录与事迹。爱因斯坦是公认的人类中最聪慧的人,因此有关研究爱氏宗教观上帝观的信息也特别多,至少有三百万条英文信息。下述爱氏论宗教与上帝选译自《五十名诺贝尔科学奖与哲学奖获得者信上帝》。

                爱因斯坦宗教上帝相关言论选译ALBERTEINSTEIN NOBEL LAUREATE IN PHYSICS
Nobel Prize: AlbertEinstein(1879–1955) was awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics for hiscontributionsto Quantum Theory and for his discovery of the law of thephotoelectric effect.Einstein is one of the founders of modern physics; he is the author of theTheory of Relativity. According to the world media (Reuters,December2000) Einstein is “the personality of the second millennium.”Ph.D. in physics,University of Zurich, Switzerland, 1905 Professor ofPhysics at theUniversities of Zurich, Prague, Bern, and Princeton, NJ.

南郭点评:有神与无神论之争由来已久,事实上无神论主要是18世纪启蒙运动的产物,而自1856年达尔文的《物种起源》发表后无神论更是喧嚣。然而现代科学的进一步发现发明,尤其是1952年DHA的发现,及基因细胞学的发现,使得有神无神之争重现胶着。有一本书汇集了1600名世界着名科学家哲学家思想家信基督教名录,另一本书则收集了诺贝尔物理化学数学及和来奖获得者信神者的名录与事迹。爱因斯坦是公认的人类中最聪慧的人,因此有关研究爱氏宗教观上帝观的信息也特别多,至少有三百万条英文信息。下述爱氏论宗教与上帝选译自《五十名诺贝尔科学奖与哲学奖获得者信上帝》。

1. 我想知道上帝是如何创造这个世界的。我对这种或那种现象,这种或那种元素的光谱不感兴趣。我想知道上帝的思想,至于其它细节就让其休息吧。
“Iwant to knowhow God created this world. I am not interested in this orthat phenomenon, inthe spectrum of this or that element. I want to knowHis thoughts, the rest aredetails.” (Einstein, as cited in RonaldClark, Einstein: The Life and Times,London, Hodder and Stoughton Ltd., 1973, 33).

2. 我们就好象一个进入一间巨大的充满了各种不同语言藏书的图书馆的小孩。孩子知道有人想必写了这些书,但不知道他们是如何写的。他不懂这些语言。他朦胧地怀疑在排列这些书之间有某种秘密的顺序,但不知道到底是什么样的顺序。这些对我而言,正是即便最聪慧的人类面对上帝的态度。我们看到一个绝妙安排遵循一定规律的宇宙,但仅是含糊地理解这些规律。我们有限的心智无法领会该推动各星座运动的神秘的力量。
“Weare in theposition of a little child entering a huge library filledwith books in manydifferent languages. The child knows someone musthave written those books. Itdoes not know how. It does not understandthe languages in which they arewritten. The child dimly suspects amysterious order in the arrangement of thebooks, but doesn’t know whatit is. That, it seems to me, is the attitude ofeven the mostintelligent human being toward God. We see a Universemarvellouslyarranged and obeying certain laws, but only dimly understand theselaws.Our limited minds cannot grasp the mysterious force that movestheconstellations.” (Einstein, as cited in Denis Brian, Einstein: A Life,New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1996, 186).

3. 如果某人清除犹太教和基督教的先知,尤其是那些牧师,正如耶苏基督曾反复教导的那样,那么他就将离开那种能拯救人类社会所有弊病的教导。尽其所能,在他力所能及的范围内,坚定地努力使该净化人类的教导成为一种活的力量是每个仁善的人的责任。
“If one purgesthe Judaism of the Prophets and Christianity as Jesus Christ taught it of all subsequent additions,especiallythose of the priests, one is left with a teaching which iscapable of curingall the social ills of humanity. It is the duty ofevery man of good will tostrive steadfastly inhis own little world to make this teaching of pure humanity a living force, sofar as he can.” (Albert Einstein, Ideas and Opinions, New York, BonanzaBooks, 1954, 184-185).

4. 总之,在犹太教与基督教之间的区别是否已被两派中狂热信徒跨大?我们双方都是生活在上帝的应许之下,受到几乎等同的精神力量的培育。无论犹太人或非犹太人,不论约束或自由,所有都是上帝自已拥有的。
“Afterall,haven’t the differences between Jew and Christian been overexaggerated byfanatics on both sides? We both are living under God’sapproval, and nurturealmost identical spiritual capacities. Jew orGentile, bond or free, all areGod’s own.” (Einstein, as cited in H.G.Garbedian, Albert Einstein: Maker ofUniverses, New York, Funk and Wagnalls Co., 1939, 267).

5. 凡是认真追求科学的任何人均会确信在自然规律中有某种明显的精神,亦即某种远远高于人类的神灵存在,当我们依谦恭的力量面对该神灵时必须感到谦虚。依此方式追求科学引导至某种特殊的宗教感情,这种宗教感情确实与那些更为天真的宗教盲信者大不一样。
“Everyone whois seriously involved in the pursuit of science becomesconvinced that a Spiritis manifest in the laws of the universe – aSpirit vastly superior to that ofman, and one in the face of which wewith our modest powers must feel humble.In this way the pursuit ofscience leads to a religious feeling of a specialsort, which is indeedquite different from the religiosity of someone morenaive.” (Einstein1936, as cited in Dukas and Hoffmann, Albert Einstein: TheHuman Side, Princeton University Press, 1979, 33).

6. 人们越是深入了解自然的奥秘,也就对上帝越崇敬。
“Thedeeper onepenetrates into nature’s secrets, the greater becomes one’srespect for God.”(Einstein, as cited in Brian 1996, 119).

7. 我们能够体验的最美丽最深奥的情感乃是在感受神秘(通灵)时获得。它是所有真正科学的种子。对于此种情感感到陌生的人而言,在敬畏之中他将无法继续全神贯注,就好象死了般。那种深沉的情感使我深信有某种超凡的理性力量出现,揭示在不可理解的宇宙,构成我的上帝观念。
“Themostbeautiful and most profound emotion we can experience is thesensation of themystical. It is the sowe of all true science. He towhom this emotion is astranger, who can no longer stand rapt in awe, isas good as dead. That deeplyemotional conviction of the presence of asuperior Reasoning Power, which isrevealed in the incomprehensibleUniverse, forms my idea of God.” (Einstein, ascited in Libby Anfinsen1995).

8. 我的宗教狂热在于对无穷的高级神灵谦逊的赞美,该高级神灵自身显示,用我们虚弱和瞬间的领悟力,几乎无法领悟实在。
“Myreligiosityconsists in a humble admiration of the infinitely superiorSpirit that revealsitself in the little that we, with our weak andtransitory understanding, cancomprehend of reality.” (Einstein 1936, ascited in Dukas and Hoffmann 1979,66).

9.我越深入研究科学就越相信上帝。 “The more Istudy science the more I believe in God.” (Einstein, as cited in Holt 1997).
10. 麦克思教授认为爱因斯的名言:“科学没有宗教是跛足的,宗教没有科学是盲目的”可作为爱因斯坦宗教哲学的一种典型和典范。
Max Jammer(Professor Emeritus of Physics and author of the biographical book Einsteinand Religion, 2002) claims that Einstein’s well-known dictum, “Sciencewithout religion is lame, religion without science is blind” can serve asan epitome and quintessence of Einstein’s religious philosophy. (Jammer 2002;Einstein 1967, 30).

11. 犹太教和基督教的宗教传统赋予了我们的志向、抱负和判断的最高原则。它是一项非常高的目标,依我们微弱的力量,我们能抵达十分有限的目标,但该是最高原则赋予了我们的志向、抱负和价值某种稳固的基础。
“Thehighestprinciples for our aspirations and judgments are given to us intheJewish-Christian religious tradition. It is a very high goal which,with ourweak powers, we can reach only very inadequately, but whichgives a surefoundation to our aspirations and valuations.” (AlbertEinstein, Out of MyLater Years, New Jersey, Littlefield, Adams and Co., 1967, 27).

12. 依我有限的人类心灵,我所能认识的如此和谐的宇宙(令人惊奇),仍有不少人说不存在上帝。但是真正令我愤怒不已的乃是他们竟引用我的话,说我支持此种不存在上帝的观点。
“Inview of suchharmony in the cosmos which I, with my limited human mind,am able torecognize, there are yet people who say there is no God. Butwhat really makesme angry is that they quote me for the support of suchviews.” (Einstein, ascited in Clark 1973, 400; and Jammer 2002, 97).

13.对狂热的无神论者爱因斯坦指出:那些狂热的无神论者与那些偏狭的宗教盲信者一样基于相同的原因同样地不宽容.他们就象那些经过艰苦的斗争业已摆脱奴役却仍然感受着锁链的沉重的奴隶.他们是那些怨恨传统的人民的鸦片的可怜的人,无法忍受音乐优美的韵律。自然的神奇并不因为某人无法用人类的道德和目标的标准衡量而变得平淡无奇.
Concerningthefanatical atheists Einstein pointed out: “Then there are thefanatical atheistswhose intolerance is of the same kind as theintolerance of the religiousfanatics and comes from the same source.They are like slaves who are stillfeeling the weight of their chainswhich they have thrown off after hardstruggle. They are creatures who –in their grudge against the traditional‘opium for the people’ – cannotbear the music of the spheres. The Wonder ofnature does not becomesmaller because one cannot measure it by the standardsof human moraland human aims.” (Einstein, as cited in Max Jammer, Einsteinand Religion: Physics and Theology, Princeton University Press, 2002, 97).

14. 真正的宗教乃是用全身心、灵魂及善行和美德投入的真实的生活.
“Truereligionis real living – living with all one’s soul, with all one’sgoodness andrighteousness” (Einstein, as cited in Garbedian 1939, 267).

15. 与宗教感情相似,可以肯定,对世界的理性或理解的坚定信仰是所有科学工作更高层次的原因.此种坚定的信仰,是一种有赖于深沉的感情的信仰。一个在经验世界中揭示出它本身的高级精神、神灵,代表了我的上帝概念.
“Certainit isthat a conviction, akin to religious feeling, of the rationalityorintelligibility of the world lies behind all scientific work of ahigher order.
This firmbelief, abelief bound up with deep feeling, in a superior Mind thatrevealsitself in the world of experience, represents my conception ofGod.” (Einstein1973, 255).

16. 艰苦的智力工作和研究上帝的性质乃是引导我克服生活中所有困难的天使,她赋予了我慰借、力量和不妥协的严格的精密性。
“Strenuousintellectualwork and the study of God’s Nature are the angels that will leadmethrough all the troubles of this life with consolation, strength,anduncompromising rigor.” (Einstein, as cited in Calaprice 2000, ch.1).

17. 爱因斯坦对耶苏基督的态度是在一次接受采访时表述的,这位伟大的科学家在接受美国杂志《周六晚间邮刊》采访时说:Einstein’sattitude towards Jesus Christ was expressed in an interview, which the greatscientist gave to the American magazine The Saturday Evening Post (26October 1929):

记者问:在何种程度上你受到基督教的影响?“- To whatextent are you influenced by Christianity?

爱氏答:自孩童时代我便受到圣经和塔木德经的教导。我是一个犹太教徒,但是我却对基督这个闪光人物着迷。-As a child Ireceived instruction both in the Bible and in the Talmud. Iam a Jew, but I amenthralled by the luminous figure of the Nazarene.

记者问:你是否读过Emil Ludwig的耶苏传记?- Have youread Emil Ludwig’s book on Jesus?

爱氏答:Emil Ludwig笔下的耶苏过于浅薄。对于文学家的笔而言无论其写作枝艺有多么高超,耶苏是过于巨大了。没有人能够用一个“bon mot”来描述基督。

- Emil Ludwig’sJesusis shallow. Jesus is too colossal for the pen of phrasemongers,howeverartful. No man can dispose of Christianity with a bon mot.

记者问:你是否接受耶苏的史实?- You acceptthe historical Jesus?

爱氏答:毫无疑问!没有人读过福音书却不能感受耶苏的实际存在。他生动的个性脉动在整部福音书的字里行间。他的生活是真实可信的(没有神话注满此种生活)。
-Unquestionably!No one can read the Gospels without feeling the actual presenceofJesus. His personality pulsates in every word. No myth is filled withsuchlife.” (Einstein, as cited in Viereck 1929; see also Einstein, ascited in theGerman magazine Geisteskampf der Gegenwart, Guetersloh, 1930, S. 235).


18就人类心灵不足以深刻地理解宇宙的和谐(即自然规律)而言,我的感情是宗教性的.,
Myfeeling is religious insofar as I am imbued with tile consciousness of theinsufficiency of the human mind to
understandmore deeply the harmony of the Universe which we try to formulate as "lawsof nature."—Letter to Beatrice Frohlich, December 17, 1952; Einstein Archive59-797


19爱因斯坦在给A.Chapple信中说:我认为社会之友宗教团体(即贵格派基督教)具有最高的道德水准。据我所知,他们从未与邪恶(势力)妥协,并总是以他们的良心作为行动指南。特别是在国际生活中,依我看,他们的影响非常有益也十分有效。由此可见爱氏对宗教的赞赏立场。
I considerthe Society of Friends the religious community which has thehighest moral standards. As far as I know, they have nevermade evil compromises and are always guided by their conscience.In international life, especially, their influence seems to me very beneficialandeffective.—Letter to A. Chapple, Australia, February 23,1954;EinsteinArchive 59-405; also quoted in Nathan and Norden, Einsteinon Peace P.510




20爱因斯坦临死前最后一次谈话明确说,如果我不是犹太教徒的话,我成为贵格教徒贵格教是基督教的一个称做社会之友派,A Quaker is a person who belongs to a Christian group calledSociety of Friends.在接受William Hermanns 采访时他说:我不能接受任何基于恐惧生命或害怕死亡或盲目信仰的上帝概念。我无法向你证明不存在人身上帝,但如果我证明他,我就是个骗子。
“IfI were not a Jew I would be a Quaker.” And in aninterview with Professor William Hermanns, he said: “I cannot accept anyconcept of God based on the fear of life or the fear of death or blind faith. Icannot prove to you that there is no personal God, but if I were to speak of himI would be a liar.”
       
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