天易网

 找回密码
 注册
查看: 6410|回复: 7

Freedom of Religion justified from natural law

  [复制链接]
发表于 4/2/2011 17:44:09 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Freedomof Religion justified from natural law

ByGuoting Guo

Throughout history, governments have attempted to control religiousorganizations and limited religious freedom.However, over the past two hundred years the world has extended religiousliberty. What explains this rise in religious freedom? For all human being hasthe free will and personal spiritual experience, through study we learn thatthe first nation come true the religious liberty is United States and theirfundamental documents drafter was Thomas Jefferson who was mainly influenced byJohn Locke's theory of natural law. Therefore, I think the main reason for thefreedom of religion has developed in the world is the natural law ideology.

I   the right of religious liberty is wellbuild in International law

The right to freedom ofreligion is one of the oldest human rights recognized internationally. The Peace of Westphalia (1648),which accorded international protection to religious groups. The rightof religious liberty added dynamism to the Virginia's Bill of Rights of 1776,the Austrian Act of Religious Tolerance of 1781 and the Virginia Statute ofReligious Liberty of 1786.[1]

TheUniversal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations (UDHR1948) was afruit of development, which was followed by a series of human rightsconventions supported in varying degrees by all countries.[2]

all articles arebased and developed from the article 18 of the UDHR of 1948, which states:

"Everyone has the right tofreedom of… religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion orbelief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public orprivate, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship andobservance".

  • Everyone have the right to freedom of religion. This     right includes freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his     choice, and freedom, either individually or in community with others and     in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief, observance,     practice, and teaching.
  • no one shall be subject to coercion, which would impair     his freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice.
  • freedom to manifest one's religion or beliefs may be     subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are     necessary to protect public safety, order, health, or moral or the     fundamental rights and freedoms of others.

Therefore, the principle of Freedomof Religion is welled build in the field of international law; almost in allState's law declare that citizens have the right of religious liberty now.However, in practice, in all totalitarian and dictatorship regimes,  nosuch thing as religious liberty, for these regimes all deny the principle ofnatural law, deny the natural rights and wherever and whenever deny theprinciple of natural law and natural rights, where and when the religiousliberty could not survive.

II.  Freedomof Religion and natural law

A. national law theory

What is religion? It is impossibleto have a universal accepted definition, for different people have variousopinions. A apologist for Christianity, Schleiermacher, defined religion interms of 'the feeling of absolute dependence upon God'; a philosopher,Whitehead, defined religion as ' what the individual does with hissolitariness'; a famous religion scholar, Edward Tyler, defined religion as'belief in spiritual being'; a another religion scholar, James Frazer ,definedreligion as 'a propitiation or conciliation of powers superior to man'; aauthor, Rudolf Otto defined religion as 'a unique, original feelingresponse…which claims consideration in its own right'; and the well-knownpsychologist, Freud even described religion as 'a universal obsessionalneurosis'; even Marxism and Fascism have been described as 'quasi-religion'.[3]

In my opinion, religionis a faith for where we are from and where we are going.

1. nature and religion

Generally speaking, thereligious origin of man's consciousness of right and the legal order was or isaffirmed through the intermediary of the natural law. In the rationalistic conception, man's consciousness ofright and the legal order is not brought into relationship with God[4]

. For primitive mannature had a numinous and sacral meaning, they lived in a society whose normswere dictated by nature and for them nature was never merely 'natural'; it isfor them always filled with religious meaning. Nature's life of the primitiveman had the numinous and the sacred, he tried to integrate his own life intothat of nature, the nature and culture have spontaneously a religious meaning,not only birth and death, sexual relations and sickness, but also work,politics, morality, traffic, science, economy-everything has a religiousfoundation.[5]

Thus, religion was bornat very beginning with the human being.

2. God and Natural Law

Hammurabi called himself " King of Justice" because he received thelegal order of his kingdom from the hands of Shamash. All Chinese ancientemperors declared themselves as the Son of God. Therefore, entire legal orderor at least the authority and the power of the rulersreceive an absolute and sacred character if they are seen as directly relatedto God's will.

Spinoza asserted that the power andforce through which everything in nature exists and operates is nothing but thepower and force of God. God's power is unlimited and therefore God has a rightto everything. Since whatever is in nature exists and operates by virtue ofGod's power and since God's absolute power is God's absolute right, it followsthat the right of whatever is in nature is in direct ratio to the power it hasto exist and operate. This right of everything that exists in nature is thenatural law, and the natural law extends as far as the power of nature and ofeverything that exists in nature[6]

.

3.Reason and the natural law.

The natural law derives from a fewvery general and self-evident principles. Sometimes they even estimated it assuperior and better then positive law because it did not come forth from thewill of a lawgiver and therefore was valid for all times and places for allhuman beings. However someone challenged: How would the discursive reason onits own be able to formulate a system of legal norms which in its completenessand its detailed character can be compared with positive law when the creationof a single role of positive law sometimes demands months and even years ofstrenuous work? How can reason alones be able to excogitate a system of normsvalid for all people at all times and all places when it is certain that no twotimes, no two places and no two people are alike? How can a system of norms beunchangeable if times, places and people change? In the light of the strenuouswork jurists must perform in order to precisely take account of the concreteand change times, places and people, the rationalistic view of the natural lawpresents itself as an intolerable pretension. The rationalistic view of thenatural law has disappeared from the scene.[7]

Mans natural rightswould be determined by the power of his reason. But man does not live accordingto his reason; he is driven by passions and desires. Because people letthemselves be swayed by their passions and desires, they are naturally oneanother's enemies.[8]


4.Essence and natural law.

The legal order as a whole must havea foundation that cannot have a purely positive-juridical character. Manyphilosophers have tried to base the positive legal order on the nature of man.In so far as the legal order is based on man's essence, there will be as manydifferent views about the natural law as there are different anthropologies.Even the rationalistic conception of the natural law is based on a view of man.[9]



B. Natural law


Natural law theory is oneof the most important theories in the philosophy of Classical Realism. In order to understand the natural law we need discussmore detail some content of the natural law.

1.the definition of the natural law


Natural law is that "unwrittenlaw" that is more or less the same for everyone everywhere (Aristotle). Inan another word, natural law is the concept of a body of moral principles thatis common to all humankind and recognizable by human reason. It may be defined as "rules of action prescribed bynon-human authority which is superior to the state. These rules variously arederived from divine commandment; from the nature of humankind; from abstractReason; or from long experience of mankind in community". [10]

2.JohnLocke on natural law
the most influencednatural law philosopher is John Locke, when natural law theory gave rise to aconcept of "natural rights,"he argued that human beings in the state of nature arefree and equal, yet insecure in their freedom. When they enter society theysurrender only such rights as are necessary for their security and for thecommon good. Each individual retains fundamental prerogatives drawn fromnatural law relating to the integrity of person and property (natural rights).This natural rights theory provided a philosophicalbasis for both the American and French revolutions.
·
Locke in his Two Treatises of Civil Government stated a theory of natural law and rights in which he made adistinction between legitimate and illegitimate civil governments and arguedfor the legitimacy of revolution against tyrannical governments. Hethought that the reason to establish a government is to protect the life,liberty and property of a people, and if the government disrespect these goalsthen the people have right to overthrow it and establish a new one.[11]

.
·
Locke believed that it was theobligation of government to protect the rights of its citizens to "life,liberty, and property".  He held that there was a "naturallaw" that was supreme, and when government became corrupt, it was not onlythe right of the people to revolt, but their obligationto free themselves.  
·
Locke argued that religious liberty follows from the need ofsincerity in religion if it is to be genuine, and from the nature of theChristian religion in particular.[12]


·
Locke asserted the claims of religious liberty depended onhis clear definition of the purposes of government. ' The commonwealth seems tome to be a society of men constituted only for the procuring, preserving andadvancing their own civil interests. Civil interests I call life, liberty,health and indolence of body: and the possession of outward things, such asmoney, lands, houses, furniture and the like.' if government could keep itsactivities within the limits of Lockes' only, there is no danger of religiousliberty.[13]

Ina word, John Locke strongly believe that government can only execute the powerpeople give it, and the power of government is limited to protect citizenssecurity freedom and pursue the happiness. If the government becomes corrupt,people can overthrow it. The religious liberty is a natural right and protectby supreme natural law.
3.The Content of the natural law
Thebasic precept of natural law is a formulation based upon the notion of the good and evil. A human being naturally inclines toseek what appears good to reason, and naturally shrinks from what appears to beevil. This principle will give rise to other primaryprecepts such as the natural inclination to self-preservation, to live in society, to avoid harm to others, and to know truths about the reality we live in and ourown human nature. These primary precepts areunchangeable to the extent they concern the primary ends of the naturalinclinations inherent in all human beings.
The natural law is handed down fromgod, and men cannot change it, only interpreted and applied. To deviate frommoral Law is to bring ruin to oneself in this life and the next. The naturallaw is above men, it apply to all men apply equally, whether king or serf.[14]


The natural law is not something can have or have not,but it is really survive in human being's reason and free will, its principlecome from God's will or we can use another name, the law of natural which everysubject and object should following, or will disappear and destroy by the law.Such law are come from above and apply to all man in all time and in anywherewithout change. It seems cannot tell even cannot see clearly but it did existeverywhere and all the time of human history.
C. Liberty Religion
Inlegal sense, the first religious liberty country is the United States; theAmerican founder has much contribution to this great fruit, and they did invokeLocke and other philosophers who inherited an Anglican natural law traditionfrom Richard Hooker, which ultimately traces back to Aquinas and Aristotle. [15]


1.Thomas Jefferson's contribution to Freedom of Religion
Jefferson's religious philosophy wasbased on 18th century concepts of natural law, especially on Locke's naturallaw and rights theory. He drafted the well-known Virginia Statute for ReligiousFreedom and noted:
"Truth is great and willprevail if left to herself; that she is the proper and sufficient antagonist toerror, and has nothing to fear from the conflict unless by human interpositiondisarmed of her natural weapons, free argument and debate; errors ceasing to bedangerous when it is permitted freely to contradict them.[16]

That no manshall be compelled to frequent or support any religious worship, place, orministry whatsoever, nor shall be enforced, restrained, molested, or burdenedin his body or goods, nor shall otherwise suffer, on account of his religiousopinions or belief; but that all men shall be free to profess, and by argumentto maintain, their opinions in matters of religion, and that the same shall inno wise diminish, enlarge, or affect their civil capacities.[17]

The rights hereby asserted are ofthe natural rights of mankind, and that if any act shall be hereafter passed torepeal the present or to narrow its operation, such act will be an infringementof natural right." [18]

In summary, Jefferson's idea ofreligious liberty including:
  • All men shall be free to profess, and by argument to     maintain their opinions in matters of religion. [19]



  • religious beliefs should be solely matters of     individual conscience and completely immune from any interference by the     state. Moreover, religious activity of any sort should be wholly     voluntary.

  • who setting up their own opinions and modes of thinking     as the only true and infallible, and as such endeavouring to impose them     on others has established and maintained false religions over the greatest     part of the world, and through all time; that to compel a man to furnish     contributions of money for the propagation of opinions which he     disbelieves, is sinful and tyrannical;

  • no man shall be compelled to frequent or support     any religious worship, place or ministry whatsoever, nor shall be     enforced, restrained, molested, or burdened in his body or goods, nor     shall otherwise suffer on account of his religious opinions of belief; but     that all men shall be free to profess, and by argument to maintain, their     opinions in matters of religion.


  • the religion rights are of the natural rights of     mankind, and if any act to repeal or to narrow its operation will be an     infringement of natural right.[20]


Jefferson said that "AlmightyGod hath created the mind free," and that any attempt to shackle freethought was impious. He argue that "our civil rights have no dependence onour religious opinions" — anticipating the 1789 Constitution, whichforbade religious tests for public office. Jefferson finally enunciates whatany believer in "liberty and justice for all" must conclude:"that truth is great and will prevail if left to herself, that she is theproper and sufficient antagonist to error, and has nothing to fear from theconflict."[21]

From above we can seeclear that Jefferson assert the "naturalright" of religious liberty. free and open debate aboutreligion. He quotes Madison's note that religiousliberty is "one of the natural rights." it was the model forthe first clause of the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, which finallybecome the model of the world.
2. important legal documents set up the principles of Freedom of Religion
Section 16 of the Virginia Bill ofRights 1776[22]

stipulates that religion, or the duty which we owe to our Creator, and themanner of discharging it, can be directed only by reason and conviction, not byforce or violence; and therefore all men are equally entitled to the freeexercise of religion, according to the dictates of conscience; and that it isthe mutual duty of all to practise Christian forbearance, love, and charitytowards each other. In 1786, the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom wentinto forced. In 1791, the First Amendment which state that Congress shallmake no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the freeexercise thereof.' And the ' free exercise' clause, guarantees a citizen'sright to express religious beliefs, and act in accord with those beliefs. ''itwithdraws from legislative power, state and federal, the exertion of anyrestraint on the free exercise of religion. Its purpose is to secure religiousliberty in the individual by prohibiting any invasions there by civilauthority.''[23]

In 1776, several states passed theirconstitution which stipulate relevant article deal with the religious freedom.[24]

These laws are the freethought of great founder and the fruit of the natural law, which following bymany countries and finally developing into international law in twentycentury.  
D. whereverdeny natural law no religious liberty
Generally speaking, in all freedemocratic countries, the freedom of religion not only exist in law but also inpractice. On the contrary, in all totalitarian and dictatorship regimes, eitherthe law state the citizen has the right of freedom of religion in abstract, orjust exist in theory and not in practice. The fundamental reason is that nonatural law principle could exist in totalitarian or dictatorship regimes. Forinstance, China Constitution Law in Preamblestipulates that China should insist the leadership of the Communist Party. Andthe law is the ruling-class' will which is the worker class and the CCP istheir leader. Then the CCP's will become law. In this situation, no natural lawprinciple could survive. Because the will of the Party become the law andsuperior to anything, then the superior character of the natural lawdisappear.  
Karl Marx said religion is the"opium" of people. Here he only mentions one function of religion,but the true nature of religion[25]

which I think should besearch for the truth of where human being are from and where we are going. Inall communist regimes, Marx's definition of religion becomes the official norm,although in law may provide that citizen has the right of freedom of religion,but in practice cannot exist, for church either totally control by communistparty or any unofficial religion activity become illegal and under persecution.And all educated organ compel taught students; thus, majority people becomeatheist.

Lenin believed: "everyreligious, every idea of God is unutterable vileness of the most dangerouskind, contagion of the most abominable kind. Millions of sins, filthy deeds,acts of violence and physical contagion are far less dangerous than the subtle,spiritual idea of God." He also said that 'the roots of religion are inthe social degradation of the toiling masses and their seeming impotence beforethe blinded forces of capitalism'. 'all contemporary religions and churches,all and every kind of religious organization, Marxism has always viewed asorgans of bourgeois reaction, serving as a defence of exploitation and thedoping of the working-class.'[26]

Lenin believed that itis impossible to be both Christian and Communist, because Marxism inherits thesecular-rationalist tradition.

Mao Zedong know almost nothing of law,he said proudly "we are monk hold on an umbrella- no hairs, no sky"(means Communist Party govern country need not law). He ruled China according tohis ridiculer, changeable and absolute dictatorship will, which made Chinesesuffer the greatest losses in society, culture, economic, and life in thehistory of China.

Ironically, in all totalitarianregimes deny the natural law, for Fascist believe God has died, for communistthey accept the idea of Marx, the law is the ruling class' will. Since law isthe will of ruling class, then they can make any law, whether against justiceand fairness which is the fundamental essence of natural law, become does notmatter. However, any law which against the principle of natural law or justiceand fairness are bad law and citizen have no duty to obey such law, for bad lawis not law .

Totalitarian regimes whether Fascistor Communist (all Fascist or Communist regimes are totalitarian regimes areself-evidenced fact) seeks to exclude the Church from the field of education.in Germany, Hitler expected to undermine the Christian Church, both Catholicand Reformed.

Lenin was equally resolved onrooting out religion form the life of the Russian people.  in Hungary,Rumania, Czechoslovakia and Poland, all these countries during the period ofcommunist ruled, the Communist Party controls their religion organization andmore or less religion believers suffered great deal. [27]


China makes Marxist-Leninism and MaoZedong's thoughtas the faith of the State. DialecticalMaterialism is the standard religion, which the official thinkers of the Partyhave imposed on the Chinese people. Wherever a totalitarian regime isestablished, religious liberties are always limited and such liberties as aregranted are only held on surface. In China, Although Article 36 of China'sconstitution declares that citizens" enjoy freedom of religiousbelief," and that, "No state organ, public organization or individualmay compel citizens to believe in, or not to believe in, any religion; nor maythey discriminate against citizens who believe in, or do not believe in, anyreligion." all churches men nominated by the communist party, for theparty has controlled whole country, they had killed numberless religionbeliever or put their members in to prison simply for their religion or faithbut for their action. such as "Yi Guangdao" during 1950 to 1952;"Falun Gong" since 1999 to date [28]

; and the "familychurch" members.[29]

  

III. Freedom of Religion justified from Natural law
Freedom, in the words of Lord Acton,is "the delicate fruit of a mature civilization." Preserving itrequires a renewed understanding of the values and principles, many of thembased on religious belief that made freedom possible and still offer itsstrongest defense today. "Liberty is the prevention of control by others.This requires self-control and, therefore, religious and spiritual influences,education, knowledge, well-being."[30]

Noman shall be compelled to frequent or support any religious worship, place, orministry whatsoever, nor shall be enforced, restrained, molested, or burdenedin his body or goods, nor shall otherwise suffer on account of his religiousopinions or belief; but that all men shall be free to profess, and by argumentto maintain, their opinion in matters of religion. [31]


In the reality of naturallaw, which nations can ignore only at their peril. A society could not surviveif it lacked sufficient virtue and morality in the people and religion is oneof the best way to improve people's virtue and morality. Because without a virtuousand moral people who are willing to self-govern themselves, it would becomenecessary to apply more external force through the law to maintain peace, orderand safety.[32]

Actually, currentChinese people's moral standard fall down to its lowest point in the history,the main reason is that under 58 years dictatorship rule, over 90% Chinesebecome atheists, their faith is money or power, for them they deceit and fakealmost everything without shame, which prove the religion education really helpto strength and improve people's moral and virtue.  
A.free will and Liberty of religion
Natural freedom exists asthe capacity of free choice or the free will to choose between alternatives. According to the Christian notion of freedom every humanbeing has free will, the freedom to choose between good and evil; "withgenuine freedom ... each individual has a right to be respected in his own journeyin search of the truth, there exists a prior moral obligation, ... to seek thetruth and to adhere to it once it is known." Man uses hisreason as his conscience to distinguish between the good and evil alternatives.Man's individual conscience is his reason discerning the moral values of aparticular situation. A conscience needs guidance to perform as it should andis guided by the natural law. Conscience makes a judgment of a right or wrongaction based on the fundamental natural law principle, "the first preceptof law is that good is to be done and evil is to be avoided." [33]

The judgment of theconscience is made by the individual person who uses his reason to judgebetween good and evil, and also in choosing the good and avoiding the evil.
Minds are sharpened bydiversity and by opposition. Thereligion or belief is one of the fundamental elements in his conception of lifeand that freedom of religion or belief should be fully respect and guaranteed.
B. Content of Freedom of Religion

Wood asserts that if men becomeindifferent to freedom of religion, they will not retain unimpaired the truescientific spirit.[34]

He thinks the trueeducation means character training; thus, to educate people a religion isindispensable. The function of the States is to provide defence against externalfoes and to administer justice. [35]


Freedom of religion means freedom tohave or adopt a religion or belief of one's choice. The freedom to choose areligion or belief includes the right to replace one's current religion orbelief. These freedoms are protected by law.

Religious liberty indicates that itis not just what is in the mind that is important. One ought to have theopportunity to put it into practice; that is, to be able to profess anyreligion and practise it privately or openly. This involves manifesting thatreligion in worships, teaching, practice and observance. It protects theisticand atheistic beliefs, as well as the right not to profess any religion.

In the exercise of the right ofReligious liberty, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as aredetermined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition andrespect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the justrequirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democraticsociety. (Article 29(2) of Universal Declaration)

The limitations refer to what iscontrary to morality, public order or general welfare, which includes practicessuch as human sacrifice, self-immolation, suicide,mutilation of oneself or others, and slavery or prostitution carried out in theservice of, or under the pretext of, promoting a religion or belief. Theactivities aimed at the destruction of the state, such as rebellion orsubversion, or the breach of international peace and security in the name of areligion are not allowed.

In summary: Individuals should: (a)be permitted to manifest their religious beliefs in public and in private; (b)be unrestricted, fully protected with respect to their right to believe or notto believer, and be equally free to change their religious belief; (c) bepermitted to worship, either individually or in community, with others; (d) belimited by what is contrary to morality, public order or general welfare.

Natural law confirm all human beingare create equal and have free will, religion is a kind of personal spiritualexperience, Locke assert the power of government must be limited within hispurpose and Jefferson help build up the world the first true religious libertyin legal sense, all these prove that the freedom of religion come from naturallaw ideology. At meantime, totalitarian and dictatorship regimes' practicedemonstrates that wherever deny the principle of natural law, no religiousliberty could survive.
IV. Conclusion

Freedom of religion has a longhistory and has become a well established fundamental freedom. The idea offreedom of religion comes from theory of natural law, Milestone documents ofreligious liberty are:
  • Declaration of Independence of 1776
  • Virginia Bill of Rights 1776
  • An Act for Establishing Religious Freedom of 1779,     which became law in 1786, in Virginia.
Their drafter, the third presidentof the United States Thomas Jefferson, was mainly influenced by John Locke's naturallaw theory. Therefore, natural law theory contributes greatly to modern freedomof religion. Since the Declaration of Universal Human Rights of 1948 and aseries international and regional convention, the principle of freedom ofreligion is well built around the world. However, in almost all totalitarianand dictatorship regimes religious liberty still exists in theory but practice,nowadays no country openly deny or forbid religion liberty, but such regimesactually deny natural law. I believe natural law was and will govern all humansociety in all countries and in all time. Whenever and wherever natural lawstotally disappear, justice and fairness will in great danger. Natural law isnot only the foundation of humanity, but is the biggest enemy of totalitarianand dictatorship regimes. Therefore, natural law must not only be used intheory and legal documentation, but it must be justifiably practiced andenforced, producing a healthy society and economy.




[1]

Adrian Karatnycky,'Religious Freedom and Democracy as Fundamental Human Rights', 1998, http://www.religiousfreedom. Com/conference/ Germany/karatnycky.htm accessed November 20,2007
[2]

Relevant articles including:Article 9 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights andFundamental Freedoms (ECHR1950), article 18 of the International Covenant onCivil and Political Rights (ICCPR1966), article 12 of the InternationalCovenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICCESCR1966), article 8 ofthe American Convention on Human Rights (ACHR 1969), article of 1, 2,4 and 6 ofthe United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intoleranceand of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief (DBRB1981), and African[Banjul] Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights (ACHPR1981).the most detailstipulation of freedom of religion is the Article 1, 2,4 and 6 of theDeclaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and ofDiscrimination Based on Religion or Belief 1981.
[3]

General editors Peter Bishop &Michael Darton, The encyclopaedia of World Faiths-an illustrated survey of theworld's living religions. Facts On File Publications, New York.1989. pp.7,12,30.
[4]

William A. Luijpen, "Phenomenology of Natural Law", Duquesne UniversityPress , Pittsburgh, Pa. 1967, p.68.
[5]

William A. Luijpen, "Phenomenology of Natural Law", Duquesne UniversityPress , Pittsburgh, Pa. 1967, p.65.
[6]

spinoza op.cit.c.II, 4
[7]

William A. Luijpen, "Phenomenology of Natural Law", Duquesne UniversityPress , Pittsburgh, Pa. 1967, p.68.
[8]

William A. Luijpen, "Phenomenology of Natural Law", Duquesne UniversityPress , Pittsburgh, Pa. 1967, pp.75, 76.
[9]

William A. Luijpen, "Phenomenology of Natural Law", Duquesne UniversityPress , Pittsburgh, Pa. 1967, p.69.
[10]

Russell Kirk, ' The Case For andAgainst Natural Law'July 15, 1993,Heritage Lecture,http://www.heritage.org/Research/PoliticalPhilosophy/HL469.cfm accessed November 22, 2007
[11]

John Locke's Biography  byEuropean Graduate School EGS.
[12]

H.G. Wood, " Religious LibertyToday" Octagon Books, New York, 1949,  p.20.
[13]

H.G. Wood, "Religious LibertyToday" Octagon Books, New York, 1949, p. 25.
[14]

Matt Lancaster, "ReligiousPhilosophy and Natural Law"http://www.anti-state.com/lancaster/lancaster5.html access on November 24, 2007
[16]

Thomas Jefferson, Draft for a Billto Establish Religious Freedom in Virginia (1779).section I.
[17]

Thomas Jefferson, Draft for a Billto Establish Religious Freedom in Virginia (1779).section II.
[18]

Thomas Jefferson, Draft for a Billto Establish Religious Freedom in Virginia (1779).section III
[20]


Thomas Jefferson, " An Act for Establishing ReligiousFreedom" [1779]

[21]

Thomas Jefferson, The Virginia ActFor Establishing Religious Freedom, http://usinfo.state.gov/usa/infousa/facts/democrac/42.htm access on November 22, 2007
[22]


George MasonJune 12, 1776
[23]

Abington School District v.Schempp, 374 U.S. 203, 222 -23 (1963).
[24]


Maryland Constitution 1776, Preamble."We, the people of the state of Maryland, Grateful to Almighty God for our civil and religious liberty..." Pennsylvania Constitution 1776, Preamble. "We, the people ofPennsylvania, grateful To Almighty God for theblessings of civil and religious liberty, and Humbly invoking His guidance ...." the Federal Northwest Ordinance1787 provided: "Religion, morality, and knowledge, being necessary to goodgovernment and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of educationshall forever be encouraged." This freedom limits the state and sosafeguards the freedom of all — believers and non-believers alike.
the New Hampshire Constitution of 1792 stipulated: "Among the natural rights, some are intheir very nature unalienable, because no equivalent can be given or receivedfor them. Of this kind are the rights of conscience."
[25]

H.G. Wood, Religious Liberty Today,Octagon Books, New York, 1973, P.36.
[26]

H.G. Wood, Religious Liberty Today,Octagon Books, New York, 1973, p.35.
[27]

For instance, Mr.Richard Wurmbrand,an evangelical minister who spent fourteen years in communist imprisonment andtorture in Rumania, said that Nazi terror was great, but only a taste of the tocome under the communists, For they has one great advantage. They taught usthat human spirit with God's help could survive horrible tortures. a pastorwhose name was Florescu was tortured with red-hot iron pokers and with knives.He was beaten very badly. Then starving rats ware driven into his cell througha large pipe. They brought his fourteen-year-old son and began to whip the boyin front of his father until beat him to death. Christians were put in iceboxrefrigerator cells, freezing to within just one minute or two of death, andthen being thawed out again, it continued endlessly, the communism is a devilspirit indeed. See:Richard Wurmbrand, Tortured For Christ, Living SacrificeBooks,Middlebury, 1969, pp.13, 36,37.
[28]

Communist party has tortured 3150Falun Gong's practitioners to death and put more than 100,000 into prison andforced labour camp without tried. see Fa Lundafa clearwisdom.net. http://library.minghui.org/category/32,96,,1.htm access Feb 8, 2008.
[29]

The CCP has tortured more than10000 to death and put more than 100000 into prison and labour camp.  SeeThe Current situation of the religion faith and family church of China by theCommittee of the truth of persecution of religion of Chian..http://www.china21.org/access Feb8, 2008.
[30]

Lord Acton, Selected Writings ofLord Acton: Essays in Religion, Politics, and Morality, ed. J. Rufus Fears, 3vols. (Indianapolis: Liberty Classics, 1988), 3:490
[31]

Virginia Statute for ReligiousFreedom, 1786. W.W. Hening, ed., Statutes at Large of Virginia, vol. 12 (1823):84-86.
[32]

Timothy B.Lewis, 'Virtue and  Morality Freedoms Prerequisites', the Constitutional FreedomFoundation,http://www.constitutionalfreedomfoundation.org/Articles/constitutional_primer_4_virtue.htm access on November 22, 2007
[33]

Ann Donaldson, 'The SpiritualFruits of Political Liberty',http://www.theologyandeconomics.org/publicat/books/duty/hmention1.html access on November 22, 2007
[34]

H.G. Wood, Religious Liberty Today,Octagon Books, New York, 1949, p.17.
[35]

H.G. Wood, Religious Liberty Today,Octagon Books, New York, 1949, p.26.

发表于 4/6/2011 03:18:15 | 显示全部楼层
郭律师英文水平这么高啊,佩服
发表于 4/7/2011 16:30:03 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 粉匣子 于 4/7/2011 16:01 编辑
郭国汀 发表于 4/2/2011 16:44
Freedomof Religion justified from natural law

ByGuoting Guo

    黑匣子主义认为,整体意义而言,一部人类文明史,就是尊重、维护、规范、完善和发展人性即天性的历史。
    那么,进一步,也就可以说,一部人类文明史,就是尊重、维护、规范、完善和发展为人性所必需的自由、民主、物权、人权与尊严等最基本的社会价值即人生价值的历史。
    这是历史客观规律,也是人类普世价值,亦即天理也。
    诚然,人类文明史上,宗教应该有其存在的理由,也确实为人类文明做出过积极贡献。西欧所以能成功遏制马克思主义即共产魔教主义的破坏和捣乱,西欧人的宗教情感较浓厚应该也是一个重要原因;相反,马克思主义即共产魔教主义所以能在中国猖獗一时,顽抗至今,中国人的宗教情感较薄弱(或曰比较世俗且世故)应该也是一个重要原因。因为有宗教信仰的人,头上三尺有神灵,于挽世道正人性立人心的事,应该不无裨益;而况,神灵的有与无,也不可简单地归咎于所谓唯心主义与唯物主义。
    但任何宗教,都不能违背上诉客观规律,不可违反上诉普世价值,或者说,任何宗教,都不能将人神性化、神格化甚或妖魔化,以神性化、神格化甚至妖魔化的神性压倒人性,扭曲人性,而应该让神人性化,并以人性化的神性来保护人性、规范人性、提升人性,即净化人的灵魂,尽可能地促使人的本性即私性得以理性化的发挥。并且还必须贯彻信仰自由与政教分离的原则,不得以暴力或强权来强制推行某一种宗教,使其主义化,搞“信仰主义”与“宗教蒙昧主义”,反对宗教干政、以教代政及政教合一,更不能宣扬“宗教万能”,乃至宣扬全靠某一种宗教教义来拯救整个人类,否则,非“”即“”,亦即,不是邪教,就是魔教,对人类文明非但无益,反而大大的有害,因为它可以腐蚀人的灵魂,甚至活活的将人演变为吃人的恶魔。
须知,但凡宗教,都难免“蒙昧”之意味或成分;并且,搞不好这“蒙昧”又很容易变成蒙昧主义,生发出“野蛮”来。而正是十四世纪至十六世纪的文艺复兴和宗教改革运动,以及十七世纪至十八世纪的启蒙运动,促使欧洲人特别是西欧人打破了中世纪的黑暗,推翻了建立于神权基础上的君主专制主义的政治统治,砸碎了宗教蒙昧主义的精神枷锁,从而解放了人的个性,激活了人的私性,唤醒了人之为人的意识、思想,复归了人之为人的精神、灵魂,普及了为人性所必需的自由、民主、物权、人权、尊严、平等、博爱等基本的价值观念,使理性渗透到了人们的一切社会、政治、经济、文化及日常生活之中,乃至于人人都有资格有权力以独立法人身份参与各方面的生存竞争,充分有效地最大限度地发挥出几乎每一个人的积极性、创造性与潜质潜能,真正实现了人能尽其才,从此也才出现了真正的“西方文明”。
    而在此之前,即欧洲宗教改革之前的十一世纪到十三世纪前后近二百年内先后八次的“十字军东侵”,其实也就是信仰主义或曰宗教蒙昧主义所蛊惑煽动起来的有组织宗教仇恨犯罪,亦即宗教战争,给人类造成的灾难与分裂也是显而易见的,至今也都难以抚平与弥合,伊斯兰原教旨主义则一直耿耿于怀,并进而在穆斯林世界生发出了一种现代恐怖主义。甚至于二十世纪初的第一次世界大战,其中有组织宗教仇恨犯罪宗教战争也还占有相当的成分。
    尤其是,自1848年马克思以其《共产党宣言》的发表,近一百多年来,马列斯毛们在全世界蛊惑煽动和组织实施的有组织阶级仇恨犯罪其实也就是信仰主义或曰宗教蒙昧主义所蛊惑煽动起来的一种有组织宗教仇恨犯罪,亦即宗教战争,只不过这其中的“宗教”换成“魔教”而已。那么,这又更进一步地说明了“宗教”与“魔教”、“邪教”之间,其实只有一步之遥!只缘但凡宗教,归根结底都是建立于专制主义意识形态基础之上,而这种专制主义只不过将独裁专制特权拱手让渡予某个特定的被人格化了的去总管而已;如若不然,要是将独裁专制特权拱手让渡予某个特定的被神格化了的去总管,那就变成了邪教甚或魔教矣。所以,任何“宗教教义”,哪怕它再好,都不可能也不应该上升成为“人类普世价值”,更不用说那万恶的共产魔教教义了!
     君不见?马列斯毛们假“革命”、“共产”之名,用枪杆子推行共产魔教主义,打的是“无神论”及“反对剥削,反对压迫”之类的漂亮幌子,干的则是“自我神化”及“反对人性,反对人类”即既悖逆天理又违犯天性的罪恶勾当,以一己之私,压倒、扭曲、扼杀了天下人之私,是人性所必需的自由、民主、物权、人权与尊严等最基本的人生价值皆被剥夺净尽,杀死、冤死、害死与饿死数以亿计的生灵,最后一个个反而都成了“大救星”、“红太阳”、“活菩萨”,死后其僵尸还要钻进水晶棺材里,停放在最显要的地方及特制的“神社”里,予以展览,让人参拜,并自诩即使在阴曹地府依然是“阎王”。此乃人类有史以来最荒诞、最邪恶的魔教,其对人类文明的危害至大、至深、至烈、至广,且贻患可以无穷矣。






个人标签:讨马讨毛讨共、铲除共产魔教、埋葬毛僵尸、颠覆毛匪帮、解放全中国!


发表于 4/9/2011 03:44:49 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢郭律师的文章,先留个脚印,回来慢慢拜读品味.
 楼主| 发表于 4/10/2011 01:01:34 | 显示全部楼层
琴心剑胆 发表于 4/6/2011 02:18
郭律师英文水平这么高啊,佩服

我的英语其实不太好,本文花了很多时间,看了不少书,收集了大量资料组合而写,但我自已也不满意,我的指导教授给分是不及格,主要是英语表达不过关。
 楼主| 发表于 4/10/2011 01:08:20 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 郭国汀 于 7/15/2011 23:36 编辑
粉匣子 发表于 4/7/2011 15:30
黑匣子主义认为,整体意义而言,一部人类文明史,就是尊重、维护、规范、完善和发展人性即天性的历史 ...

宗教信仰的思索

郭国汀

有神论与无神论之争由来已久。公元500年前的古希腊哲学家Xenophanes 发现埃塞俄比亚的神氏是拥有宽鼻子的黑人,而希腊的神氏则皆为蓝眼金发的白人。他因此设想如果公牛、狮子和马也有神氏的话,他们想必和公牛、狮子和马的形象一样。亦即宗教是人们想象的结果。这或许是早期西方无神论的经典表述。近代心理分析专家弗洛伊德和阿柏兰卡丁纳(Abram)认为宗教是一种投射系统对神的信仰是儿童模仿他们的家长的观念。宗教制度受经济危机和与其他文化接触的影响,有时催生出土著的,救世主的,及民族主义的异教。[1]20世纪最权威的无神论理论家安东尼(AntonyFlew)据称于2004年改变了过去的主张而认为存在上帝。不过他主要是自然神论者而非神学论者[2]无神论被称做否定任何除了人之外的力量的信仰的宗教。
据人类学家考证,所有的人类社会都有表现形式大同小异的宗教。人类人种学家维克多(VictorBarnouw)认为:自然崇拜源于万物有灵的信仰。他认为树木,河流,动物和植物都可能被视为具有灵魂,因此可以被崇拜。从这种模式产生了相信多神的文明和半文明的人,由此相信由不同的神,控制性质不同的自然现象诸如:雨,雷,电,大地,海洋,阳光和月亮.[3] 人们在梦境中或恍惚状态和神灵附体等情况下获得有说服力的体验,支持他们相信的神灵存在。[4]某些宗教特征却并不普遍,诸如一个至高无上存在的信仰,人死后的奖励和惩罚概念,偶像崇拜,鬼魂附体的信念和用活人做牺牲的习惯[5] 大多数宗教制度代表了某种万物有灵和泛灵论、宗教和魔法的复杂混合体。有数种有关宗教项目的所有的社会,均有人死后某种有关灵魂和生命的信念,都有取悦超自然存在的占卜,魔法等葬礼仪式和悼念习俗惯例和宗教仪式。[6] 因此,凡是有人类的地方均有宗教的存在,只不过有一神与多神及万物有灵与泛灵论之别。世界上唯有犹太教、基督教和伊斯兰教有上帝唯一真神的概念,其他各种宗教则属多神或泛灵论。而佛教则更多地被理解为某种哲学思辩。
科学通常分类为自然,社会和思维三大领域。任何科学研究讨论争辩均离不开概念,定义则是明确概念的最佳方式。只有在首先明确概念的前提下,才有可能进行任何有价值的讨论与争辩。若概念没有定义或定义不明,则概念必然含糊不清;概念含糊则不可能进行符合逻辑的思考,进而无法进行系统深入的归纳、总结或分析、演译、推理、论证等思维活动。因此,明确定义至关重要。

我的大学老师数十名,如今早已忘记他们到底讲授了哪些内容,唯有哲学老师定义麻花为“油炸的面绳”,令我难忘,因为该定义真可谓言简精确。给宗教下定义可没有那么简单,宗教的定义五花八门,但没有一个可称作最精确的。由于人们的身份地位专业的异同,各种人从各自的角度对宗教所下的定义各俱特色。
在西方学界一般认为宗教是有关或直接指向上帝或神的信仰与实践。有人说宗教是对某种超自然力量或控制人类命运的权力的坚定信念。有人认为宗教是某种信仰神圣权力的表达机制。还有人主张宗教是有关超自然的,上帝的或神的信仰,以及与这些惯例和信仰相关的制度。另有人提出宗教是解释人类与宇宙之间的关系的总的答案在各类字典中,宗教被定义为有关信仰,崇拜或规定上帝的性质及其是否存在(或不存在)的任何具体制度”“有关超自然力量的态度,信仰和习惯。
一、神学家的定义:
1)基督教的辩护者Schleiermacher的宗教定义“绝对信赖上帝的感情[7];这里强调宗教是一种感情。
2)著名的宗教学者爱德华(Edward Tyler)将宗教定义为“心灵精神存在的信仰[8];此处指出宗教是一种信仰。
3)神学家詹姆斯(James Frazer )说宗教是“高于人类的权力的抚慰或安抚[9];作者认为宗教是一种安慰。
二、哲学家的定义:
4)哲学家怀德黑德(Whitehead)认为“宗教是个体不受外界影响独自思索人生的灵魂世界[10];作者指出宗教是一种灵魂世界。
5)卡尔巴斯认为所有的宗教均是人类寻求上帝不成功的果实[11]即卡尔认为宗教是人类寻求上帝的产物。
三、作家的定义:
6)作家Rudolf Otto主张宗教是“对其自身权利要求报酬所反应的某种独特原始的感情[12];也即宗教是某种原始的感情。
四、科学家的定义:
7)著名精神病学家佛罗伊德(Freud )形容“宗教是一种普遍强迫性神经官能症”;“宗教是人类渴望实现的愿望的产物;我们投射那些我们渴望的情形。因此,宗教是幻想[13]佛罗伊德认为宗教是一种神经病和幻想
8)法国社会学家爱弥勒(Emile Durkheim )则认为“宗教是有关神圣事物的信仰和实践的统一体系[14] 亦即宗教是某种信仰体系。
9)文化人类学家珈利(Gary Ferraro)认为“宗教是与超自然存在和力量有关的一系列信仰和行为模式的总称”[15].该定义与上述定义实质相同。
10)文化人类学家马里(Mari Womack)认为:宗教是与旨在指导人类与超自然之间关系有关的一系列信仰与实践的总称[16].该定义与前述定义基本一致。
11)人类学人种学家泰勒(Tylor)认为:宗教的核心是泛灵论[17].也即宗教是泛灵论。
12)文化地理学家特里(Terry G. Jordan)将宗教定义为有关信仰与修炼惯例的一系列社会制度,通过宗教人们寻求心灵和身体与宇宙力量的和谐,试图影响自然的伟力,生命和死亡[18]亦即宗教是信仰与修炼的社会制度。
13)人类学家康拦德(Conrad Phillip)将宗教定义为:某种可以分类成信仰和有关超自然存在、权力和力量的仪式的某种人类行为。[19]
五、政客的定义:
14)马克思说“宗教是人民的鸦片” 宗教是 “引入走上邪路使人堕落的意识世界”; 列宁咒骂有关上帝的每一个观念,每一种宗教都是十足最危险卑鄙可耻的观念”;斯大林指责“宗教是狡猾而危险的敌人”;毛泽东诅咒“宗教是毒药”。亦即,除了马克思之鸦片说涉及宗教的精神灵魂慰藉作用多少有据之外,马列斯毛的宗教观纯属诽谤诋毁式的蛮不讲理。
六、各种辞典的定义:
15)Oxford Dictionary Thesaurus &Wordpower Guide的定义:宗教是一种信仰和崇拜上帝或多神的特殊体系.[20]
16)朗文当代高级英语辞典定义:宗教信仰是指在心灵生活中,通常由一神或多神,尤其是相信其创造并能控制世界。与此种一神或多神相关的信仰、崇拜和行为等特定的体系。[21]

17)新韦伯斯特英语百科辞典的定义是:宗教与关怀,尊敬,崇拜相关。当人走进最高存在时的神圣感情;确认上帝作为崇拜、爱和服从的对象;虔诚;任何信仰和崇拜的制度[22]
18)柯林斯高级研究英语词典定义:宗教是一神或多神信仰和与此种信仰有关的诸如祈祷或在教堂或寺庙进行朝拜的活动。宗教是一神或多神信仰的特殊制度及与该制度相关的活动[23]
  

(19)The American Heritage Dictionary of the  English Language 的宗教定义:信仰和崇敬超自然力量或造物主和宇宙主宰的权力及基于这种信仰和崇拜的制度。[24]
  

(20)The
Collins Essential EnglishDictionary 2ndEd宗教定义:信仰或崇拜某种超自然力量或被认为神圣或控制人类命运的力量及任何对此种信仰的表达形式。[25]


(21)The Password English Learner’s Dictionary的宗教守义:对一神或多神的某种信仰或崇拜的体制。[26]
godsdie

22)文化地理学家特里(Terry G. Jordan)归纳佛教四真谛:生命充满痛苦;欲望是这种痛苦的原因;抑制欲望才能制止这种痛苦;而8类良好的个人行为和沉思修行的道路使人能够克服欲望。[27]
上述众多宗教定义涉及上帝、造物主、宇宙力、宇宙主宰、神、自然神、神圣事物、超自然存在与力量及信仰、崇拜、祈祷、朝拜、修炼、尊敬、安慰、感情、幻想、万物有灵、泛灵、灵魂世界、实践、行为、体系、体制与社会制度等概念。归纳上述各种宗教定义,明显可见人类学家和各类词典的定义较符合通常理解及科学定义的各项要素;神学家,哲学家们的定义则突出宗教的实质;至于心理学家,政客及作家们的定义则明显标新立异且带有严重偏见,以致将宗教的概念搞得混乱不堪。因此,宗教实际上有广义与狭义之分,前者包括有神无神在内的所有的信仰及崇拜体系;而后者则仅指与上帝或神或超自然存在与力量有关的信仰与崇拜体系。因此唯物主义无神论的共产主义信仰本质上即是一种宗教,不过马列毛式共产主义信仰皆信奉为了目的不择手段,亦即为了达到虚无漂渺的共产主义崇高目的皆鼓吹阶级斗争,无产阶级专政,以至杀人,抢劫,欺诈,暴力,恐怖皆无所不用其极,因而显然是一种邪教。
按照文化人类学家的归纳,宗教的要素含有礼仪(表达崇拜,牺牲和其他神圣的行为),神话故事(概括了一组基本信念),教理(信仰和经验系统化),道德规范(伦理准则和行为指南)社会(宗教体制形式)和经验(个人的心灵体验)六个方面的内容。[28]根据该宗教要素内容我偿试给宗教下如下定义:
宗教乃是人类通过灵觉、灵性、感性和理性,体验、思索、探寻与研究生命的来源与去向,生命的意义及人类与上帝(造物主)或神或某种超自然存在与力量之间相互关系的学说、原理的信仰与崇拜仪式的体系。我认为宗教是由那些灵觉发达并受圣灵启示的人按上帝(即崇拜对象)的旨意而创制;宗教的本质在于体认生命的意义,研究生命的来源与去向。其特征体现为精神信仰与崇拜仪式。其作用在于精神心灵安慰使人返本归真回归家园获得灵魂的安宁进而得到人生幸福。
正教均包含人类社会交往行为的最高道德伦理规范。诸如爱,慈悲,宽容,诚信,不得杀人、偷盗、奸淫及作伪证等。因此,真正的宗教家,必定真善、仁爱、博大、宽恕。宗教信仰是人类的心灵的精神食粮,人没有信仰犹如人没有灵魂,人的本质乃是灵魂而非肉身[29]。人的身体仅是灵魂的暂居住所,而人的灵魂与宇宙中物质不灭、能量守恒定律一样,具有不增不减不灭的神秘性质,通过不断转世轮回实现造物主赋予人类以永生之恩宠。按照因果报应轮回的理论,一个人若没有灵魂或失去灵魂必将变成行走肉,道德沦丧犯下深重罪孽者甚至在转世轮回中变成低等动物、植物甚至岩石;即所谓善恶有报,不是今生,便是来世毫厘不爽。
一个民族若没有精神信仰极易导致人们心灵精神灵魂堕落,道德伦丧,以致世风日下。马列斯毛邓江胡的共产唯物主义无神论,实质上是毁灭中国人的精神信仰,唯信权力与物质财富,阉割中国人的灵魂,导致中国人各种物欲,肉欲,权欲,色欲极度澎涨,特别是在毛泽东极权暴政统治下的三十年期间经一系列强制洗脑的政治运动,在彻底摧毁中国传统道德文化信仰的同时,共产主义信仰业已破产;所谓改革开放的三十年本质上是中共故意引导全体国人一切向钱看,以致官员个个权欲,物欲,肉欲恶性澎涨,造成无官不贪,无官不腐,贪官污吏层出不穷;而普通国人则物欲,色欲恶性发扬,造成全民精神灵魂道德整体堕落至中国历史的最低点。当今中国可谓政治经济、生态环境和精神心灵三重危机并临。因此,唯有彻底终结中共极权专制暴政,中国人民才能在精神心灵灵魂重生,唯有在公平,公正,公道的社会环境中公平竟争才有可能实现自由、正义、人生幸福的理想。
生命是一条永恒的河流,生命是一段美丽的过程,生命是某种轮回。人生 是一段旅行,人的生命是一种永恒的轮回,永恒的创造,永无止境。
2009年12月27日第199个反中共极权专制暴政争自由人权民主绝食争权抗暴民权运动日


[1] From apsychoanalytic point of view,(Sigmund Freud and Abram Kardiner)
religion are projective system; belief aboutgods are modeled after children`s ideas about their parents. Religious systemaffected by economic crises and contacts with other cultures, sometimesprecipitating nativistic, messianic, and nationalistic cults of considerabledynamism. P 302,311 Victor Barnouw, àn introduction of Anthropology Ethnology,5ed, the Dorsey Press 1987.

[2]For several decades, Antony Flew has been among the most influential of atheistthinkers. In late 2004, it was reported that Flew had changed his mind andaccepted the existence of God. He continues, however, to reject all purporteddivine revelation, along with any possibility of an afterlife, describing himselfas a deist rather than as a theist.

[3] Nature worshipmay also stem from animistic beliefs. Trees, rivers, animals, and plants mayall be seen as having souls and thus may be worshiped. From this pattern arosethe polytheistic pantheons of civilized and near civilized peoples, in whichdifferent gods were believed to control different aspects of nature:the rain,thunder, earth, sea, sun, and moon.P.291 Victor Barnouw, àn introduction ofAnthropology Ethnology, 5ed, the Dorsey Press 1987.

[4]
In visions dreams, states of trance, and possession human beings receiveconvincing support for the existence of the gods and spirits in which theybelieve.P.295 ,Victor Barnouw, àn introduction of Anthropology Ethnology, 5ed,the Dorsey Press 1987.

[5] Certainfeatures that are not universal such as the belief in a supreme being, thenotion of reward and punishment after death, the worship of idols, belief inpossession and the practice
ofsacrifice. Edward B. Tylor, Primitive Culture (1877) P.290
Victor Barnouw, àn introduction ofAnthropology Ethnology, 5ed, the Dorsey Press 1987.

[6] Most religious systems representa complex mixture of animism and animatisms The attribution of consciousness and personality to naturalphenomena such as thunderstorms and earthquakes and to objects such as plants and stones,religion and magic.All societies there are several items that concern religion,have religious rituals and the custom of propitiation supernatural beings,beliefs of some sort about the soul and life after death, funeral rites andmourning customs, divination, magic. P.289 VictorBarnouw, àn introduction of Anthropology Ethnology, 5ed, the Dorsey Press 1987.

[7] What is religion? It is impossible to have a universalaccepted definition, for different people have various opinions. A apologistfor Christianity, Schleiermacher, defined religion in terms of 'the feeling ofabsolute dependence upon God';

[8] a famousreligion scholar, Edward Tyler, defined religion as 'belief in spiritual being';

[9] a anotherreligion scholar, James Frazer ,defined religion as 'a propitiation orconciliation of powers superior to man';

[10] a philosopher,Whitehead, defined religion as ' what the individual does with hissolitariness';

[11] Karl Barth said that“all religion is the fruitless human quest for God”.

[12] a author,Rudolf Otto defined religion as 'a unique, original feeling response…whichclaims consideration in its own right';

[13] and thewell-known psychologist, Freud even described religion as 'a universal obsessionalneurosiswhich might be thought a curious phrase since neurosis is normallytaken to refer to abnormal rather that not to ‘universal’ behaviour. Jungbelieved that religion had an important part to play in developing a healthyand balanced personality. Whilst Freud saw religion as a symptom of disease,Jung regarded the absence of religion as an important source of psychologicalproblems.’

[14] FrenchSociologist (1858-1917)defined religion as "a unified system of beliefsand practices relative to sacred things."

[15] We shall definereligion as a set of beliefs and patterned behaviours concerned withsupernatural being and forces. P.286 Gary Ferraro,
Cultural Anthropology
an Applied Perspective ,West PublishingCompany, 2ed Edition 1995,

[16] Religion isdefined as a set of beliefs and practices aimed at ordering the relationship ofhuman beings to the supernatural.P.189, Mari Womack, Being human anIntroduction to Cultural Anthropology, 1998 by Prentice Hall Inc.

[17] E.B.Tylorargued that animism (belief in spiritual beings) is the core of religion, fromwhich all other aspects of religion sprang, including concepts of possessionand fetishism, beliefs in an afterlife, ancestor worship, and the worship ofnature gods. The basic belief in spirits developed naturally from peoplesexperiences of dreaming and their reflections about dreams trance states,illness, and death. The monotheism was a late development in the evolution ofreligion.
Animatismis belief in an impersonal supernatural power, like mana,. Religion mayemphasize either the personal, animistic aspects of the supernatureal world orits impersonal, animatistic aspects. P 310,Victor Barnouw, àn introduction ofAnthropology Ethnology, 5ed, the Dorsey Press 1987.

[18]
Religion can be defined as a set of beliefs and practices, a social system,through which people seek mental and physical harmony with the powers of theuniverse, through which we attempt to influence the awesome forces of nature,life and death. P.211. Terry G. Jordan, Mona Domosh, Lester Rowntree, AThematic Introduction to Cultural Geography,
6ed, 1994, Harper Collins.

[19] Religion hasbeen defined as ``a kind of human behaviour, which can be classified
as belief s and ritual concerned withsupernatural beings, powers, and forces``Anthony F.C. Wallace, Religion: AnAnthropological View Random House, 1966, p.5. see P.413,Conrad Phillip Kotak AnthropologyThe Exploration of Human Diversity 4ed, Random House, 1987.

[20] Religion: thebelief in and worship of a God or gods. A particular system of faith andworship.P.755 Oxford Paperback Dictionary Thesaurus & Wordpower Guide.

[21] Religion belief in the life ofthe spirit and usu.in one or more gods, esp. the belief that it / they made theworld and can control it. A particular system of this belief and the worship,behaviour, etc, connected with it. P1272朗文当代高级英语辞典

[22]

religio religionis, to care for, to respect,allied to . The feeling of reverence which men entertain toward a SupremeBeing; the recognition of God as an object of worship, love, and obedience;piety; any system of faith and worship. P.708 The New Webster EncyclopedicDictionary of the English Language.

[23] Religion isbelief in a god or gods and the activities that are connected with this belief,such as praying or worshipping in a building such a church or temple. Areligion is a particular system of belief in a god or gods and the activitiesthat are connected with this system. P.1214 Collins Cobuild Advanced Learner’sEnglish Dictionary

[24] The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2003.Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. 1. a. Belief in and reverence for a supernaturalpower or powers regarded as creator and governor of the universe.b. Apersonal or institutionalized system grounded in such belief and worship.

[25] Collins Essential English Dictionary 2nd Edition 2006 © HarperCollins Publishers 2004, 20061.belief in or worship of a supernatural power or powers considered to be divineor to have control of human destiny 2. any formal expression of suchbelief

[26] Password English Learner’s Dictionary © 1986-2008 K Dictionaries Ltd and partners. All rights reserved. 1 a beliefin, or the worship of, a god or gods. godsdiens دين вяра náboženství religion
aparticular system of belief or worship Christianity and Islam are two differentreligions.


[27] Buddhism fournoble truths: life is full of suffering; desire is the cause of this suffering;cessation of suffering comes with the quelling of desire; and an eight foldpath of proper personal conduct and meditation permits the individual toovercome desire. P.220. Terry G. Jordan, Mona Domosh, Lester Rowntree, AThematic Introduction to Cultural Geography,
6ed, 1994, Harper Collins.

[28]The six dimensions of religionReligion has ritual(expressed inworship, sacrifice, and other sacred acts), mythstories which encapsulatefundamental beliefs of a group), doctrine(systematization of beliefs andexperiences), ethics(moral codes and guides to behaviour), social(institutionalforms of religion), experiential(personal spiritual experiences) sixdimensions:

[29] 陈尔晋《圣灵福音》。


发表于 4/10/2011 02:31:37 | 显示全部楼层
郭国汀 发表于 4/10/2011 00:01
我的英语其实不太好,本文花了很多时间,看了不少书,收集了大量资料组合而写,但我自已也不满意,我的指 ...

郭律师还在读书是吗?
 楼主| 发表于 4/12/2011 18:28:41 | 显示全部楼层
学无止境,在此意义上是的;但我主要是自学。目前正在找工作。
您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 注册

本版积分规则


站内文章仅为网友提供更多信息,不代表本网站同意其说法或描述,也不构成任何建议。本网站仅为网友提供交流平台,对网友自由上传的文字和图片等,本网站
不为其版权和内容等负责。站内部分内容转载自其它社区、论坛或各种媒体,有些原作者未知。如您认为站内的某些内容属侵权,请及时与我们联络并进行处理。
关于我们|隐私政策|免责条款|版权声明|网站导航|帮助中心
道至大 道天成

小黑屋|手机版|Archiver|联系我们|天易综合网 (Twitter@wolfaxcom)

GMT-5, 10/23/2018 07:52 , Processed in 0.960000 second(s), 11 queries , Gzip On.

Copyright 天易网 network. All Rights Reserved.

© 2009-2015 .

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表