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岳陽樓記(宋)范仲淹

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发表于 7/19/2016 07:38:15 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
慶曆四年春,滕子京謫守巴陵郡。越明年,政通人和,百廢具興,乃重修岳陽樓 ,增其舊制,刻唐賢今人詩賦於其上;屬予作文以記之。予觀夫巴陵勝狀,在洞庭一湖。銜遠山,吞長江,浩浩湯湯,橫無際涯;朝暉夕陰,氣象萬千;此則岳陽樓之大觀也,前人之述備矣。然則北通巫峽,南極瀟湘,遷客騷人,多會於此,覽物之情,得無異乎? 若夫霪雨霏霏,連月不開;陰風怒號,濁浪排空;日星隱耀,山岳潛形;商旅不行,檣傾楫摧;薄暮冥冥,虎嘯猿啼;登斯樓也,則有去國懷鄉,憂讒畏譏,滿目蕭然,感極而悲者矣!至若春和景明,波瀾不驚,上下天光,一碧萬頃;沙鷗翔集﹐錦鱗游泳,岸芷汀蘭,郁郁青青。而或長煙一空,皓月千里,浮光躍金,靜影沈璧,漁歌互答,此樂何極﹔登斯樓也,則有心曠神怡,寵辱偕忘、把酒臨風,其喜洋洋者矣!嗟夫!予嘗求古仁人之心,或異二者之為,何哉?不以物喜,不以己悲,居廟堂 之高,則憂其民;處江湖之遠,則憂其君。是進亦憂,退亦憂;然則何時而樂耶?其必曰:「先天下之憂而憂,後天下之樂而樂歟!」噫!微斯人,吾誰與歸!時六年九月十五日。

On Yueyang Tower
by Fan Zhongyan of Song Dynasty

In the spring of the fourth year of Qingli1, Teng Zijing was demoted to be the prefect of Baling District. Next year, the political situation was favorable and the relationship between people was harmonious. All the plans that had been suspended were now resumed.  Therefore, Yueyang Tower was under repair, and new designs were added to the old structure. There engraved on it were poems and essays of the sages of Tang Dynasty and of our contemporaries. Then I was asked to give an account of it.  I can see, well, that the beauty of Baling centers on Dongting Lake, which holds distant hills and swallows the Yangtze River, looking so huge and vast, and extending so wide and boundless (or: so vast and so boundless). With the glory of the morning and the gloom of the evening, the grand view is so changeable in multi-aspects. This is the great panorama of Yueyang Tower. Our ancestors already had a full account of it. However, as the tower connects Gorge Wu2 in the north and Xiao-Xiang3 in the south, demoted officials and sentimental poets often gather here. Should there be no difference in their feelings when they watch the same scenes?  Well, when heavy rains last for months at a stretch, when dismal winds roar in fury and murky billows surge to the sky, when the sun and stars conceal their light and mountains hide their contour, when merchants cease their travel and masts of ships crumble and oars broken, when twilight descends, dim and dull, with tigers growling and apes crying, there are those, ascending this tower and eyeing the scenes so depressing, who will lament with strong emotions for leaving the capital and being away from home, and with the fear of being slandered and criticized.  But when the water is waveless in warm spring against pretty scenery, when all’s a myriad acres of blue between the bright sky above and the bright sky mirrored in the water, when gulls hover and gather on sands and fishes swim with glittering scales, when so fragrant are zhi herb on the bank and orchid on the shoal, or when there are no mists and clouds with the bright moon shining over thousand miles, when the water reflects the light with silvery specks and the moon cuts its calm image in the lake like a sinking jade, when fishermen sing in response to each other, enjoying their happiness to the utmost, there are those, ascending this tower, who will lift the wine cup against the wind, being jocund and carefree, jovial and complacent, forgetful of all favors or disgraces.  Alas! Once I tried to understand the mind of ancient virtuous men. They might behave differently from the two kinds of people. Why? They didn’t delight in worldly things, or grieve for their own sake. They would be concerned with people at large as courtiers in levees of the emperor. They would be concerned with their sovereign as hermits in the remote corners of the country. So they always had anxieties whether as courtiers or as hermits. Then, when would they be happy? They would say, “Grieve before all the people under heaven grieve; enjoy after all the people under heaven enjoy.”  Well, if not with such men, whom will I socialize (or: mingle)?  This is written on the fifteenth day of the ninth moon in the sixth year.

[1] Qingli was the code name of the years. In ancient China, the year was named by code words. Every new emperor got on the throne, he would change the code words for the years in his reign.
[2] Gorge Wu is the famous gorge on the upper stream of the Yangtze River.
[3] Xiao and Xiang were the names of two rivers connecting the Dongting Lake.
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