查看: 1203|回复: 0

[国学论道] 郭国汀:文革中的红色恐怖与武斗(手稿)

发表于 2/17/2017 16:13:42 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

The red terror. in august and September, the homes of 33695 families in Beijing were looted by the red guards or people claiming to be the red guards. confiscated 103000 liang ( about 5.7 tons) of gold, 345,200 liang of silver, 55,459,900 yuan in cash, and 613,600 antique or jade pieces. In shanghai, 8422 homes of bourgeois families were looted between august 23 and September 8; 1231 were the homes of intellectuals or teacher. In addition to large quantities of gold and jewelry, 3.34 million in US dollars, 3.3 million yuan in other foreign currency, 2.4 million pre-communist silver dollars, and 370 million yuan in cash and bonds. In October 1966, the confiscation by red guards all over China of a total of 1,188,000 liang ( about 65 tons) of gold was praised as the confiscation of the ill-gotten wealth of the exploiting classes". (117)  4922 of the 6843 officially designated places of cultural or historical interest in Beijing had been destroyed. 118.

Widespread mob violence of the autumn of 1966 become possible was central document Zhongfa (1966)410; Mao ratified it, which titled " mobilizing the police to suppress the student movement is strictly prohibited: police, must stay out of the schools. not arrest anyone in the course of the movement... Xie Fuzhi at a meeting of police office in Beijing explains that, do not give them orders. do not say it is wrong of them to beat up bad persons: if in anger they beat someone to death, then so be it. if we say it's wrong, then we'll be supporting bad persons. after all, bad persons are bad, so if they're beaten to death it is no big deal. (125) police should be on the side of the red guards, provide them with information about what the five kinds of elements are doing.  on August 13, at workers stadium 70000 watched the dozen "hooligans" being beaten up , Mao on 18 August told Ms.Song Binbin that " be martial". red guards began organizing their own mass meetings to denounce and struggle the black gang.  in Beijing western district alone, within two weeks, the violence left close to one hundred teachers, school officials, and educational cadres dead. (126) injured was too large to be calculated. On August 31 Daxing county occurred worst killing black five, the killers included local militiamen and activists.

At the start of the cultural revolution Mao was quoted as arguing that "it's a mistake when good people beat up on good people, though it may clear up some misunderstandings, as they might otherwise not have got to know each other in the first place." made it possible to justify a physical assault on them. Before dawn on December 30, 1966, some 100000 members of the WGHO attacked about 20000 Scarlet Guards stationed around the Shanghai party secretariat on Kangping Road. after four hours of bloody fighting, capitulated. the incident as signifying the beginning of nationwide violence. 163  On January 9, Mao told the members of the CCRG that both the policies and the actions of the Shanghai rebels were correct, and that "all over China, the party, government, armed forces,and people should learn from the experience of Shanghai, and take concrete action. 165 Mao publicly gave Chen Boda, Jiang Qing, and their colleagues a bureaucratic stature equivalent to the established institutions of the party-state. 166  all power previously divided between party and government would be centralized in one new organization.

Mao in mid-January 1967, he and Wang Li telephone Zhang and Yao in Shanghai to inform them that he himself had begun contemplating the setting up of a Beijing Commune". 168.

In Kaifeng, PLA opened fire on civilian demonstrators, in Huhehot, PLA officer shot and killed an unarmed student from the regional teachers college demonstrating. In Sichuan Chengdu, subjected to a six day, a seven-night siege by members and supporters of two great radical mass organizations, and the Sichuan university august 26 Battle Regiment acting in the coalition. the PLA responded by arresting close to 100000 rebels" in a province-wide crackdown, backed by Beijing. 178. On April 20, the commander of the Sichuan MD informed the CCRG that some 17865 of those detained in the crackdown had been released so far. to many, the experience of being made to shoot to kill unarmed civilians shouting" long live the Communist Party!" a bloody confrontation in Qinghai Daily in Xining, official estimate, the "masses suffered 169 dead and 178 wounded, while the armed forces suffered 4 dead and 26 wounded. some hospitals simply refused medical treatment to those who frankly stated that they had been shot or wounded by the Army.  made a scapegoat. according to Wang Li, anti-PLA riots broke out everywhere in response to the new order.  Mao coin slogan "support the army and cherish the people".

During the summer of 1967, China descended into a state of what Mao described as "all-round civil war". According to Mao, "everywhere people were fighting, dividing into two factions; there were two factions in every factory, in every school, in every province, in every county; every ministry was like that , the foreign ministry was split into two factions, in chaos. I n July and August 1967, nothing could be done; there was massive upheaval throughout the country". 199 at his birthday party the 1966 Mao had welcomed the prospect of civil war. Lin Biao put it in mid-1967, " the great cultural  has turned into the great martializing revolution. "

In Wuhan, Chen Zaidao arresting 2000-3000 of leading activists, late May, the first death occurred, early June, major clashes took place regularly with more loss of life, June 24, killed 24 defenders in the process, teenagers were paid cash to kill. killing a young boy would get 20 yuan, for killing a combat team member, got 50 yuan.  In Hunan, "in some place you get 3 yuan in cash each day while in others you get 100 yuan for fighting one battle. in yet other places, you get 100 yuan for killing someone. even if they survive, you still get 100 yuan." 205

Attack with reason, defend with force; a few day later after the word  of Jiang Qing says "to defend with force is good. armed clashes at the Zhengzhou Cigarette factory and the Kaifeng chemical fertilizer plant in the last week of July produced thirty-seven dead, 290 wounded, and 300 prisoners of war, of whom 2 were later buried alive. 214. but it is Mao said " why cannot we arm the workers and students? " Mao had asked Zhou, Xie, Wangli, Chen Zaidao, and Zhong Hanhua on July 18. " I say we should arm them!" on July 31 In Shanghai, Zhang Chunqiao presented Mao with a formal request for permission to set up a workers armed self-defense force. Mao responded positively, passing on the request to Lin, Zhou, and the CCRG for additional comments; by later August, "organize the left, arm the left" had been circulated by Shanghai revolutionary committee.  in a letter to Jiang Qing on August 4, Mao calculated that 75 percent of the PLA officer corps supported the right and concluded that this fact made it imperative now to arm the left. " arms seizures are not a serious problem."  Mao called for a mass dictatorship, a  move that led to power-seizures in public security organs and the courts, and the establishment of kangaroo courts as legal norms.  thereafter, there were large-scale arms seizures in Guangdong province and even prisoners in Chinese gulag began seizing guns. 215.

Zhou Enlai on August 7 told delegates from Hunan that "real left should demand arms, supply them with arms was simply to act in accordance with " an instruction issued by our supreme commander-in-chief. " 215 at the same day, Mao signed off on a central document commenting positively on the formation in Hunan of a " revolutionary armed force of mass character under the leadership of the preparatory group for a provincial revolutionary committee.  Lin Biao told a closed meeting of central leaders and senior PLA officers two days later: " we must comply with Mao's instructions, arm the left and distribute arms to the leftist masses. " on August 10 Mao signed off on a central document calling Jiangxi to arm the revolutionary masses " in areas where conditions are ripe". 215. On August 13, Kang Sheng cited the slogan " arm the left", and three days later he and Guan Feng accused the PLA unit enter the Wuzhong region, Ningxia to "support the left" of being "too soft" and "unprincipled " in its dealings with local. the PLA should resolutely support the local " leftists" and "if necessary provide them with arms for self-defense."

at five on Agust 28, 1967 PLA open fire on civilians, killed more than 400, Kang defend himself by saying that resolution of the Qingtongxia issue had been endorsed by Mao and Lin. a post-cultural revolution official inquiry determined that the PLA shot dead 101 and wounded 133.

On July 9, 1967, Mao addressed a gathering of senior PLA officers, " don't be afraid of people making trouble, the bigger the trouble gets, the longer it lasts, the better. " 206 According to Lin Biao, the Mao "reads all the reports and all the telegrams from below very carefully and has a very clear understanding of the situation at the lower levels. he reads the all himself. " 206

In Hangzhou, Zhejiang air force and navy supported the red storm provisional headquarters. rebels armed themselves with weapons and 1.27million rounds of ammunition.  

in Wenzhou, on August 13, two PLA units mistaking each other for the rebels and their local military allies opened fire on each other, killing seven people.

In Chongqing on one occasion alone, involved close to 10000 combatants employing virtually every kind of conventional weapon available and resulted in the death or wounding of close to 1000, and the destruction of vast amounts of state property.

in Hunan, Lianuan Steel Plant had to be suspended in July for six weeks because of factional fighting that led to six death, and 68 wounded.

In Daqing oilfields, workers looted the local printing plant and railway station.

Anshan Iron and Steel Plant were imposed military control by the central authority in August.

In Shanghai diesel engine Plant a battle between two popular factions resulted in 18 dead and 983 wounded, with 121 suffering permanent injuries.  even under these chaotic conditions, bureaucracy still ruled.  beginning in June, armed struggles in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangxi, and Sichuan had become so serious that people began to flee to Shanghai.  In Beijing, the official figure compiled in May stated that during the ten days from April 30 to May 9, no less than 133 "armed struggles" occurred, involving 60000 and 70000 people, of whom 1400 wounded. by the end of June, officially estimated that thousands of " armed struggles" had occurred since the formation of the revolutionary committee. In Changchun, Jilin exploded two " radioactive self-defense bombs on 1:15 am and 12:35 pm on August 6, 1967.

In August 1967, Wei Guoqing had been beaten bloody and semiconscious by a mob of some 200 Guangxi rebels, who traveled all the way to Beijing.  Guangxi April 22 revolutionary action command, support of a PLA main force unit responsible to Beijing. and Guangxi United command of Proletarian revolutionaries, loyal to Wei, and supported by local PLA. when the main force transferred out of Guangxi in spring 1968, Nanning city was ablaze. 166 boats were sunk, 3600 tons of cargo destroyed, a dozen of buildings razed to the ground. on July 31, 7 company from Guangdong MR and Nanning military joined the United command in the second battle with April 22, in downtown, 60 million was destroyed and more than 50000 people left homeless. close 10000 survivors and supporters of April 22 were taken the prisoner, of whom 2324 were later executed.

In the spring of 1973, a 41 years old engineer at the Chengdu Institute of telecommunications a CCP member of 20 years named Tu Deyong, mailed copies of his "ten indictments against the great cultural revolution to a number of universities and revolutionary committees in different parts of China. arrested in 1975, on May 23, 1976 Tu was sentenced to life in prison.

In late October 1974, Shi Yunfeng, 26 years old worker in Changchun...more than 6600 specially assigned members of local security personnel, he was executed as an "active counterrevolutionary on December 19, 1976, drugged and with his lips sewn together with surgical thread so he would not confuse his executioners by shouting slogans.

the one strike, three anti campaign. the strike referred to a nationwide crackdown on counterrevolutionary destruction activities.

in Yinchuan, Ningxia a dozen or so " sent down university graduates who called themselves the "communist self-study university were arrested at the beginning of 1970 and accused of having engaged in counterrevolutionary" activities while merely pretending to be studying Marxism-Leninism three of them were sentenced to death and executed. on August 29, 1970.

in Beijing, lasted until the end of 1970, 5757 "renegades, special agents, counterrevolutionaries, and other bad elements. 3138 "counterrevolutionary and fairly major criminal cases". and more than 6200 cases of alleged graft, embezzlement, or profiteering.

in most other parts of China including Shanghai, last until 1972 or 1973.  In January in Heilongjiang, 3173 political cases, and 37462 economic cases; In January 1972 in Guangzhou, rack 2168 major cases and identify 147 counterrevolutionary cliques. In Baoding, Hebei, campaign lasted until December 1972, during seven consecutive public sentencing rallies, at which 17 people were executed and another 1325 given punishments. In Shanghai, the campaign began to wind down at the end of 1972. in the rural counties surrounding the city, 64000 people were dragged out and struggled, among these were 520 other than normal deaths.  the only figure made available by the CCP concerns the first ten months of the campaign: the number of people said to have been arrested as counterrevolutionaries and the like by the end of November 1970 exceeded 284800. 307.

Shadian incident in the summer of 1975, violence erupted between a locally organized Muslim Militia regiment and the non-Muslim county administration's militia command. In early 1975, representatives of both sides in the conflict were called to Beijing, where a truce was negotiated. On July 5, signed off on by Mao which gave the PLA the go-ahead to enter Shadian to bring the situation under control if all other attempts to end the now increasingly tense standoff peacefully failed. 21 days fighting, 1600 villagers,including 300 children, elderly and sick attempting to flee had been killed. 388

The cultural revolution is very likely that when people have forgotten about it, it will make a comeback, and people who have never gone crazy will go crazy, and people who have never been oppressed will oppress or be oppressed. this is because madness has existed since the birth of humanity, and it is simply a question of when it will flare up again. (Gao Xingjian, One Man's Bible pages 195)










    于向真:恐怖的“红八月”详实的记载博讯2016年3月21日 转载作者为中国少年儿童新闻出版总社主任编辑




冀東李楚離案三千人死於非命. 中央組織部副部長李楚離曾擔任冀東黨的領導人,領導過冀東大暴動。李被打成叛徒後,冀東黨組織也成了“國民黨”組織。這是文革中的又一件大案,八萬多人受株連,三千人死於非命。


您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 注册


道至大 道天成

小黑屋|手机版|Archiver|联系我们|天易综合网 (Twitter@wolfaxcom)

GMT-5, 5/23/2018 19:10 , Processed in 0.640129 second(s), 12 queries , Gzip On.

Copyright 天易网 network. All Rights Reserved.

© 2009-2015 .

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表