天易网

 找回密码
 注册
查看: 980|回复: 0

[国学论道] 郭国汀:文革中的红色恐怖与武斗(手稿)

[复制链接]
发表于 2/17/2017 16:13:42 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
文革中的红色恐怖与武斗


The red terror. in august and September, the homes of 33695 families in Beijing were looted by the red guards or people claiming to be the red guards. confiscated 103000 liang ( about 5.7 tons) of gold, 345,200 liang of silver, 55,459,900 yuan in cash, and 613,600 antique or jade pieces. In shanghai, 8422 homes of bourgeois families were looted between august 23 and September 8; 1231 were the homes of intellectuals or teacher. In addition to large quantities of gold and jewelry, 3.34 million in US dollars, 3.3 million yuan in other foreign currency, 2.4 million pre-communist silver dollars, and 370 million yuan in cash and bonds. In October 1966, the confiscation by red guards all over China of a total of 1,188,000 liang ( about 65 tons) of gold was praised as the confiscation of the ill-gotten wealth of the exploiting classes". (117)  4922 of the 6843 officially designated places of cultural or historical interest in Beijing had been destroyed. 118.


Widespread mob violence of the autumn of 1966 become possible was central document Zhongfa (1966)410; Mao ratified it, which titled " mobilizing the police to suppress the student movement is strictly prohibited: police, must stay out of the schools. not arrest anyone in the course of the movement... Xie Fuzhi at a meeting of police office in Beijing explains that, do not give them orders. do not say it is wrong of them to beat up bad persons: if in anger they beat someone to death, then so be it. if we say it's wrong, then we'll be supporting bad persons. after all, bad persons are bad, so if they're beaten to death it is no big deal. (125) police should be on the side of the red guards, provide them with information about what the five kinds of elements are doing.  on August 13, at workers stadium 70000 watched the dozen "hooligans" being beaten up , Mao on 18 August told Ms.Song Binbin that " be martial". red guards began organizing their own mass meetings to denounce and struggle the black gang.  in Beijing western district alone, within two weeks, the violence left close to one hundred teachers, school officials, and educational cadres dead. (126) injured was too large to be calculated. On August 31 Daxing county occurred worst killing black five, the killers included local militiamen and activists.


At the start of the cultural revolution Mao was quoted as arguing that "it's a mistake when good people beat up on good people, though it may clear up some misunderstandings, as they might otherwise not have got to know each other in the first place." made it possible to justify a physical assault on them. Before dawn on December 30, 1966, some 100000 members of the WGHO attacked about 20000 Scarlet Guards stationed around the Shanghai party secretariat on Kangping Road. after four hours of bloody fighting, capitulated. the incident as signifying the beginning of nationwide violence. 163  On January 9, Mao told the members of the CCRG that both the policies and the actions of the Shanghai rebels were correct, and that "all over China, the party, government, armed forces,and people should learn from the experience of Shanghai, and take concrete action. 165 Mao publicly gave Chen Boda, Jiang Qing, and their colleagues a bureaucratic stature equivalent to the established institutions of the party-state. 166  all power previously divided between party and government would be centralized in one new organization.


Mao in mid-January 1967, he and Wang Li telephone Zhang and Yao in Shanghai to inform them that he himself had begun contemplating the setting up of a Beijing Commune". 168.




In Kaifeng, PLA opened fire on civilian demonstrators, in Huhehot, PLA officer shot and killed an unarmed student from the regional teachers college demonstrating. In Sichuan Chengdu, subjected to a six day, a seven-night siege by members and supporters of two great radical mass organizations, and the Sichuan university august 26 Battle Regiment acting in the coalition. the PLA responded by arresting close to 100000 rebels" in a province-wide crackdown, backed by Beijing. 178. On April 20, the commander of the Sichuan MD informed the CCRG that some 17865 of those detained in the crackdown had been released so far. to many, the experience of being made to shoot to kill unarmed civilians shouting" long live the Communist Party!" a bloody confrontation in Qinghai Daily in Xining, official estimate, the "masses suffered 169 dead and 178 wounded, while the armed forces suffered 4 dead and 26 wounded. some hospitals simply refused medical treatment to those who frankly stated that they had been shot or wounded by the Army.  made a scapegoat. according to Wang Li, anti-PLA riots broke out everywhere in response to the new order.  Mao coin slogan "support the army and cherish the people".




During the summer of 1967, China descended into a state of what Mao described as "all-round civil war". According to Mao, "everywhere people were fighting, dividing into two factions; there were two factions in every factory, in every school, in every province, in every county; every ministry was like that , the foreign ministry was split into two factions, in chaos. I n July and August 1967, nothing could be done; there was massive upheaval throughout the country". 199 at his birthday party the 1966 Mao had welcomed the prospect of civil war. Lin Biao put it in mid-1967, " the great cultural  has turned into the great martializing revolution. "


In Wuhan, Chen Zaidao arresting 2000-3000 of leading activists, late May, the first death occurred, early June, major clashes took place regularly with more loss of life, June 24, killed 24 defenders in the process, teenagers were paid cash to kill. killing a young boy would get 20 yuan, for killing a combat team member, got 50 yuan.  In Hunan, "in some place you get 3 yuan in cash each day while in others you get 100 yuan for fighting one battle. in yet other places, you get 100 yuan for killing someone. even if they survive, you still get 100 yuan." 205




Attack with reason, defend with force; a few day later after the word  of Jiang Qing says "to defend with force is good. armed clashes at the Zhengzhou Cigarette factory and the Kaifeng chemical fertilizer plant in the last week of July produced thirty-seven dead, 290 wounded, and 300 prisoners of war, of whom 2 were later buried alive. 214. but it is Mao said " why cannot we arm the workers and students? " Mao had asked Zhou, Xie, Wangli, Chen Zaidao, and Zhong Hanhua on July 18. " I say we should arm them!" on July 31 In Shanghai, Zhang Chunqiao presented Mao with a formal request for permission to set up a workers armed self-defense force. Mao responded positively, passing on the request to Lin, Zhou, and the CCRG for additional comments; by later August, "organize the left, arm the left" had been circulated by Shanghai revolutionary committee.  in a letter to Jiang Qing on August 4, Mao calculated that 75 percent of the PLA officer corps supported the right and concluded that this fact made it imperative now to arm the left. " arms seizures are not a serious problem."  Mao called for a mass dictatorship, a  move that led to power-seizures in public security organs and the courts, and the establishment of kangaroo courts as legal norms.  thereafter, there were large-scale arms seizures in Guangdong province and even prisoners in Chinese gulag began seizing guns. 215.




Zhou Enlai on August 7 told delegates from Hunan that "real left should demand arms, supply them with arms was simply to act in accordance with " an instruction issued by our supreme commander-in-chief. " 215 at the same day, Mao signed off on a central document commenting positively on the formation in Hunan of a " revolutionary armed force of mass character under the leadership of the preparatory group for a provincial revolutionary committee.  Lin Biao told a closed meeting of central leaders and senior PLA officers two days later: " we must comply with Mao's instructions, arm the left and distribute arms to the leftist masses. " on August 10 Mao signed off on a central document calling Jiangxi to arm the revolutionary masses " in areas where conditions are ripe". 215. On August 13, Kang Sheng cited the slogan " arm the left", and three days later he and Guan Feng accused the PLA unit enter the Wuzhong region, Ningxia to "support the left" of being "too soft" and "unprincipled " in its dealings with local. the PLA should resolutely support the local " leftists" and "if necessary provide them with arms for self-defense."


at five on Agust 28, 1967 PLA open fire on civilians, killed more than 400, Kang defend himself by saying that resolution of the Qingtongxia issue had been endorsed by Mao and Lin. a post-cultural revolution official inquiry determined that the PLA shot dead 101 and wounded 133.




On July 9, 1967, Mao addressed a gathering of senior PLA officers, " don't be afraid of people making trouble, the bigger the trouble gets, the longer it lasts, the better. " 206 According to Lin Biao, the Mao "reads all the reports and all the telegrams from below very carefully and has a very clear understanding of the situation at the lower levels. he reads the all himself. " 206






In Hangzhou, Zhejiang air force and navy supported the red storm provisional headquarters. rebels armed themselves with weapons and 1.27million rounds of ammunition.  


in Wenzhou, on August 13, two PLA units mistaking each other for the rebels and their local military allies opened fire on each other, killing seven people.


In Chongqing on one occasion alone, involved close to 10000 combatants employing virtually every kind of conventional weapon available and resulted in the death or wounding of close to 1000, and the destruction of vast amounts of state property.


in Hunan, Lianuan Steel Plant had to be suspended in July for six weeks because of factional fighting that led to six death, and 68 wounded.


In Daqing oilfields, workers looted the local printing plant and railway station.


Anshan Iron and Steel Plant were imposed military control by the central authority in August.


In Shanghai diesel engine Plant a battle between two popular factions resulted in 18 dead and 983 wounded, with 121 suffering permanent injuries.  even under these chaotic conditions, bureaucracy still ruled.  beginning in June, armed struggles in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangxi, and Sichuan had become so serious that people began to flee to Shanghai.  In Beijing, the official figure compiled in May stated that during the ten days from April 30 to May 9, no less than 133 "armed struggles" occurred, involving 60000 and 70000 people, of whom 1400 wounded. by the end of June, officially estimated that thousands of " armed struggles" had occurred since the formation of the revolutionary committee. In Changchun, Jilin exploded two " radioactive self-defense bombs on 1:15 am and 12:35 pm on August 6, 1967.


In August 1967, Wei Guoqing had been beaten bloody and semiconscious by a mob of some 200 Guangxi rebels, who traveled all the way to Beijing.  Guangxi April 22 revolutionary action command, support of a PLA main force unit responsible to Beijing. and Guangxi United command of Proletarian revolutionaries, loyal to Wei, and supported by local PLA. when the main force transferred out of Guangxi in spring 1968, Nanning city was ablaze. 166 boats were sunk, 3600 tons of cargo destroyed, a dozen of buildings razed to the ground. on July 31, 7 company from Guangdong MR and Nanning military joined the United command in the second battle with April 22, in downtown, 60 million was destroyed and more than 50000 people left homeless. close 10000 survivors and supporters of April 22 were taken the prisoner, of whom 2324 were later executed.


In the spring of 1973, a 41 years old engineer at the Chengdu Institute of telecommunications a CCP member of 20 years named Tu Deyong, mailed copies of his "ten indictments against the great cultural revolution to a number of universities and revolutionary committees in different parts of China. arrested in 1975, on May 23, 1976 Tu was sentenced to life in prison.


In late October 1974, Shi Yunfeng, 26 years old worker in Changchun...more than 6600 specially assigned members of local security personnel, he was executed as an "active counterrevolutionary on December 19, 1976, drugged and with his lips sewn together with surgical thread so he would not confuse his executioners by shouting slogans.




the one strike, three anti campaign. the strike referred to a nationwide crackdown on counterrevolutionary destruction activities.


in Yinchuan, Ningxia a dozen or so " sent down university graduates who called themselves the "communist self-study university were arrested at the beginning of 1970 and accused of having engaged in counterrevolutionary" activities while merely pretending to be studying Marxism-Leninism three of them were sentenced to death and executed. on August 29, 1970.


in Beijing, lasted until the end of 1970, 5757 "renegades, special agents, counterrevolutionaries, and other bad elements. 3138 "counterrevolutionary and fairly major criminal cases". and more than 6200 cases of alleged graft, embezzlement, or profiteering.


in most other parts of China including Shanghai, last until 1972 or 1973.  In January in Heilongjiang, 3173 political cases, and 37462 economic cases; In January 1972 in Guangzhou, rack 2168 major cases and identify 147 counterrevolutionary cliques. In Baoding, Hebei, campaign lasted until December 1972, during seven consecutive public sentencing rallies, at which 17 people were executed and another 1325 given punishments. In Shanghai, the campaign began to wind down at the end of 1972. in the rural counties surrounding the city, 64000 people were dragged out and struggled, among these were 520 other than normal deaths.  the only figure made available by the CCP concerns the first ten months of the campaign: the number of people said to have been arrested as counterrevolutionaries and the like by the end of November 1970 exceeded 284800. 307.




Shadian incident in the summer of 1975, violence erupted between a locally organized Muslim Militia regiment and the non-Muslim county administration's militia command. In early 1975, representatives of both sides in the conflict were called to Beijing, where a truce was negotiated. On July 5, signed off on by Mao which gave the PLA the go-ahead to enter Shadian to bring the situation under control if all other attempts to end the now increasingly tense standoff peacefully failed. 21 days fighting, 1600 villagers,including 300 children, elderly and sick attempting to flee had been killed. 388




The cultural revolution is very likely that when people have forgotten about it, it will make a comeback, and people who have never gone crazy will go crazy, and people who have never been oppressed will oppress or be oppressed. this is because madness has existed since the birth of humanity, and it is simply a question of when it will flare up again. (Gao Xingjian, One Man's Bible pages 195)


1966年9月5日,“中央文革小组”发出了一期“简报”,标题是“红卫兵半个月来战果累累”。简报说,到8月底止北京市有上千人被打死。简报的标题打死上千人被当做红卫兵的“战果”受到赞扬。6月中下旬,很多学校里出现了殴打校长和教员的情况。
   
    1966年6月18日,北京大学数十名教员和干部遭到游街、戴高帽子、撕破衣服、在脸上抹黑墨、罚跪和扭打等等。两天后,当时的国家主席刘少奇做出批示要求制止这种“乱斗”(不是说“不斗”)。后来他被指责为把文革搞得“冷冷清清”。7月26日,江青在北京大学的万人集会上宣布6月18日事件是“革命事件”。自此,暴力殴打“阶级敌人”(当时称此为“武斗”)立即开始流行。
   
    北京大学附中成为北京市最早对学校的领导干部和老师进行野蛮殴打的地方。副校长、化学老师刘美德(女)被剃了“阴阳头”(剪去半边头发),被强迫在操场上爬行。还有红卫兵把脏东西塞进她的嘴里。有一天她被拉上一张方桌跪下,一个红卫兵站在她身后,把一只脚踩在她背上,由一名记者照相以后,那个红卫兵把她从桌子上踢了下来。当时刘美德怀孕已经很明显。她的孩子生下不久就死了。红卫兵还用塑料包裹的铁条打她和其他老师。8月1日,毛泽东写信向清华附中“红卫兵”和北大附中“红旗战斗小组”表示“热烈的支持”。


在北京,第一个被打死的教育工作者,是北京师范大学附属女子中学(今实验中学)的副校长卞仲耘。时间是1966年8月5日午后。同时被毒打的还有该校副校长胡志涛,刘致平,教导主任梅树民,汪玉冰。在长达三、四个小时的殴打和折磨中,包括用带钉子的木棒打和用开水烫等残酷手段。卞仲耘死亡,她的身上遍布青紫,还有几十处血窟窿。另外四人也受到了骨折等重伤。在北京第二个被打死的,是北京101中学的美术教员陈葆昆。时间是8月17日。一起被打的还有该校十多名教员及领导干部。他们被强迫在煤渣铺的校园小路上用四肢爬行,双手和膝盖鲜血淋漓。




1966年8月18日,北京师范大学附属女子中学红卫兵领导人宋彬彬给毛泽东戴上了红卫兵袖章。毛泽东问了她的名字后,发表评论说“要武嘛”。会后,《光明日报》《人民日报》发表了《我给毛主席戴上了红袖章》一文,文中注明宋彬彬已经改名为“宋要武”。这个学校的红卫兵还把学校的名字改成了“红色要武中学”。
   
    北京大学附中是北京最早开始大规模暴力行为的学校之一,北京师范大学附属女子中学是北京第一个打死人的学校。彭小蒙和宋彬彬在8月18日大会上的瞩目位置,其中包含的旨意十分清楚。8月18日大会前,在北京被红卫兵打死的教育工作者有二人。8月18日会后,被打死的人的数字急剧增长,红卫兵暴力在规模上和程度上全面升级,以致到了8月底,有上千北京和平居民被红卫兵打死。8月19日,第八中学的副校长温寒江,脖子上套着一根绳子,从两公里外的学校一路跑到中山公园去,绳子的另一端牵在一个骑自行车的红卫兵手里。他被打得浑身是血,昏厥过去。教育局长孙国梁被打断三根肋骨。其他人被打得头大如斗,面目全非。




8月19日晚,北京外国语学院附中(在和平门)红卫兵打死了教员张辅仁和张福臻。为了试验他们是否已经死亡,红卫兵先用冷水浇,又用开水烫,看到尸体全无反应才罢手。该校当时有二百名教职员。该校红卫兵负责人在大会上声称这是“杀二儆二百”。北京第三女子中学(后改名为159中学)的红卫兵从8月19日开始连续殴打和折磨校长沙坪。在学校西小院里,红卫兵用皮鞭和捆着带钉子的木棍等,拷打沙坪到深夜。20日上午,奄奄一息的沙坪被拖到学校中院,在有全校师生参加的“斗争会”上,在一千六百多人面前,被殴打至死。“劳改队”中的十多名教师和干部也跪在沙坪旁边一起被“斗争”。红卫兵不断揪沙坪的头发令她抬起头来,她的头发被薅下来。散会后,中院地上有一堆头发;旁边还有一摊血迹,是校长熊易华的。她跪在沙坪旁边,头上压了三或四块砖头,额头被打破。数学教师张梅岩(女)被抄家后服毒身亡。体育教员何世瑾(女)自杀。




北京宣武区梁家园小学校长王庆萍,在8月19日遭到“斗争”和毒打后被关在学校。她在20日早晨坠楼身亡。她被宣布是“自杀”,虽然没有遗书。她有三个孩子,当时8岁9岁11岁。8月22日,在北京第八中学,学校负责人华锦(女)被打死。副校长化学老师韩九芳(女)背上被打出两个大洞,引起败血症。她的家人设法救活了她,但是留下严重后遗症,终身致残。历史老师申先哲被打后自杀。
8月24日,北京第十一中学的红卫兵到该校化学教师唐婉森(女)家搜翻,用木棍把她打死。8月26日上午,红卫兵先把一批老教师剪了“阴阳头”,接着在操场上架起火来焚烧学校图书馆的大堆藏书。他们强迫一批教职员围绕火堆跪下,举起胳膊伸向火堆,广播喇叭里大叫“不许后退”,以致他们的手臂都被烤出大水泡。女校长林瑾被红卫兵推到火堆上,整个手臂被烧伤,40年后伤痕犹在。该校图书馆员沈世敏(女)被剪了头发并在火堆边被烧伤,到医院被拒绝治疗,当晚在家中上吊自杀。数学教师杜兆南被指为“逃亡地主”遣返回乡,卧轨自杀。语文老师王景清跳楼。数学老师李泮请和妻子一起在家中上吊。校医霍岐服安眠药身亡。工友林士慧和陈玉和服毒。这个学校有八人被害。
   
    8月25日,北京师范大学附属第二中学红卫兵在校中打死了三个人:靳正宇,语文教员;姜培良,党支部书记;樊希曼(女),学生曹滨海的母亲。校长高云被命令站在毒日头下,额头上被扎了一排图钉,还被用沸水浇。
   
    9月8日,在北京第二十五中学,语文教师陈沅芷(女)在关押中被打死。除了打她,红卫兵还把她推到架起来的两张桌子上面“斗争”,然后把叠起来的桌子推翻,让陈沅芷摔下来。这个学校的红卫兵还打死了一名校工。
   
    在北京第五十二中学,语文教师郑兆南(女)被关押在学校,饱受殴打和各种折磨。她死于1966年9月8日,时年36岁。


在北京师范学院附属中学,喻瑞芬(女),一名生物教师,在教师办公室里被击倒在地并被毒打。接着,在光天化日之下,她被倒提两腿拖出楼门,她的头在水泥台阶上磕击碰撞。一桶沸水浇在她的身上。在楼门口的空地上她继续遭到殴打和折磨。两个小时后她死去了。打人者还不满足。他们强迫所有在“牛鬼蛇神队”中的老师围绕喻瑞芬的尸体站成一圈,轮流打她的尸体。
   
    在北京景山学校,传达室的工友李锦坡被打死。
   
    位于北京宣武区的白纸坊中学(文革中改名为138中学)负责人张冰洁(女)被打死。她恳求红卫兵学生:“我有错误,请你们批判。请不要打我。”但是红卫兵继续用沾了水的麻绳和铜头皮带打她,把她打死。
   
    在北京外国语学校,工友刘桂兰(女)在学校礼堂被红卫兵学生打死。教导主任姚淑嬉(女)被剃了头发,被“斗争”和殴打。红卫兵把她和别的老师的头塞进翻转过来的小方凳的四条腿之间,殴打他们。她住在校内,一天晚上来了五拨学生打她。刘桂兰被打死后,红卫兵强迫姚淑嬉和学校“劳改队”中的其他干部及老师抬她的尸体。一位老师说,她和姚淑嬉被强迫各抬刘桂兰的一只脚,当时她真觉得怕极了。姚淑嬉在学校办公楼三楼厕所的下水道拐脖上套了一根绳子上吊自杀。
   
    在中国人民大学附属中学,教员杨俊被打死,教员郑之万(女)跳楼自杀。
   
    在北京朝阳区的第四女子中学(现名陈经纶中学),生物教师齐惠芹(女)被毒打致死。这个中学的校长潘基(女),被打得几乎死去。
   
    在北京第十女子中学(文革中改名为157中学),教员孙迪在校中被打死。校长陶浩(女),手被打骨折,成残疾。
北京第四十九中学语文老师郑育秋(女),由于“家庭出身不好”被红卫兵打伤,全身肿烂,抬到第四医院(现恢复旧名叫普仁医院)。医院拒诊。她死在走廊石板地上。
   
    马耀琮,北京南苑红星中学地理教师,8月间被红卫兵打死在校园中。
   
    北京还有一大批中学教育工作者在遭到残酷殴打和侮辱后自杀。高万春是北京第二十六中学的校长。1966年8月25日,该校红卫兵在校中“斗争”了46名教师。高万春被五花大绑,跪在铺有碎石的凳子上。他几次被打翻在地又被拉上凳子再打。高万春在这样的“斗争”之后“自杀”,时年42岁。这个学校同时期还有一名老教师跳楼,幸而未死,摔断了腿。1966年6月7日执掌该校的“工作组”组长李淑铮(女)在“工作组”被下令撤出后也遭到残酷“斗争”,她喝剧毒杀虫剂自杀,幸而及时被送进医院没有死。李培英(女),北京社会路中学副校长,被打并被关在学校中。她浑身被打得血肉模糊,8月27日在关押她的房间的暖气管子上吊死。彭鸿宣,北京工业学院附属中学校长,被打被关,自杀。萧静(女),北京月坛中学校长,她在被毒打后跳烟囱自杀。北京第二女子中学的体育教员曹天翔和语文教员董尧成(女),被殴打侮辱后,跳楼自杀。北京第65中学的化学教员靳桓跳楼自杀。汪含英(女)是北京第四中学的地理教师,被剃了“阴阳头”,她的丈夫苏庭伍是数学教员,当时借调在北京第一女子中学,在被“斗争”、抄家和“遣返”即驱逐出家后,他们夫妇一起在北京的香山服杀虫剂“敌敌畏”身亡。北京第一女子中学的校工马铁山上吊身亡,英语老师傅敏投水未死。白京武,北京第四十七中学美术老师,在该校“劳改队”中遭到毒打后,投河身亡。北京第三中学的语文教师石之琮(女)在龙潭湖投水身亡。北京矿业学院附属中学语文教员朱鸿志遭到毒打后被关在学校教学楼里,夜里在楼外小树林中上吊身亡。房山县房山中学的校长王哲在饱受折磨后“自杀”。王哲死后,红卫兵强迫该校其他“牛鬼蛇神”跪在王哲的尸体前面,一起被“斗争”。北京通县第一中学负责人程珉遭到残酷“斗争”后被逼“自杀”。北京航空学院附属中学一位生物老师割破动脉自杀,姓高,名不详。北京第二中学一级数学教师路彦被驱逐到农村后死亡,地理教师袁之俊和电工师傅许殿举自杀身亡。
在北京第十一女子中学(文革中改名为165中学),体育教员哈庆慈(女)遭到红卫兵“斗争”和毒打后,在该校后排楼的四楼跳楼身亡。和她一起遭到残酷折磨的有女校长张燕筹和女教师邓婉瑚等人。该校还有一名男性工友在同一时期遭到折磨后跳楼。清华园中学的校长项凯被关押在校中,被打得死去活来。该校教军体知识的老师李凯从学校的教学楼上跳下来身亡。
   
    在北京第十九中学,高中语文老师宋继瑞(女),看到别的老师被剃阴阳头,她在宿舍里用绳子把自己勒死,死时三十多岁。初中化学老师阎凤卿(女),父辈几代开照相馆(颐和园照相馆),有很多老照片,被认为是“封资修”的东西,被抄家,她被关在学校教学楼一楼楼梯下的小间里,那里黑不见光,顶是斜的直不起腰,原来用来放扫帚簸箕之类。她在那里把自己勒死。死时只有二十多岁。
   
    退休教师也被打。贺定华(女),66岁,退休小学教员,住在北京安定门外六铺炕地兴居40号中国农业机械化研究院宿舍北楼二楼。1966年8月27日被外馆中学的红卫兵打死。她头发被剪掉,浑身青紫,头颈上有一道很长的刀痕。她的丈夫姚剑鸣同时被毒打未死,被驱逐到安徽宿松县梅墩乡,1968年7月上吊身亡。
   
    北京第三十中学校长王生琯,被红卫兵学生殴打以后,又被从楼梯上推下来导致死亡。这个学校的中共支部书记孙树荣的眼睛被打瞎一只。北京翠微路中学校长黄国英,被打瞎一只眼睛。北京第三十一中学的党支部书记宋克被毒打和关押后在8月30日服大量安眠药自杀,侥幸未死。北京回民中学校长李玲善被长期残酷“批斗”后精神失常,却被说成是“装疯卖傻”。他在七十年代走失,不知身亡何处。北京航空学院附属中学校长安丰均遭到多次毒打,被打断了三根肋骨。
   
    在北京的大学和小学,也发生了大量暴力行动,总的来说不如中学残酷,但也极其严重。
   
    1966年8月24日下午,清华大学附属中学的红卫兵派卡车从12所中学运送红卫兵到清华大学(据一名附中红卫兵领导人说是清华大学红卫兵要他们做的),在那里他们殴打了清华大学的学校领导人和教授们,还抄了一些人的家。清华大学红卫兵也动手一起打人。




北京师范大学副教授何万福被“斗争”后,8月13日身带遗书在龙潭湖投湖身亡。8月28日,中文系老教授刘盼遂和他的妻子梁秋色(家庭妇女)在市区西单附近自己家中被红卫兵打死。中文系教授叶苍岑和妻子在该校位于市中心西单的教工宿舍内遭到红卫兵毒打,他的妻子被打死。
   
    北京铁道学院(现北方交通大学)俄语教授张剑飞,家住铁道学院教师宿舍54区二楼,8月27日晚7点钟被铁道学院红卫兵从家中抓走,和另外10名教授一起被毒打到夜里12点,然后被送去海淀公安局关押。他肋骨折断,大量尿血,呼吸困难,在9月5日死亡。在这种恐怖中,该校一名教授和妻子孙启坤(退休会计)逃出学校。8月27日孙启坤逃到城中人民大会堂西侧南文昌胡同六号弟弟孙菊生家中时,在那里被中学红卫兵打死。
   
    北京戏剧学校校长江枫(女)在学校遭到“斗争”,被殴打和侮辱,回到家中又遭14岁的养女殴打后“自杀”身亡。戏剧学校教员、京剧演员叶盛章遭红卫兵毒打,8月30日在北京东便门护城河投河,9月3日发现了他的尸体。
    小学教员也遭到侮辱和毒打。8月24日,北京崇文区西花市大街小学教员鄂少琪(女)被“揭发”有“对党和社会主义不满言论”后跳河身亡;永定门小学教员冯杰民被红卫兵“批斗”后用剪刀自杀。北京中古友谊小学的教导主任赵谦光,在被侮辱殴打后从烟囱上跳下身亡。该校校长白智(女),被学生按了一脑袋的图钉。赵香蘅(女),北京史家胡同小学校长,遭到“斗争”殴打,和丈夫沙英一起跳楼身亡。北京芳草地小学校长石子勤,遭到殴打侮辱后,用剪刀戳自己的脑子自戕,幸而没死。在北京第一实验小学,王启贤老师被强迫跪在地上,吃煤渣。在玉泉路小学,有四名女教师被学生红卫兵剃了“阴阳头”。
   
    8月27日,北京宽街小学的校长郭文玉(女)和教导主任吕贞先(女)在同一天内被打死。郭文玉的丈夫孟昭江也遭毒打,两天后死亡。邱庆玉(女),北京吉祥胡同小学副校长,在1966年10月1日被打死。
   
    校园暴力发生在全国各地。在多年的调查中,迄今还没有发现有一所学校没有发生暴力迫害。家庭出身是“黑五类”的学生也遭到他们的红卫兵同学的侮辱甚至毒打。红卫兵狂热奉行一副“对联”:老子英雄儿好汉,老子反动儿混蛋。1966年8月这一“对联”贴遍各处:学校大门、教室门、黑板、板报栏两侧,无处不在。这副对联最早出现于北京大学附属中学,后来流布全国。8月26日晚,清华附中红卫兵暴打了高三的四名“家庭出身不好”的学生,还命令他们各写100副“对联”,贴到各处。
他们被命令逐个“坦白交代”他们的“反动思想”以及他们的父母的“罪行”,还必须重复说三遍“我是狗崽子。我混蛋。我该死。”红卫兵用拳头打她们,把墨汁泼在她们身上。该校学生排球队长杨友丽,因为球队得过全国冠军后受过校长接见以及她父亲是所谓“托洛茨基分子”,遭到“斗争”和侮辱。她服安眠药自杀,幸而未死,但身心受到严重摧残。
   
    在北京一零一中学,红卫兵把校门分成一大一小两个,命令“黑五类子弟”出入只许走小门,并称小门为“狗洞”。初三女学生吴芳芳,父亲是北京航空学院教授吴礼义,当时被当做“家庭出身不好”。红卫兵指控她撕了一张毛泽东纸像。(实际情况是一张毛泽东纸像被风吹落,她正好路过拣了起来。)吴芳芳遭到“斗争”和毒打,红卫兵还把她和上文写到的被打死的美术教员陈葆坤关在一起。她因此精神失常,不清楚人事,不能独立生活,始终由她的母亲照料。
   
    在北京大学附属中学,很多所谓“家庭出身坏”的学生被打耳光被侮辱等等。初一学生万红,父亲在1957年被划成“右派分子”。与她同班的男生红卫兵要打她,她逃入女厕所,红卫兵从厕所拉出来。他们强迫她站在教室里的一把椅子上,用铜头皮带打她。打的过程中还有红卫兵把椅子从她脚下突然抽走,使她摔到水泥地上。晚上不准她回宿舍睡觉,把她关在露天阳台上淋雨。朱同是高三学生,他的父亲是“右派分子”,父母已经离婚,他也改用了母姓,而母亲不是“右派分子”。但是他仍然被当做“狗崽子”折磨。他被关在地上积水的小楼梯间内像动物一样被全校学生“观赏”。有一天晚上下大雨,他逃出了学校,爬着回到家中,因为他被严重打伤已经不能走路。
   
    在清华大学附属中学,有相当数量的“家庭出身坏”的学生被打被欺负,他们的私人物件被捣毁。多名女学生被剃了“阴阳头”。杨爱伦,高一学生,文革前功课和文艺活动都好,“家庭出身不好”。她在班里遭到“斗争”,站在教室前面被推来攘去,被强迫写“交代”,还被关押在学校中不准自由行动。一星期后,8月8日,她逃出学校到附近卧轨自杀,被火车撞成重伤,幸而未死。高二学生郭兰蕙,父亲在1957年被划为“右派分子”。1966年8月20日是星期六,在红卫兵宣布下个星期一要“开会帮助”实际上是要“斗争”她后,她服毒身亡。
   
    在西城区太平桥中学,红卫兵打死了一名初三的不属“红五类出身”的女学生。这个十五岁的女孩子仅仅因为说了一句“毛主席也不是红五类出身”,遭到红卫兵同学用铜头皮带和棍棒殴打。从下午打到傍晚,红卫兵回家吃晚饭了。她挣扎着爬到一个水龙头边喝了很多水后死亡。她的母亲被通知来校中领死尸,未敢表现出一点怨恨和抵触。
   
    在离北京市中心王府井大街不远的第27中学,一名初中学生被指控把那时必须随身携带的红色塑料封皮的《毛主席语录》本坐在身子底下。红卫兵在初二教室里毒打她。她被打得昏死过去以后,红卫兵说她“装死”,拿碎玻璃往她眼睛里揉。她苏醒过来,继续被打。傍晚时分她被打死。她的尸体被用草席子卷起来运走烧掉了。问到当时的目击者,他们都记得当时的情景,却没有人记得这个女学生的姓名。
   
    在中国人民大学附中,“家庭出身不好”的高二学生宁志平被说成“反动学生”。他被关押在学校里,他的一只耳朵被红卫兵割掉。他到医院把耳朵缝了上去。但是几天以后再次遭到红卫兵毒打,刚缝上去的耳朵被打落。他永远失去了他的耳朵。
   
    1966年8月25日,曹滨海,北京师范大学附属第二中学高三的学生,和前来他家抄家的同班的红卫兵发生争执。据说他拿菜刀砍伤了一个红卫兵同学。结果,曹滨海被公安局关起来,曹的母亲樊希曼在那天被红卫兵抓到学校中活活打死。曹滨海因此精神失常,以后从未恢复正常。
   
    在北京第十三中学,学生任春林“家庭出身不好”,他喜欢书法,在旧的《红旗》杂志上练习毛笔字,被该校红卫兵学生发现在毛泽东的名字上写了“墓”字。红卫兵抄了他的家,把一条铁链拴在他的脖子上,强迫他从家里像狗一样爬到学校的“红色刑讯室”中。他被关押在那里并且被多次毒打。那个“红色刑讯室”中关押着该校的校长和一批教员,还有一个所谓“黑五类子弟”、初中三年级学生武素鹏。红卫兵把武素鹏捆在一条麻袋里,用民兵训练用的木枪狠打,把他活活打死。
   
    在北京第六中学,高三学生王光华出生于“小业主”家庭,他未得到红卫兵的准许就去外地“革命串联”。他在1966年9月27日回到北京,立即就被抓进学校的监狱之中。他在那儿被十多个红卫兵几次毒打。王光华死于第二天,9月28日,时年19岁。红卫兵命令几个在这个监狱中被关了一个多月的老师把他的尸体抬出了监狱,放进火葬场的运尸车。
   
    由于“红卫兵”组织拥有如此地位,“冒充红卫兵”当时成为大罪名,竟然可以被当做打死人的“理由”。北京师范学院附属中学的红卫兵打死了该校数学教师田钦的弟弟田悦,123中学的学生,他被指控为“冒充红卫兵”。
    红卫兵开始到处烧书,烧画,破坏文物,以及开始大规模的抄家行动。红卫兵强迫市民交出他们存有的所有黄金和白银,还在抄家过程中打死了很多所谓“阶级敌人”。北京早已不准“地富反坏”居住,被红卫兵打死的“阶级敌人”中,很多只是房产主。在这种恐怖中,北京的50万间私人房子全部被没收。




8月24号,红卫兵到北京东厂胡同6号居民左庆明家抄家。租住他们房子的马大娘是个家庭服务钟点工。当时左庆明正好外出不在家。看到红卫兵毒打他年已七十的妻子,马大娘到胡同口给左庆明报信叫他不要回家。红卫兵发现后把马大娘和左奶奶一起绑在葡萄架子上毒打。红卫兵还用开水浇烫她们。四周邻居听到他们在惨叫着被折磨死,然后尸体被丢进火葬场的卡车。那天晚上东厂胡同至少有六个居民被打死。死者中还有一人是技术精良的眼镜师孙琢良。他曾经开过一个眼镜店,并有自己的住房。
   
    8月25日,北京第十五女子中学红卫兵查抄崇文区广渠门内大街121号居民李文波家。他住的是自己的房子。他已经在前一天上交了房产证,也就是说放弃所有权。李文波被打死。他的妻子刘文秀被判处死刑,在9月13日被处决。8月26日,被打死人数从两位数跳到了三位数,从不到一百人变为超过一百人。从8月25日到8月26日,被打死人数增加了百分之五十。从8月26日到8月27日,被打死人数又再次加倍。在9月1日,被打死人数达到了最高峰,一天内有228人被打死。
   
    8月28日,红卫兵查抄西城区大红罗厂南巷20号。三小时中红卫兵打死了五口人:北京玻璃陶瓷水泥设计院技术员黄瑞五,他的姐姐黄瑞班,他们的母亲陈玉润,外婆李秀蓉,还有一个年老佣人。除了一岁的小孩子被机警的保姆抱出,其他在家的人都被打死。




     1966年8月下旬,大批被打死的人不标姓名堆在一起被运往火葬场。北京师范大学附属第二中学的校长高云和北京第31中的书记杜光,都是在被红卫兵打昏过去以后就送去了火葬场。火葬场的老工人发现他们还没有死,没有烧他们。他们又回了家。
9月2日中共北京市委发出文件,指出“要用最大努力耐心说服和坚决制止一切打死人的现象”。当时“内部”的统计是,在北京,红卫兵打死了1,772人。




     8月29日,“西城区红卫兵纠察队”发布了“第四号通令”,其中第7条说:“确实查明,并斗争过的黑六类分子,尤其是逃亡地富分子。除现行反革命分子应当依法处置外,其余一律给政治上、生活上的出路,这个出路就是限期(于九月十日前)离开北京(如有特殊情况,经本人所在单位及查抄单位批准,可酌情延长),回原籍劳动,由革命群众监督改造,给他们重新做人的机会。”
这个“通令”在北京全城甚至全国张贴公布。直接后果是北京城中有近十万人口被扫地出门驱逐出北京。这些被驱逐的人有的在火车上就被打死,有的到了农村没有食物没有住房而死亡。
   
    中国有文字记载的历史上,从来没有过这样大规模的由青少年打杀教师和老百姓的事情。在皇帝时代,死刑要经过审理,可以上诉,由专业刽子手执行。文革后有人把文革笼统解释为“封建主义传统”造成的。这种说法不能解释1966年8月发生的红卫兵暴力。
   
    于向真:恐怖的“红八月”详实的记载博讯2016年3月21日 转载作者为中国少年儿童新闻出版总社主任编辑




全國性的武鬥起於67年一月二十六日新疆“石河子事件”,全國武鬥的第一槍。毛澤東號召奪權。新疆生產建設兵團石河子汽車團的造反派要奪權,當權派不服,請部隊派人支援,想用武力解決。雙方交火,死傷百餘人。軍隊大獲全勝。全國在單次武鬥中傷亡最大的是四川瀘州。一仗打死兩千餘人,另有八千多人殘廢。江青說“四川武打全國出名了,重慶打得稀爛,陣線就比較清楚了。好得很!”


雲南軍隊圍剿名為滇西挺進隊的群眾組織,用機槍掃射,二十分鐘後將該組織數千人屠殺殆盡。虐殺戰俘也是武鬥死人的一大因素。河北雄縣由三十八軍支持的一派動用大炮攻克對方據點後,將俘虜都用鐵絲串起;男的穿肩胛骨,女的從肛門穿進、陰戶穿出,遊街之後,全部槍殺。陝西安康縣濫殺俘虜286人,自殺20人。亂打濫殺包括矛戮、刀砍、石砸、槍打、絞死,還有讓被殺者背炸藥包、手榴彈炸死,甚至一次活埋了十三人。山西長治劉格平派在中央的壓力下交出武器後,成了對方肆虐報復的對象。據後來去採訪的作家趙瑜所記:其復仇面積之大、手段之狠,都是空前絕後,不忍贅述的。凡是古代用過的酷刑,這裡全用上了。


趙健民案一萬七千餘人冤死.1969年1月,康生指控雲南省委書記趙健抿是叛徒國民黨特務,下令公安部長謝富治當場逮捕。整個雲南便開始抓“趙健民國民黨雲南特務組”分子。僅此一案,雲南138萬人被牽連,17000餘人被打死、61000多人被打殘。僅昆明就打死了1473人,打殘9661人。一時間,昆明街頭上貼滿了‘槍斃’的布告。有的人被活活打死,補上告示了事。


冀東李楚離案三千人死於非命. 中央組織部副部長李楚離曾擔任冀東黨的領導人,領導過冀東大暴動。李被打成叛徒後,冀東黨組織也成了“國民黨”組織。這是文革中的又一件大案,八萬多人受株連,三千人死於非命。


一打三反大殺政治犯
陝西安康縣農民易道均,因住房窄小、陰暗無光,無法張貼毛澤東標準像;小孩呼喊“毛主席萬歲”說了一句“哪裡能活一萬歲”,成“現行反革命”,被縣軍管會判處死刑,於一九七○年六月槍決。副縣長雷雲祺、縣政協常委張開印、屬一九四九年起義投誠後留用的人員。軍管會以“反革命”罪將他們槍決。該縣“一打三反”中拘捕二五四人,槍決一十七人,判刑十二人,戴“反革命”帽子二十五人,二十人自殺身亡。
一九七○年八月的一天,人口僅三十萬的省會銀川市近十萬人擠滿體育場和四周的街道,觀看公判“現反”。這天判決的是以十三名青年學生為成員的反動組織“共產主義自修大學”。因一名女性已在關押期間觸電自殺,其餘十二人,三名“死刑,立即執行”。被槍決者之一的吳述樟年僅二十二歲,最大的罪惡時:曾在《毛主席語錄》“再版前言”的“毛主席的指示,一句頂一萬句”的旁空處,寫過“放屁”二字。
三月二十二日,甘肅省會蘭州的萬人宣判大會結束後,二十多名死刑犯被架上卡車遊街示眾,然後到達軍警密布的形場。被殺者之一是甘肅師範大學歷史系老教授張師亮。因在該系的學術討論會上他曾批評過毛澤東,認為毛澤東的“階級鬥爭,一些階級勝利了,一些階級消滅了,這就是歷史,這就是幾千年的文明史”的說法,不妥當、不全面。
二月十七日,江西省會南昌召開萬人宣判大會,二十二歲的吳曉飛被槍決。他的罪名是曾寫下兩篇論文,說文化革命“是一件反常的政治事件”,“人民不管從政治上和經濟上說來都得不到一絲好處”;抨擊林彪“神化毛主席”,江青“是文化革命中無政府主義泛濫的根源”,對劉少奇的迫害“不擇手段、不通情理”等等。
由於中央將判處死刑的審批權下放給各省、市,各地利用此機會殺了很多政治犯。三月間,湖南“長沙當局開了兩次大的殺人大會每次處決近百名犯人,其中一半以上是政治犯。”四月的一天,當局又宣布次日將判處六十多名反革命份子死刑。可是,第二天上午九時,有線廣播突然通知,宣判大會取消了。原來,中央發現地方殺人過多,需要有所控制,突然收回了判處死刑的審批權。這樣長沙的一批反革命份子便幸運地由死刑改成了十五年徒刑。
被冤枉的確實大多數是平民百姓。一九七○年十月,廣州軍區令員丁盛聽說海南島白沙縣一名女醫士官朋華在監獄裡還寫文章罵林彪,便親自支持會議,將她判處死刑。臨槍決前怕她呼喊口號,特用一節竹筒塞進她嘴裡,穿上鐵絲扎在腦後。比北方槍斃張志新前割斷喉管稍為文明一點。










您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 注册

本版积分规则


站内文章仅为网友提供更多信息,不代表本网站同意其说法或描述,也不构成任何建议。本网站仅为网友提供交流平台,对网友自由上传的文字和图片等,本网站
不为其版权和内容等负责。站内部分内容转载自其它社区、论坛或各种媒体,有些原作者未知。如您认为站内的某些内容属侵权,请及时与我们联络并进行处理。
关于我们|隐私政策|免责条款|版权声明|网站导航|帮助中心
道至大 道天成

小黑屋|手机版|Archiver|联系我们|天易综合网 (Twitter@wolfaxcom)

GMT-5, 11/20/2017 06:51 , Processed in 0.029470 second(s), 9 queries , Gzip On, Apc On.

Copyright 天易网 network. All Rights Reserved.

© 2009-2015 .

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表