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[国学论道] Why Mao launched the great cultural revolution? draft by Thomas G Guo

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发表于 2/17/2017 16:18:54 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
毛泽东发动文革的真实动机与目的


Why Mao launched the great cultural revolution?
By Thomas G Guo




A spectrum is haunting Europe-the spectra of Communism(218).
The history of all existing society is the history of class struggles(219).
the theory of the Communists may be summed up in the single sentence: Abolition of private property(235)...property is alleged to be the groundwork of all personal freedom, activity and independence.
The ruling ideas of each age have ever been the ideas of its ruling class (241)...the dissolution of the old ideas keeps even pace with the dissolution of the old conditions of existence(242).
Religious, moral, philosophical and juridical ideas have been modified in the course of historical development. But religion morality, philosophy, political science, and law, constantly survived this change. There are eternal truths, such freedom, justice, etc., that are common to all states of society. But communism abolishes eternal truths, it abolishes all religion, and all morality, instead of constituting them on a new basis; it, therefore, acts in contradiction to all past historical experience( Marx 242 )


-Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels: The Communist Manifesto Notes by Gareth Stedman Jones, Penguin Books 2002-


why cultural revolution? Mr. Chen Yongmiao alleged that Mao wants to overpass the USA constitutional government! Mr.Chen Erji claimed that Mao wants to transfer power to his wife Jiangqing. Frank believed that because Mr. Liu SHaoqi in 1962 at swimming pool said to Mao " the great leap famine causes eating people, you and I will be written on history books", which trigger Mao to initiate the cultural revolution, with the  purpose to get rid off Liu and his supports, Professor Michael and Roderick put it that Mao wants Chinese to avoid the Soviet Unions revisionary and the cultural revolution is the last effort Mao perpetuate Chinese essence in modern world. The first clearly an utterly nonsense, for Mao almost know nothing about the USA constitutional government, nor he understood the rule of law or democratic spirits. The second might be the last thought of Mao's purpose for CR. The third emphasise on Mao for revenging Liu as his political enemy then took whole China as his hostage, might too simple to convincing. the fourth, only mention one purpose of Mao as so-called prevent restore revisionary. Mao arguments is that the true motivation of Mao to launch the cultural revolution is that Mao believed that he is the greatest Marxism and teacher of the world for developing countries, which promotes him to launch the cultural revolution. It is the dilution to create something unique and great, made him out of mind. the reason is Mao lack sound logical thinking power while Mao has hot poetic crazy which seduces him lost in his own imagination. Revenge or transfer power to Jiang is one result rather than the cause, not the original purpose. for establishing a Constitutional government is simply nonsense, prevent revisionary and best effort to perpetuate Chinese essence, not necessary Mao basically is an ignorant person, he has no ideas what is socialism or communism, nor capitalism or revisionism. so the continuing revolution under the condition of proletariat dictatorship, bring China run into communist first, become the greatest teacher of modern Marxism is his purpose, this is why Mao put so heavy emphasis on the Cultural revolution(451)


Mao launched the great cultural revolution, ordered and encouraged to destroy all old fours; in fact, they are invaluable national treasure, all are concurring by main leaders and party themselves, they are not red guards, but party's order and back up. The black five categories: landlord, the rich peasant, counter-revolutionary (reactionary), hooligan, and rightist; against red five elements: worker, poor and lower middle peasants, soldiers, revolutionary cadre, martyr's relatives. It is the products of class struggle ideology of the party.


Lin Biao In December 1966,in a speech call on young audiences to energetically destroy all the "old ideas, old culture, old customs,and old habits of the exploiting classes. " at the second rally, Lin showered praise on those red guards who during the past two weeks had taken to the streets to sweep away the four olds. Zhou Enlai concurred fully, to salute to the heroism shown by little red guard generals who destroy the four olds, and foster the four news. 114,




In November 1966, around 200 teachers and students from Beijing Normal University led by one Tan Houlan, descended on Qufu and announced their intention to "thoroughly demolish the Confucius family shop. before leaving Beijing, Tan and her comrades had been in touch with the CCRG. Chen Boda had decreed that it was all rights to dig up and level the grave of Confucius, but he cautioned against setting the Confucius Temple and its contents on fire. during four weeks, they managed to destroy 6618 registered cultural artifacts, including 929 paintings, more than 2700 books, 1000 stone steles, and 2000 graves. 119  on august 27, red guards from three Shangdong middle schools destroyed the grave of the cultural hero Wu Xun. exhumed his corpse, walked with it to a nearby public square, held a mass sentencing rally, and finally broke it into pieces and burned it. On Hainan island, the grave of Hai Rui, was also destroyed.




In elementary schools alone in Beijing's six suburban districts, 994 persons had been beaten and struggled between June 1 and 25, 1966. But only after Mao announced that "to rebel is justified" that the red terror really began.In August and September, 1772 people were murdered in Beijing. In Shanghai in September, there were 704 suicides and 534 deaths related to the Cultural revolution. In Wuhan during this period, there were 32 murders and 62 suicide. (124)


Tan Zhenlin announced "if I had known at the beginning that it would come to this, I would never have joined the revolution or joined the Communist party...I should never have followed Mao all those 41 years." Chen Yi told him: "do not go! you must fight!" 193  Chen Yi " once in power, these are the guys practice revisionism. back in Yanan, Liu, Deng, and Peng, as well as Bo, Liu Lantao and An Ziwen, were the most energetic supporters of Mao thought ! they never opposed Mao. they had never even met Mao! we were the ones who had opposed Mao and who were criticized as a result. was not the premier criticized ? did not history prove who opposed Mao?! the future will prove it again. did not Stalin hand over to Khrushchev, who ended up a revisionist? 194
Zhou interrupted Chen Yi saying" that's the very reason we are conducting a great cultural revolution to expose Liu and Deng!




At first, Mao seemed not to take it very seriously and even laughed; it was when he heard about Chen's remarks that his expression suddenly changed. In a last desperate effort , Tan Zhenlin appealed to Lin Biao against the CCRG.  Mao was furious, boiling over with anger. in the early hours of Feb 19, he summoned Zhou, Ye Qun, Kang Sheng, Li Fuchun, Ye Jianying, Li Xiannian and Xie Fuzhi to a meeting of the Politburo. Mao counterattacked: "the CCRG errors amount to 1, 2, maybe 3 percent while it's been correct up to 97 percent. if someone opposes the CCRG, I will resolutely oppose him! you attempt to negate the great cultural revolution, but you shall not succeed! tell Lin Biao that he is not safe either. some are trying to grab his power, he should be prepared. if this great cultural revolution fails, he and I will withdraw from Beijing and go back to the Jinggan mountains to fight a guerrilla war. you said that Jiang Qing and Chen Boda are no good, well, let's ask you, Chen Yi, the head of the CCRG, and arrest Chen and Jiang and have them executed! let us sent Kang Sheng into exile! I shall step down, too, and then you can ask Wang Ming to return to be Chairman. " 196  Chen Boda claimed that they had amounted to an attempted "subversion of the dictatorship of the proletariat".


When Zhou tried to follow up by issuing a nationwide directive down to county and regimental levels, listing a wide variety of protected establishment, Mao vetoed the document. 119. In early September Zhou tried again, the old cadres support him, the cultural revolutionaries did not, and so Zhou dropped the idea.


Deng Xiaoping describing cultural revolution as that would "prevent China from ever changing color and help China avert the danger of revisionism and capitalist restoration." He gives Lin Biao his strongest personal endorsement as Mao's new assistant and successor" and announced that from now on he intended to emulate Lin where is matter the most. He was prepared to speak of what he had done together with Liu in the summer as actually representing a "bourgeois reactionary erroneous line. (138)
reference news report foreign news such as " China's Cultural Revolution Leads to Increased Productivity in Industry and Agriculture"(Toyo Keizai), "Advances in Production Thanks to Great Cultural Revolution" (Neus Deutschland) and "Associated Press Forced to Concede Chinese Economy Made Strides in 1966." (140) Jiang Qing justified that China's factories that "wherever they are revolutionary, production is always doing fine." Lin Biao said that "in principle, the Cultural Revolution should promote production, and in fact this has already been proven to be the case."


The Cultural revolution is one of  the worst of all the Communist party has committed crimes against Chinese, which almost utterly destroy invaluable values, ruin 12 million youths career and future, destroy Chinese traditional culture, raped hundred and thousand million Chinese spirits and soul.


Mao called for a revolution in the cultural field in 1964, senior party cadres of a group of five to carry out his wishes(Macfarquhar 15).Mao had always taken a close interest in class struggle in the cultural sphere(17). Mao was keeping his colleagues in the dark about what he was trying to achieve.(81) Mao on July 22, 1966, said that "who suppresses student movements? only the northern warlords did! ...those who suppress the student movement will come to no good end." ( Long live of Mao thought 1960-1967, p. 126)


The CCRG meetings all were chaired and set the agenda by Zhou Enlai, not by Chen Boda or Jiang Qing.(101) various of his remarks indicate that Mao craved a measure of catalytic terror to jump start the cultural revolution. Mao had no scruples about the taking of human life.(102) Mao in a conversation with trustees later in the CR, Mao suggest that the sign of a true revolutionary was precisely his intense desire to kill: " this man Hitler was even more ferocious. the more ferocious the better, do not you think? the more people you kill, the more revolutionary you are." (102;  seen by author from a very reliable source)


The communist party of China is such a disgust dirty criminal bandit group which forced rape all Chinese people over 66 years! most majorities of the party members are that shameless stupid fool, robber, liars, rapist, bandits, criminals. they are, in fact, political hooligan, thug, rogue, and scum. Mao, Zhou, Deng, Jiang, Hu and Xi in a large sense are scum, suck, Jerk, garbage, disgusting, repulsive, dummy, ugly lying being. To get rid of the CCP regime is the most urgent duty of all Chinese. I firmly believe that the only right way is to wake up all Chinese, through exploit the crimes the CCP had been committing, which explain what we are fighting for: liberal,constitutional government base on the rule of law, human rights, independent judicial, free media, multiple political parties.


Li Jie, a skillful popular writer who can write readable essays, always tried to fool ignorant Chinese, recently he published an essay about CCP and the CR, asserted that Mao against all CCP and the CCP do not equal the dictatorship!  In fact, Mao never really get rid of the CCP during the CR, he only used parts of Party against part of other, through Lin Biao used military, through Xie Fuzhi, used police force, through Kang Sheng used security force to control power, and used ignorant mass to seize power from the hand of Liu's section of party. So Li Jie's argument is misleading readers and nonsense.


Because Kharlushev created his ideological innovation: attack Stalin's cult of personality, revised Leninist doctrine, the war between communist and imperialism is not fatedly inevitable; peaceful, rather revolutionary, transitions to socialism to enable communists to power, all against what Mao's believe. and Mao believed he, rather Kharlushev, will be the qualifying leader of the International communist movement and this is why  Mao initiated cultural revolution. Although he justified his delusion by Marx idea on the communist manifesto. It also explains why Mao openly declared that even if half of population of the world eliminate by nuclear war is deserve for all the world will become communism. at the same time, Mao claimed it is now the East wind to overpass the Western wind. My argument is that it is extremely ignorant plus crazy mad mind caused Mao to initiate the cultural revolution, the purpose is to establish his greatest Marxist and the greatest teacher of the world proletariat revolution.


There are at least two roots of the cultural revolution: one is Karl Marx and F Engels: communist Manifesto, the other is the Atheist ideas. In another word, the cultural revolution is not the created by Mao, but by Marx and Engels, Mao only implemented the idea into practice. The Atheism build Mao as a god without divine religion which made Mao became a fake god who has the limitless power to do anything as his delusion can imagine. In essence, the cultural revolution in China is the logical result of Marxism base upon Mao's extremely ignorant and crazy mad mind. Because Mao believed he is the greatest modern Marxist and the greatest teacher of oppressed people's proletariat revolution of the world. He wanted to overpass Marx and proved that he is the Boss of the international proletariat revolution, and this is the genuine roots of the great proletarian cultural revolution.




The purpose of the Cultural Revolution, one is Mao's personal revenge for wiping out Liu, because Mao wants to re-seize power, the second is the communism ideology to destroy all traditional ideas, values, religions, morality and create a new communist society and human being. It can only grow up in the soil where are rich stupid foolish people, where in China after 17 years forced brainwashing and spirits raping, had produced a huge number of such stupid fools. The Most majority Chinese become no brain, extremely ignorant, no independent thoughts, no critical and analytic nor logical thinking ability, and easily fooled by the authority. The Cultural Revolution's horrible result are utterly destroyed Chinese traditional culture, morality, faith, values, and lifestyle. Ruin 16 million young students bright future and career, in essence,  their life. Destroy numberless invaluable national cultural treasures.  Caused huge economic loss. Led millions of people died for nothing. Turn Chinese civilization into cruel animal survive...


As to the precondition must be the totalitarian dictatorship political system which forbidden any dissident or different ideas opinions, openly criticize, debate, discuss, negotiation and compromise. When the CCP seize the power, it immediately killed million GMT government officers, military, and landlords, then seize the property of production of capitalists, and landlords land; following take back peasants land through forced collective commune, eliminate non-party educations by anti-rights movement, destroy dissidents voice through counter-righteous of Peng Dehuai in 1959, 10 million party member and local cadres were eliminated. The Great leap forward led the greatest famine during 1958 to 1962. soon after recovered the disaster of the Great famine, Mao claim "never forget class struggle".  restore the collective commune system and forced socialism educational movement in the countryside which turns into four clean campaign Communist want to eliminate all old traditional religions and morality. They want to create a brand new society and new mankind. Thus, the old ideology all must be eliminated. a Russian revolutionary even openly declared all those over 25 years old Russian should be killed for all of them were corrupted and rotten by the old society. In Red Gaomian Pol Pot, order clean empty the capital city which has more than one million citizens within one week and eliminated money, educated people, trust only kid soldiers. destroy class once for all. When Mao met with Pol Pot, he praises him did a great job, for eliminating class! In fact, Pol Pot believes himself is a great genie and even do not respect Mao at all, he ordered to kill one leader who is pro-China simply because he admires Mao and Pol Pot said, "how dare he said that Mao is the great teacher"!


Since the CCP seized the power in 1949 through illegal violence, it has been force raping Chinese free will and spirits and poisoned Chinese mind and soul, and this is why 17 years later, the cultural revolution can appear in China, the formal political campaigns one after another all prepared for such a foolish and ridicule campaign which last ten years.


The cultural revolution eliminated four olds: Old thoughts, old religions, old customs, and old ideas, which clearly come from Marx and Engels in 1848 in their communist manifesto. Marx declared that Communist want to eliminate freedom and justice. If barely struggle for power, sound not elegant and Mao has lost lots support within party and government; thus, he used ignorant mass, whose loyalty as the result of years cult of personality brainwashing: stupid foolish billion Chinese.Prevent China turn into a revisionary country and restore capitalist and the main target are capitalist roader in powers, is not the roots of  the cultural revolution but one result and excuse as revenge Liu and Deng to correct the big errors of the great leap forward.


One of the great problems of the CCP, is its nature of hooliganism, that disrespect any law, principles, reason, and justice. all rely on violence and terror as well as deceit. when nowhere can argue or discuss or debate, the only way is the violent and bloody struggle either for power or rights. The violence struggle during the cultural revolution is encouraged by Mao directly: "the more ferocious, the better, do not you think? the more people you kill, the more revolutionary you are" Mao told his inner trusties. He justifies the rights of rebellion. Mao did not scruple on human life, he wants to create great disorder, in order to catch the chance to reshape his new power.


On August 22, on Tiananmen square Mao change Song Binbin's name as be martial, Lin Biao calls students destroy the four olds, ignite the fire of destroying, which led the greatest disaster to Chinese culture.communist leaders easily turn into mental disease and become self-praise too much, they want to become the greatest Marxist in their time. so they desire to be the favor and the best way is through do something overpass Marx, provided such a leader did not have real wisdom and knowledge, but extremely self-praise to the God status, such disaster could not avoid. Mao, Pol Pot, and Golsman, etc. All are same in nature.


Beijing is too civilized!" Mao declared at a post plenum work conference of central leaders. "I would say there is not a great deal of disorder...and that the number of hooligans is very small. now is not the time to interfere." (long live of Mao thought p. 269 ) Mao shows his support of June 18 incident as was "not a counterrevolutionary incident, but a revolutionary incident". ( long live of Mao thought p. 262) a red terror spread through the capital. 103


The clean class ranks are organized by the revolutionary committee, the CCP center official, massive murder happen in this period, massive murder, torture, killing, in the name of revolution. the CCP had committed heinous crimes of murders. It is killing the chicken to scare the monkey.The Communists disregard human life, they lust for blood, love killing instead of respect others will and choose. during the cultural revolution, one after another serious crime committed by the CCP, shock all provided revealed all true facts. "516" counterrevolution ten million were persecuted with 3.3 million arrested, while in the "cleaning the class ranks, at least 36million were persecuted while 750000 to 1.5 million killed, another 1.5 million serious main or permanent wounds(Macfarquhar 2006:256-257). These crimes which In Chinese scholars' works never revealed before.


cleansing the Class ranks.  in power with an opportunity to get rid of opponents, in the name of getting rid of bad people inside your own ranks.  three checks, in Daqing oilfield, had been fifteen suicides between January and April 1968, and no less than 36 in May and June. to kill the chicken in order to scare the monkey.  


in Jilin, the cleansing of the class ranks led to the "death from unnatural causes of 2127 and permanent injury of 3459 cadres. 257. among the broad masses the number of those who were either killed or permanently injured was even larger. In Heilongjiang, official post cultural revolution account, result in "very large numbers of deaths from unnatural causes, and tens of thousands of people being seriously maimed both physically and mentally. An official history of a county on the Soviet border notes that local authorities at the time applied 33 different forms, and 290 variants of torture" to 539 suspects and that this reslted in the death of 76 and maiming of 192. in another county some 2125 suspects were arrested and of these 38 were persecuted to deth, 2 were maimed and 7 suffered permanent wounds from torture. 257  In inner Mongolia,  New Inner Mongollian People's Party, three big unjust cases totaled 790000. of these 22900 died and 120000 were maimed.


in Hebei, more than 84000 people were persecuted on suspicion f being members of an underground KMT network: tortured during interrogation, 1955 of them died, and 763 suffered permannet disabilities. In Yunnan, according to the RC cleansing the class ranks office in August 1969, 448000 people were targeted in the province. of these some 15000 were cleaned, and a staggering 6979 died, all of them by "death from enforced suicide". In Beijing, the cleansing class ranks result deaths of 3731, between January 1968 and May 1969, more than 94 percent of the deaths again registered as "suicides ". In Zhejiang, an estimated 100000 people were arrested, detained, dragged out, and struggled. in the course of the movement and a total of 9198 officially "hounded to death".


In Binyang county, Guangxi, 3681 most villiage residents were summarily executed and thrown into mass graves in one ten day period in the summer of 1968. publicly acknowledged by senior party historians writing about these events : counterrevolutionaries were beaten to death and in the most beastly fashion had their flesh and liver consumed by their killers. 259.
the most notorious cases of CR cannibalism occured in Wu county Guangxi, the systematic killing and cannibalization of individuals in the name of political revolution and class struggle. less known is the case of Qiaojia county in Yunnan, where Peasant sentencing rally on June 10, 1968, the farmer Zhou Mingtai ws sentenced to death and promptly executed, his heart was cut out and made public display, his skull was opened and revoved his brain, as well his tongue, his penis and tsticles was boiled and eaten. 259. in Beijing university, out of 10000 students and staff, 900 arrested by the PLA 63rd corps. 260




there are no offiial estimates of the total number of people killed in all of China during the "cleanse the class ranks movement, but information extracted from more thn 1500 county gazetteers published after the CR has been used in one very authortative sociological analysis of the moverment in rural China. this study estimates that around 36 million people were persecuted. "this is a staggering number" the study acknowledges, "but it is arrived at throught fairly conservative assumptions about the completeness and accuracy of the sources... our best estimate for the numbers killed is between 750,000 and 1.5 million, with roughly equal numbers permanently injured. the toll in teh cities has not yet been reported, where 18 percent of the population of China lived. 262.


Three loyalties and four boundless loves: loyalty to Chairman Mao, Mao Zedong thought, and CHairman Mao's proletaarian revolutionary line; boundless love for Mao, the Communist Party, Mao thought, and Mao's proletarian revolutionary line.  "asking for instructions in the morning and reporting back in the evening". Mao's reaction: "I have read this, and it is vry good. thank you, comrades!" then appeared the " loyalty dance". 2.2 billion aluminum Mao badges had so far been produced by factories . the east is red.  supreme instructions. three old passages.


On October 7, 1968, a middle school teacher in Fucheng county, Hebei, was sentenced "in accordance with the Law" to nine years in prison for having, written in his private diary that a certain Mao Quote gave him boundless energy" then changedthat to "very much energy".  on October 15, 1968, a typesetter with the Handan daily was sentenced to 20 years in prison as an " active counterrevolutionary" for mistakenly typesetting a sentence wising Mao "eternal life without end"万寿无疆 as one wishing him "no long life without end". 无寿无疆 " malicious attack on great leader Chairman Mao. 267


The cultural revolution is a serial accident one from the other. The red guards chaos is only the beginning, the rebels following seize power trigger civil war, the revenge from black five, the May 516 accidents, the cleaning class ranks, all these accidents killed millions and injury another millions life. Mao's great destroy life and ruin economy. He waved a goose feather fan, trust in the party, trust in the masses.  the greater part of the cultural revolution that role was played by Zhou Enlai 278


The red guards are high-level party cadres and army officials sons and daughters from early the CR that has committed the most loot, beaten, even killing chaos backed by the party authority, that crimes caused great disasters to many black five families later black 21 in the zenith of the CR. The Most majority killing during the Cultural Revolution is neither by the red guards nor the rebellion, but by organized party not by mass, the party control everything, the authority paid money to ignorant young students to kill others what the CCP have been committed during the CR is proved that the CCP is nothing but a stupid foolish hooligan criminal group. Both sides claimed that they protect Mao's line, and fight for Mao's correct proletariat revolution. thousands and thousands of students died in battle for nothing but for Evil Mao's delusion only.  The civil war during the CR in China is encouraged by Mao, which caused millions innocent students and workers great disasters. Wuhan incident trigger the PRC to deliver weapons to leftist, the purpose is to seize power, for power struggle not through legal procedure, nor democracy nor successor, but violent fighting.


The red guards torture and killing are encouraged by the center party and Mao. Police protect of students who back up by party authority, on August 13, police forward the message that police will not stop students actions. The red guards first appear in Beijing, the first beating, first looting, first public humiliating, first torture, first death all happened in Beijing proved that it is Mao and the party permit and encourage the red guards to do such criminal crimes. The Party encouraged students to torture beating and killing the class enemies through fool education of class hatred for years. The red guards crimes, in essence, are the CCP's crimes. Many young girls under the CCP ruling turn into horrible killers after they become stupid fools, who lost their own thinking ability, did whatever Mao and the CCP ordered or encouraged them to do. Mao contacted the red guards direct all their action are well known by Mao through his secret system control agency. It is Mao back up them which initiated by the high-level party official and army's generals children, they are the tools of the power struggle for both site.


The cultural revolution is not Mao personal solo crimes, but the CCP's. For after seventeen years totalitarian dictatorship bloody terror ruling, forced brainwashing, fool people propaganda, all Chinese, whether intellectual or students or Mass, became very stupid foolish, while extremely crazy. they lack common sense, the source of life, knowledge of everything, but full of wrong ideas, poisoned ideology, they thought they are liberated and living a happy life while western people living under deep water and on fire. They believed they were the most advanced in all. Mao is the hooligan thug, despite he is smart and intelligent, but under its foolish policy, step by step he also becomes a stupid fool, eventually he believed that he must be the greatest Marxist in our time, the greatest revolutionary teacher of the world, and he wants to show and proved it. It is the CCP backed up all evil acts not red guards, they are used by the party to do all dirty works, all party leaders have to endorse the policy of the party, cut off all personal feeling to their parents if they were landlords!


To defeat Liu is not an easy job, as the state chairman, Liu build up his patrons long time and set up a huge base among official kingdom, he manage to develop his own support base both within party and government, a large number of local party leaders and cadre are belong Liu’s base, during the CR, more than 2.3 million cadres were investigated and persecuted by Mao through the red guards and mass organization. It is initiated by Nankai university students to investigate Liu Shaoqi's history problem, but it is highly likely Mao used the students as his fist of iron to destroy Liu. The CCP as a state terrorist group has been committing huge number heinous crimes, all of them are top secrets covered by the dust of history to date.




In spirits and soul, the most majority Chinese has been raping by the CCP for 65 years, many stupid fools enjoying such violent raping without even know the truth, more become cowards selfish being who lost their souls. Deng on the cat is only a vividly describe of reality, but whether it fit any situation is another question. The political system, economic institution, and legal system are not the cat, no matter what ideology is, that can protect people's freedom, social and judicial justice, and the rule of law, make people happier is good. In essence, Mao is an evil mind, malice spirits, stupid fool in many areas, while with a canny and iron will of extremely self-center and selfish thug, without human normal feeling, empathy or emotion, cold bloody hooligan, criminal, who intently  caused at least 80 million Chinese died either being killed or starvation or suicide or torture to death. Liu is not a thug as Mao, who still have mercy and empathy feeling and kindness heart, despite as a Communist party top leader, he committed many crimes too, Liu is a left naive intellectuals revolutionary, whose intelligence used to wrong place, and waste his wisdom, received the most miserable punishment that his is not deserved.


The cultural revolution was initiated and led by Mao. the legitimacy of the Party still rested heavily on Mao's revolutionary achievements. Deng put it, "discrediting Mao... would discrediting our Party and state. (《邓小平文选》第287页) the GLF was Mao's first attempt to find a distinctive Chinese road. the cultural revolution was declaredly Mao's attermpt to vaccinate his people agianst the Soviet disease. it was his last best effort to define and perpetuate a distinct Chinese essence in the modern world. his was truly the last stand of Chinese conservatism. 460??!


姚文元回忆录说:毛曾亲自拟定他隐退后,中央领导人的名单,其中有:国防部长孙玉国,外交部长乔冠华,军委主席陈锡联,人大委员长王洪文,国务院总理华国锋,党中央主席江青。这个名单曾两次交给政治局讨论,毛要江青当党主席,或者说是要江青接班,这既是文革的终极目标,也正是发动文革的真正原因。江青先接班,然后交给正式的接班人毛远新。中央文革小组名义上是陈伯达为组长,实际上一切都是江青说了算。江青在审判席上说:你们不知道吧,“你办事,我放心”后面还有两句话,就是“有问题,找江青”。同时还说:我是主席思想的忠实执行者,主席让我干啥,我毫无保留的执行!无论是“批林批孔批周公运动,还是反击右倾翻案风运动”,都是主席的意思,目的就是要批倒那些想否定和纠正无产阶级文化大革命的人.... 这矛头所指的就是周恩来


《五一六通知》在列举《二月提纲》十条罪状中,有一段话是毛刻意加进去的:“混进党里、政府里、军队里和各种文化界的资产阶级代表人物,是一批反革命的修正主义分子,一旦时机成熟,他们就会要夺取政权,由无产阶级专政变为资产阶级专政。这些人物,有些已被我们识破了,有些则还没有被识破,有些正在受到我们信用,被培养为我们的接班人,例如赫鲁晓夫那样的人物,他们现正睡在我们的身旁,各级党委必须充分注意这一点。”说明毛泽东发动的文革根本就不是一场文化革命,而是一次争夺权力的政治斗争。毛这次搞的文化大革命,把全中国人都搅进来了。他的目的是很卑劣的。他想通过用文化意识形态来掩盖他夺权的卑鄙目的。哄骗思想单纯的青年学子。让青年人以为他发动的文革是处于一个高尚的目的.在毛这种嗜权如命的独裁者眼里,人民的生命的安宁和幸福不值一文钱,他看重的是他的权力是否受到威胁。为了他个人的皇位,不惜把国家搞乱,把国家经济搞崩溃,把千百万中国人民的生命作为他个人权利的铺路石。毛发动文化大革命就是处于此目的。严格地说,文化大革命,是一场没有任何理论的纯夺权运动。是毛泽东害怕刘少奇威望日升,有朝一日取代他,而搞的一场“清君侧”.王毅:"文革50周年,重读《五一六通知》引起的反思"
(民主中国2016年4月20日 )  


毛泽东发动“文革”的真正的核心目的就是既要避免世人对毛泽东刻意建立家天下王朝的诽议,又要把统治中国的权力稳稳当当成功交到毛泽东家族,交到江青-毛远新的手中,传之万代。毛泽东的中国梦就是重温秦嬴政始皇帝的旧梦,翼图建立“千秋万代永不变色”的毛家天下王朝!张国焘在其回忆录中就凭着他对毛泽东的深刻了解断言:“润之(毛泽东)一天没有登基做皇帝,是不甘心的。”毛岸英不死,不会有毛泽东安排华国锋作为过渡准备“让贤”推举江青毛远新坐正之局,就不会有毛死后28天华国锋发动宫廷政变抓捕江青毛远新张春桥王洪文姚文元之事,中国今日就一定会依然处在朝鲜金氏王朝模式统治的状态之下!毛泽东先是鉴于苏联斯大林死后遭到赫鲁晓夫批判和清算,后来毛泽东自己又与刘少奇因为大跃进一线二线等权力名利问题而结怨甚深,就更加苦心孤诣要建立毛泽东王朝家天下。为此,毛泽东绞尽脑汁,结果酝酿出了发动“文化大革命”的大阴谋和一整套计划。毛泽东正式发动“文化大革命运动”前,就先着手安排启用江青在文化界粉墨登场崭露头角。以“文化革命”之名,掩饰“夺权斗争”之实,麻痹对手,欺骗天下。任命江青担任“文化大革命领导小组”副组长。实质是让江青以毛泽东夫人身份实际掌控“文化大革命领导小组”的实权。红卫兵造反派群众运动冲垮“刘邓资产阶级司令部”后,以“文化大革命领导小组”取代中共中央书记处,主持中共中央工作·江青可以名正言顺跃升权力中枢,从而顺理成章接班做中国共产党党主席。毛泽东“文化大革命”的核心口号“反修防修保证红色江山永不变色”,实质就是要保证毛始皇身后能够将对中国的绝对统治权稳妥交到江青-毛远新手中!就是要在党天下基础上建立家天下毛氏王朝!毛泽东接受袁世凯称帝失败的教训,为了免予世人对他刻意建立家天下封建王朝的诽议,苦心孤诣物色、培养和使用华国锋担任国务院总理和主持中共中央工作,以便毛泽东身后华国锋能够以毛泽东任用的国务院总理和主持中共中央工作的身份,出面极力“让贤”、力挺和拥戴“无产阶级文化大革命的伟大旗手江青同志”继承毛泽东党主席的九五之尊······这就是毛泽东潜心重温“始皇梦”传之万代而精心策划和发动“文革”排除一切障碍,力图传位家天下建立毛氏王朝的瞒天过海大阴谋!陈泱潮:"毛发动文革的真正动因及其瞒天过海大阴谋"(博讯北京时间2015年10月29日)


毛泽东发动文革,并不是一时的心血来潮,而是他政治生涯中一场最大的赌博,乃至一生的归宿。文革倾注了毛一生的心血,浓缩了他全部的政治理念,是他对中共建政后党内分歧、历史恩怨所做的一次总的清算。他自以为可以指点江山,再造历史,变共产党的党天下为毛氏的家天下,最后却被历史所捉弄,败于党内官僚集团。死后不到一个月,江青就被囚禁,精心安排的由文革派接班的布局灰飞烟灭。官方意识形态一直就存在着“文革基因”,其核心是敌对思维和斗争哲学,制造仇恨,崇尚暴力。毛的文革遗产当年经过文革秀才的包装后,具有相当完备的理论形态,即所谓“无产阶级专政下继续革命的理论”,概括出性质、矛盾、对象、动力、途径等六个方面的要点。本来,这只是文革秀才为毛发动文革寻找说辞的理论包装和欺骗愚弄民众的政治宣传,后来却成为中共官方为毛遮羞的依据,用所谓的“理想主义”来掩盖毛的文革罪责。邓心里很清楚,对毛的评价禁不住历史的检验。九十年代初,邓向中共第三代领导人江泽民等人承认,当年决议“部分历史是不实的”,对毛的评价是“违心的”,可以在他们这一代走后,再作全面评价。高文谦“毛的文革遗产与习近平治国模式 ”2016年5月6日




“文革”之所以会发生,是中共对中国的全面霸控到了登峰造极史无前例的地步,事无巨细一概掌控,资讯被剥夺,思想被控制,民间已无任何自主空间,任何人都无半点法制可依赖的情况下,心心念念想坐“世共”第一把交椅的毛,面临其最高权力正逐渐被削弱,正被推上“党虚君”位上时,为了夺回昔日至高无上的绝对权力,并实现其“榨取中国之全部物力人力来博得世界霸主”的狂妄渴欲,同时也为了免遭苏联赫鲁晓夫下台、斯大林死后被清算的命运,而利用自身极特殊优势——党的领袖与“教主”等至高无上地位,及自己作为中共为了欺骗老百姓而造就的至高无上的伪神——“红太阳”身份,悍然无法无天骗卷民众力量来斗倒大权在握的中共最高实权领导层的一场“政变”,一场古今中外十分罕见的“‘党虚君’阴谋政变”——以文化的名义切入,以学术的名义进攻,以革命的名义发难,以群众的名义夺权,然后以癫狂的自大重建“反人性反文化反法制的独裁毛天下”。所以,文革准确而真实的名称应该是“毛阴谋夺权大政变”。毛还有“为达目的不择手段的阴险毒辣”,为了夺回正在失去的中共最高权力,为了它的一己之私,毛可以不惜让中国沦为地狱,让人民成为疯子,自相残杀,仇深似海!贫穷、仇恨、疯狂、无知,是文革中人的最大特色!因此,文革从头至尾都充满了谎言、骗局、仇恨、疯狂。文思堂“文革准确而真实的名称应该是毛阴谋夺权大政变”(博讯2007年3月21日




“毛伯伯搞‘文革’的动机不坏,只能算渎职;”刘源上将:"毛伯伯搞文革动机不坏 只能算渎职"博讯2012年12月26日




无产阶级文化大革命,实质上是我们党内和军内长期的派系斗争和矛盾的产物。毛泽东为了平衡党内、军内的矛盾,总是巧妙地利用矛盾,平衡各派力量,保证自己的命令和目的畅通。他就是用这样的手段,来巩固江青势力,准备夺取最高权力。事实上,整个文化大革命的历史,就是给江青扫平障碍的历史。“李作鹏谈文革:“毛泽东一会儿支持这个,一会儿站在那一边”/师东兵博讯2007年10月21日




1968年秋季,史华慈发表《德性统治:"文革"中的领袖与党》一文,1978年夏季,他再发表《卢梭在当代世界的回响》一文。史华慈试图证明:毛泽东发动"文革"运动的直接动因,虽不能排除政治权力再分配的因素,但在深层理论的角度上,更应当被看作是自法国启蒙运动以来,以卢梭为代表的"道德主义取向"和以百科全书派为代表的"工程主义取向"之间理论冲突的持续反映。同时,史华慈又认为,卢梭思想与中国孟子思想的某一方面,也发生共鸣。“文革”的政治思想根源——史华慈论卢梭、孟子与毛泽东/萧延中(博讯2009年11月09日




文革便是解决接班人的问题,毛对自己亲密的战友一点都不放心,怕他们成为中国的赫鲁晓夫。这是毛发动文革的动机与目的,毛要的接班人就在其身边,与之有着密切关系的江青,毛远新。




毛主席发动文革的根本原因,就是向党内的封建势力挑战,要解放自己,要自己有机会获得真正的爱情,而不是包二奶。毛主席是真正的革命者。生命不息、革命不止。他要打破一切腐朽的东西,为自己也为全国人民建立一个全新的“要真爱、不要二奶”的全新世界。反对包2奶--毛泽东发动文革的根本原因?(博讯2006年5月17日




郭知熠总结,毛泽东发动文化大革命是迫不得已的。他是被刘少奇 “逼上梁山”的。郭知熠:我为毛泽东辩护-写给文革四十年(博讯2006年5月18日)




文革就是毛泽东裹挟全国人民,为了把他的皇权变成神权的一场不计成本的豪赌。张鹤慈:真的有“人民文革”吗?(博讯2006年3月19日)


著名美国学者莫里斯∙ 迈斯纳说, 毛发动文化大革命“这是他为复兴他认为已濒临绝境的革命所作的最后垂死努力”。
美国著名历史学及政治学者、中国问题专家罗德里克·麦克法夸尔(Roderick MacFarquhar)于13日下午来到中国人民大学马克思主义学院,以“海外中共历史研究的热点问题”为题进行了一场讲座。 毛泽东为什么发动“文革”。麦克法夸尔认为有四点原因:首先是中共与苏共之间的矛盾,毛泽东认为,当时苏共已经渐渐脱离了共产主义的路线;其次,由于人民公社、大跃进导致了大饥荒,毛泽东也希望发展经济,但是周恩来、刘少奇发展经济的道路,在他看来也是对社会主义的偏离;再次,苏联赫鲁晓夫对斯大林的批判,令毛泽东开始担心在其死后会不会发生类似的事情;最后,麦克法夸尔认为毛泽东特别不喜欢现存体制,在毛看来,1949年以后的国家机器已经成了压迫人民的东西,而“文革”的一个目的就是要把压在人民头上的官僚机器打碎。然而,文革中或文革后,国家机器并没有因为大量的当权派的下台而变得仁慈,反而是更加的残暴。就是砸烂了公检法,造反派的群众专政,一点也不比过去多一点点的人味,如果说有什么变化,就是更无孔不入,更残暴。


上海市委书记俞正声在一次谈话中说:“毛泽东发动文化大革命的动机无可厚非,他寻找的道路是错误的;”打倒:“睡在身边的赫鲁晓夫”——刘少奇、邓小平是毛发动文革的初衷1964年6月8日在中央工作会议上毛泽东说:“如果中央出了赫鲁晓夫怎么办?”1965年在南宁会议上毛泽东说的更明确:“谁晓得我身边有没有睡着赫鲁晓夫?将来有一天他作秘密报告”.在58年成都会议上,毛泽东说:1956年,斯大林受批判,“我们一则喜,一则以惧,喜的是反对斯大林的个人崇拜,为我们发展马列主义揭掉盖子,破除迷信,去掉压力,解放了思想。”惧的是赫鲁晓夫那样野心家,在他身后重演。“一棍子打死斯大林的闹剧。”他发动领导的大跃进运动,造成了全国大饥荒,饿死数千万人。毛忏悔过、流过泪、曾一度不吃肉和民同苦,大跃进饿死人是其一块心病。他活着呢,彭德怀在庐山会议上就敢于发难,刘少奇敢揭伤疤……百年之后,中国的赫鲁晓夫,能不清算他?能不秘密报告?……趁我活着先把你中国赫鲁晓夫打倒。这就是毛要发动文革的初衷,而且要七、八年搞一次。1962年1月27日七千人大会上,刘少奇在大会上报告:“过去我们把缺点和成绩,比之于一个指头和九个指头的关系(毛语)。现在恐怕不能到处这样套,农民说是三分天灾,七分人祸,你不承认,人家不服”。谈及彭德怀问题时,刘少奇说:“彭德怀信中所说到的一些具体事情,不少还是符合事实的”,“一个政治局委员向中央主席写信,即使信中有些意见是不对的,也并不算犯错误。”刘少奇上述讲话刺痛了毛泽东,否定毛泽东亲自发动和领导的大跃进.1967年2月3日,毛泽东接见阿尔及尼亚客人巴卢库时说:“1962年七千人大会时他已经看出问题。”毛看出的问题就刘少奇的上述讲话。会后彭德怀写了八万字的申诉书,要求党中央为其平反。当年七月毛泽东在北戴河召开中共工作会议上,提出阶级斗争动向,三凤:“翻案风、单干风、黑暗风,”九月中央在北京召开八届十中全会,会上毛泽东明确表示:我对彭德怀这个人比较清楚,不能给以平反。全会还决定成立彭德怀专案审查委员会,对彭德怀进行全面审查。1965年9月,毛泽东要彭德怀去大西南任三线建设副总指挥,行前,9月23日,毛找彭德怀谈话,刘少奇、邓小平、彭真在坐,毛说:“也许真理在你一边……对你的事,看起来批评过了,错了,等几年再说吧。”就在彭德怀到四川大山沟后的一个多月按毛泽东的布置,姚文元的《评新编历史剧_‘_海瑞罢官’》的文章,在报纸公开发表。该文第九稿修改后毛泽东在中南海召见上海市委文教书记张春桥及姚文元,毛泽东说:“1959年庐山会议上,我们罢了彭德怀的官,撤了他的职,他很不服气哟。党内那些思想右倾的人也不服气,一直吵吵闹闹地要翻案。如果他们翻案,就是错了吗?大跃进、人民公社、三面红旗,就该拔掉,那就让赫鲁晓夫上台,我们上山重打游击去。所以说这是一个原则问题。《海瑞罢官》就是右倾翻案的产物,它的要害是罢官。彭德怀称是今天的海瑞敢于为民请命。二百年前的海瑞敢骂皇帝,所以嘉靖皇帝罢了他的官。1959年我们也罢了彭德怀的官。所以有人借古讽今,替今天的海瑞招魂哪!”毛泽东的布署遭到北京市和中宣部的抵制后,毛在中南海召见林彪,与林面商机宜,毛说:“看来《海瑞罢官》是替彭德怀鸣冤叫屈的,吴晗和他的支持者们,是有组织、有计划地为我的那位朋友(指彭德怀)翻案,过去江青、康生他们跟我讲这事,我还有些不信,现在看来,果然是这么回事了。林彪气愤地说:“这是不能容忍的,谁如果胆敢为彭德怀翻案,我们就象当年整彭德怀那样,把他们坚决搞下去,主席放心,你指向哪里,我保证雷打不动地跟到哪里。”1964年2月毛泽东对来访的金日成说:“在中国各种地下工作的坏人1000万人。”1965年8月3日毛又对法国客人马尔罗说:“我孤单一人。”(打倒一大批是毛早就有想法)。就这样打倒一大批党政军各级领导干部的全面内战的文化大革命,在中国大地漫延十年,实属一场浩劫。李不平"毛泽东发动文革的动机无可厚非吗?"(博讯2014年1月26日)  


文革并非否定前17年的历史性大转折,而是继续1949年专制政体,继续土改、镇反、三反、五反、肃反、合作社运动、工商业改造、大跃进运动、公社化运动、反右倾运动、四清运动等一系列政治运动的又一次极权主义政治运动。中国大陆民众自从1949年与宪政共和制的民国分离后,就始终处在被统治被剥夺被奴役的亡国奴地位,文革前是这样,文革中也是这样,文革结束至今还是这样。牧晨 “文革50年八议” 博讯 2016年4月25日
毛泽东发动红卫兵是为了让群众变得具有革命性(?);习近平发动反腐运动是为了改善群众,净化群众。我认为后者比前者更艰巨。不过归根结底毛泽东与习近平都希望改变中国人民:毛希望让他们革命(?),习希望让他们听话。文革的性质归根结底是让群众自发闹革命(?)。毛泽东憎恶官僚机构,习近平则相信党的绝对领导。我试图用(《毛最后的革命》)告诉读者文革并非一场纯粹的权力斗争。如果文革仅仅是一场权力斗争,毛泽东早在1967年2月就会结束文革,因为那时刘少奇已经倒台。但事实是文革在1967年才真正开始,因为那时它才开始波及北京之外的省市。毛借文革之机除去了领导层中在他看来欠缺革命性的领导人(?)。但是这些人倒台后文革仍旧继续,这说明了毛泽东是真心希望实现让全国上下闹革命这个疯狂的想法(?)。归根结底,文革并不仅仅是由毛泽东一手发动而制造的混乱。文革的本质是中国人在无人直接指示的情况下对同胞如此残忍(?)。他们相互杀戮,相互打斗,相互折磨。毛泽东并没有走上大街告诉群众:“你们有权利折磨他人,动手吧。”毛泽东所做的只是给了发令枪,让他们闹革命,允许他们为所欲为。高雨莘“哈佛文革专家马若德谈毛时代与习时代”  2016年4月28日




要防止身后出赫鲁晓夫式的人物来对他进行清算,因此他才悍然发动文革。毛发动文化大革命的动机之一就是要搞他幻想中的乌托邦社会,要跑步进入共产主义社会,还要不惜一切代价地去争夺世界革命领袖的头把交椅,甚至要把中国变成世界革命的中心。毛要用他个人的主观意志去试图改造人性。毛发动的文化大革命甚至还要充当宗教革命的功能。他企图通过语录说教和政治运动的方式强行使人们变得纯洁高尚起来。毛真正试图实行的是人性革命,而不是文化革命。他认为,只有在“灵魂深处闹革命”,“狠斗私字一闪念”,彻底改造人性,才有可能实现乌托邦社会。刘少奇在党内的威望已与毛平分秋色,甚至略胜毛一筹,刘与夫人王光美在国内及出访东南亚的风采,更是让毛和江青羡慕嫉妒恨。毛与赫鲁晓夫争夺国际共运领袖的地位。毛曾经对戚本禹说:“将来,我不在了,有人要搞修正主义,就是现在在广场上见到我的孩子们当中,会有人记着我对他们的希望,记着我说的要反对修正主义,要敢于实行对修正主义造反有理。”,“我今天见见孩子们,也是希望他们记着要继续革命,要把革命进行到底。所以,这是一件大事。”[26] 毛期待几十年以后,他们当中有人能成为真实的毛主义的执行者。1969年后,毛要继续文化大革命的目的之一就是要收拾林彪。中共九大林彪成了法定接班人后,“新一届政治局是各派系的大杂烩,而不是文革应该造就的亲密无间的战友。” [27] 原本计划搞三年的文革,应该在1969年刘少奇被彻底打倒而结束,然而,毛林共同的对手消失后“自1966年文革以来文官派别和军官派别结成的松散联盟,随着利益的分化而走向分裂。”[28] 林被法定为接班人并写入党章以后,诱发毛的猜嫉狐疑心理又一次骤然升起。在毛派分子中,江青成为文官派领袖,林彪成了军官派领袖,两派很快就暗中互相较量起来了。 例如,“1969年1月,她(江青)告诉自己的工作人员,她怀疑自己所住的11号楼有窃听器,下令一古脑儿搬到了10号楼。她的秘书后来说江青怀疑叶群在搞窃听。[29] 毛和江青很快开始怀疑并提防起了林彪和叶群。毛的嫉妒之心让他不甘心把自己的红色江山,在他百年之后成为林家天下。关于这一点,有江青的话可以作为佐证。文革后,对“林彪、江青反革命集团”的联合审判中,江青对于自己与林彪放在一起表示极大的愤慨。“她坚持说,‘林彪是一个集团,包括陈伯达。我、康老、张、姚、王是一个集团。林彪集团的头子是林彪,我们这个集团的头子,不是我,是毛主席。’”[30] 从江青的这番话中可以得知, 毛在1969年九大以后,就开始着手对付林彪了。1971年9月13日,毛的接班人林已经葬身蒙古荒漠后,毛持续文革的目的就要为他的家天下的临终布局扫除更多障碍,同时也是为他的乌托邦理想国组建领导班子。毛岸英在朝鲜战场的死,使得毛有一种“天不容我,我就要负天下”的怨恨心理,经过十几年的痛苦折磨,诱使毛晚年极度贪恋权力的病态心理得到进一步的恶性发展。后来之所以重用“四人帮”,毛是已经有了家天下意图的。但毛又不可能敢于彻底撕下党天下的这块遮羞布,他是清楚记得当年袁世凯复辟“帝制”是怎样的一个下场。在1969年后,毛在真假参半的乌托邦梦想和真的家天下意图之间的纠缠不清,混沌未明,由于两个矛盾的问题真真假假、羞羞答答地混杂着,使得他无法朝其中的任何一个方向去全力以赴,最终把文革搞得四不像,弄得天怒人怨,众叛亲离,孤家寡人。由于毛在两个不同方向上的根本问题玩无间道,弄得手下的打手“四人帮”首鼠两端,在民众面前的形象很恶劣,党内各派势力明争暗斗。最后毛死江囚的结局,都是毛一手造成的结果。1966年毛远新还只是哈尔滨军事工程学院的一名提前毕业的学生及造反派小头目,到1975年毛指定其为中央政治局的联络员,并且让年仅34岁的毛远新开始组织召集中央政治局级别的会议了。[31] 毛远新在文化大革命期间的火箭式提升,就足以看出毛的司马昭之心了。首先,文化大革命是超出历史条件和现实基础的,具有反革命性质的一场政治运动,从一党专政到个人独裁,是一定程度上的“皇权复辟”。其次,文化大革命是以阶级性来取代人性的一场路线和权力斗争。其三,文革具有反人类的本质,它错误地把人划分为不同阶级,用所谓阶级的正义性来对人性的极端蔑视和摧残。其四,文化大革命对中华文明的破坏和毁灭是空前绝后的,它具有反文明的特征。其五,《决议》对文革主要人物的罪责有意回避或模糊不清或嫁祸他人。其六,《决议》对文革之所以会发生的深层制度原因刻意避而不谈。正是中国现存的中共一党专政的政治体制,才造成了文化大革命的悲剧。结语:中国从1911年辛亥革命的“民主共和” ,到1949年后蜕变成的“一党专政”, 再到1966年后完全演变成的了“个人独裁”,目前还在延续的“党天下” 政治僵局,这百年的倒退和徘徊正是当今中国社会存在诸多问题的总根源。中国什么时候发展成 “民天下”,回归到“真共和”,不是革命的文化大革命噩梦才会真正彻底结束。吴称谋:”论不是革命的文化大革命“博讯2016年4月29日




毛为什么发动文革?毛为什么能够发动文革?毛如何发动文革?毛发动文革的真实动机与目的究竟是什么?文革是历史、文化与语言的断裂,偶然意志的促弄,还是社会主义-共产主义政治实践史的必然?文革既连根铲除了传统文化,又根本摧毁了神圣性根基。这是真正的虚无主义。去神性化与去人性化是文革与文革精神的主要特征。领袖核心的集中制制度为毛提供了独断的条件。臥榻之上,岂容他人鼾睡,两个主席并立的局面摇摇欲坠,而57年反右后,改变了八大的基本判断,提出“资产阶级知识分子”与“政治上思想上的剥削阶级”的新概念,康生解释说,毛看阶级问题,不仅从经济范畴来看,而且从政治范畴、思想范畴来看。毛彭的决裂对中共的震动远远超过高饶事件。刘周林配合了毛对彭的清算,彭受到了党内同志的轮番围攻,软硬逼迫,不得不违心检讨,因而中国人民注定要为毛的权威、空想与虚荣献上更多的生命更重的祭品。但耐人寻味的是,刘在会议后期要胡乔木转告毛勿将反右的中央决议传至县团以下,另外发一个反左的文件,以继续纠正泛滥成灾的共产风浮夸风,鉴于当时的政治气氛,胡未敢起草文件也未敢告毛。文革的性质当然不是什么反修防修,更不应从发动者的主观意图中去判断。文革显然是与休养生息的现实需要背道而弛的,是悖道之举,那么,这个逆举的风暴起于坚守列宁原教旨的“伟大领袖”,虽然文革的发动者承诺一场灵魂深处的革命,纲领是斗私批修,修正主义被咒为罪恶之源,而文革的根本精神却首先是把这个偏执的伟大领袖塑造成亿万愚众的偶像,占据神圣性之缺位,以其“乾纲独断”导演一场毁灭文化文明人性与社会的荒唐戏剧。陈坡:文化大革命沉思录(党史专家,北京大学历史文化资源研究所副所长)


1980年代初,马克思主义理论家王若水(1926~2002年)推出“异化”新理论解释文革发生的原因。这一悲剧是由于社会主义偏离了人道主义,也就是“异化”了(而不是社会主义本身造成的)。此外,他认为人道主义是马克思主义的重要组成部分,主张从人道主义立场批判文革。王若水努力面对并解释文革中发生的残酷的迫害,他反对仅仅把迫害归罪于林彪和“四人帮”,但同时他努力不损坏社会主义和马克思主义的名誉。




文革开启了中国的[全民]互害模式,文革之后,互害模式进入到社会各行各业。文革开始后的50年里,中国从全民[政治互害模式]变异升级到全民[经济互害模式]。文革之后,这种[政治互害模式]开始变异,开始升级,开始进入到中国内地的各行各业,进入到房屋道路桥梁的建设之中,进入到食品加工,服装加工等生活必需品的生产之中,进入到药品之中,进入到水源之中,进入到空气之中,进入到每个人的呼吸之中,达到了全面覆盖的程度。这种防不胜防的互害模式,我把它称为[经济互害模式]。梦想多难兴邦的中国,在经过了文革那种放弃人格,丧失人性,不惜置他人于死地的全民[政治互害模式]之后,又开始升级进入到了全民[经济互害模式]里面。五十年里,在这种只顾自己暂时利益,不管他人是死是活的互害模式之下生存,即使人们的物质和肉体侥幸保持完好,也都注定了精神与人格的缺失 。 人治社会一旦失去道德底线,注定更多的互害模式变异与升级。回顾这肉体与灵魂从疯狂到麻木的五十年,从文革的诬陷揭发,批斗杀害,丧失人性道德底线开始,到后来的举国拜金,唯利是图,丢失诚信。从食品有毒,奶粉有毒,到每一口呼吸的空气都被污染。从集体围观跳楼自杀,到冷漠对待6000万留守儿童和大量弱势群体,等等皆必然全民互害之中。试问如今谁人不在其中?试问将来谁人能够幸免?蒋祖权 :"文革的影响"华夏文摘2016年4月16日 .




通过十年文革炼成了一个流氓大国,再转向玩弄经济下岗千万工人,最后终于崛起了几百个权贵家族。




三十年之后,在山城重庆将掀起一场以文革为样板的“唱红打黑”运动;而在重庆事件以闹剧收场仅仅两年之后,又在全国范围掀起了另一场充满个人崇拜意味、极具意识形态色彩的政治运动:该运动以恶搞网络大V、恐吓文艺工作者、驱逐涉外NGO、抓捕维权律师、清洗“姓党”机构、全面管控新媒体为主要内容,并以所谓“十日文革”——即发动官方媒体围攻批判胆敢质疑新版“最高指示”的任志强先生——而达到高潮。近两年多来,习近平的政治思路与话语风格却越来越毛化、极左化、文革化。诸如“两个(三十年)不能否定”,“七不讲”,“毛泽东思想须臾不能丢,丢了就会丧失根本”,“意识形态工作极端重要”,“对西方价值观要寸步不让”,“刀把子要牢牢掌握在党和人民手中”,“党和政府主办的媒体必须姓党”等等。而针对网络、媒体、高校、教会、NGO、律师的政治整肃行动,以及召开新文艺座谈会、新古田会议等照猫画虎的“追梦”行径,在回归毛泽东体制的邪路、死路上,习近平俨然比薄熙来更极端. 如果习近平对中宣部所塑造的毛派独裁者形象不太满意,如果他对“习大大爱着彭麻麻”、“东方又红”、“习主席寄语”(令笔者感到十分厌恶的是,我儿子所在的小学课间操去年起从广播体操更换成了令人肉麻的《习主席寄语》手语操)、“跟着领袖习主席”、“要嫁就嫁习大大这样的人”、“不知道怎么称呼你”、“习主席万岁”这些低级无聊、贻笑大方的政治噪音听着别扭,感到不舒服,他其实只需一句话就可以彻底禁止。杨光:"习版新文革是中华民族的悲剧"<中国人权双周刊>2016/3/29




“必须再来一次反文革”/刘放 2016年1月8日
     叶剑英在十二届一中全会后的中央政治局扩大会议上,曾披露文革遭受迫害及死亡人数:(1)规模性武斗事件,4,300 多件,死亡 123,700 多人;( 2 ) 250 万干部被批斗,302,700多名干部被非法关押,115,500 多名干部非正常死亡;(3 )城市有 4,810 ,000 各界人士,被打成历史反革命、现行反革命、阶级异己分子、反革命修正主义分子、反动学术权威,非正常死亡 683,000 多人;( 4 )农村有520 多万地主、富农(包 括部分上中农)家属被迫害,有 120 万地主、富农及家属非正常死亡;( 5 )有1 亿 1,300 多万人受到不同程度的政治打击,557,000多人失踪。


【叶剑英:文革受害的有上亿人】(博讯北京时间2015年4月11日)     
    他说:中央文革“利用篡夺来的权力,大搞法西斯专政,上整干部,下整群众,制造大量冤案、错案、假案,把许多老同志打倒,把大批干部和群众打成“走资派”、“反革命”,进行残酷迫害。包括受牵连的在内,受害的有上亿人,占全国人口的九分之一。这个教训是极其惨痛的。”—— l这是叶剑英副主席在中央工作会议闭幕会上的讲话(一九七八年十二月十三日)。紧接着就开十一届三中全会了。


中共人为灾害嫁祸“自然灾害”饿死4300万至4600万、文化大革命按照1978年12月13日,在中共中央工作会议上,叶剑英宣布:中央经过两年七个月的调查核实“文革”有关数字是:七百四十五万人受迫害,四百二十万人被关押审查,一百七十二万八千人自杀,单高级知识分子被逼跳楼、上吊、投河、服毒──死亡达二十万人。1970年“一打三反”运动,被“从重从快”判处死刑的“现行反革命”就有十三万五千余人,武斗死亡二十三万七千人,七百零三万人伤残,七万一千二百个家庭彻底被毁,非正常死亡者至少七百七十三万人。据不完全统计,全国遭受残酷迫害的人有一个亿(占全国总人数的九分一),冤枉死亡的人数超过两千万,损失了国民经济八千亿人民币。李先念(1977年12月20日在全国计划会议上)说的国民收入损失5000亿,浪费和减收共计13000亿人民币。从中华人民共和国成立到1976年毛泽东去世,没有内战,没有重大自然灾害,非正常死亡在5755万人以上,经济损失14200亿元。




筆者金钟最近探訪一位北京研究黨史的學者Y君。他在「體制內」工作。對我詢問有關葉帥文革死亡數字的來源時,他提供了另外一個講話版本:葉劍英在一九八二年十二屆一中全會後的「政治局擴大會議」上談到文革。查中共十二大是一九八二年九月十一日閉幕,一中全會在十二至十三日舉行。葉當選為中央政治局常委、中央軍委副主席,胡耀邦當選為總書記。其後的「政治局 擴大會議」何時舉行,不可考。應在數月之內。葉劍英提到的文革數據如下:
   
    武鬥死亡十二萬三千七百人;
    被批鬥的幹部二百五十萬人;
    被關押的幹部三十萬二千七百人;
    在關押批鬥中死亡的幹部十一萬五千五百人;
    全國各類反革命分子四百八十一萬;
    城市死於文革人數六十八萬三千人;
    農村死於文革二百五十萬,其中地主富農分子一百二十萬(為土改地富死亡人數二十二萬的五倍);
    文革中受到各種打擊迫害人數一億一千三百萬;
    失蹤人口五十五萬七千人。
   
    文件的來源,Y君未有說明。綜合以上數據,文革死亡人數約為三百四十二萬人,失蹤五十五萬人。顯然,以上數據的合理性遠高於一九七八年「葉劍英數字」,而接近中外學者研究推算的數字。
   
《卫报》2016年4月28日刊登一篇文章,内容是一名在中国文革中告发母亲、导致母亲被枪毙的儿子张红兵的忏悔和赎罪的愿望。1970年春天,安徽固镇县人民医院副主任方忠谋因为批评毛泽东,并撕毁和焚烧毛泽东像,被当局处以死刑。方忠谋被毒打,被捆绑着从家里抓走,在会场跪着被批斗示众,然后被拉上卡车,送到郊外枪毙。


在整个文化大革命期间,西方浪漫的汉学家都是歌颂中国是新的天堂,只有他一个人实际在中国进进出出很多年所以他非常愤怒,他感觉中国不但摧毁了中国文化,而且也把近百年来的传到中国的西方文化也一笔勾销了。余英时:"追忆揭露文革真相的澳大利亚汉学家李克曼"RFA2014年9月01日




2005年法国教授阿兰•巴迪欧发表了篇幅长达32页的《文化大革命:最后的革命》[40]一文,使用诸如“伟大的经验交流”、“与修正主义的斗争”这样的语汇称赞文革。
  
从政治体制的技术角度分析:一、作为国家政治生活领导核心的执政党内部没有形成一整套健全的民主制度。二、作为国家权力机关的人民代表大会不能切实有效地行使权力。三、政治生活中缺乏有力的宪法保证。四、在社会生活中缺乏一套独立的司法体制。五、政治体制上没有完善的纵向分权机制。六、没有形成健全的国家工作人员制度。七、政治生活中缺乏严密的制度来保障公民的权利。王沪宁“文革反思与政治体制改革"《环球网》评论栏目2012年2月27日




一位老法官说,1975年刚到法院工作时,国家根本没有《刑法》,一本1950年代起草的“刑法草案”,就是办案参考。没有经过任何法律训练的人,照样可以做法官、办大案。由于缺乏法律依据,定罪量刑的随意性很大,尤其体现在罪名认定上。为了争取政治正确,任何罪名之前都得冠以“反革命”三字,如杀人就是反革命杀人罪,强奸就是反革命强奸罪……
   
    有一次,某个村子出了起奸尸案,搁在现在,当然得定侮辱尸体罪,那时这就属于疑难案件了。法官们讨论了半天,始终没有结论,最后还是承办人突发奇想,拟定了罪名:反革命……不讲卫生罪!
   
    一车人皆笑。另一位法官忍不住了,也讲了个罪名故事:
   
    “说个真实案例,是我们90年代搞案件复查时发现的。也发生在没有《刑法》的年代。有位年轻工人,晚上做梦梦到和车间一名漂亮女工发生了关系,早上醒来很兴奋,到处向厂里人吹嘘,连细节都说得一清二楚。消息很快传到女工那里,那姑娘是个烈性子,羞愤难当,居然上吊自杀了。”
   
    “出了人命,事情就闹大了。年轻工人很快被保卫科抓了起来。案子到了法院,怎么定罪又成了问题,有人说该定反革命流氓罪,也有人持反对意见,认为那年轻工人只是做梦,并没有真正耍流氓,就算说他耍流氓,也是口头耍流氓。最后,还是法院院长拍了板:反革命梦奸罪,10年!”
   
    一位女法官嫌我们讲得恶俗,便说了个带点浪漫色彩的:
   
    “ 有个村子,当年许多知青在此下放。有段时间,女知青们纷纷投诉,说总有人偷看她们洗澡。村里很重视此事,安排民兵和男知青轮流值班,终于破案,原来是村里一个二流子所为。案子到了法院,定罪又成了问题。其间,也有人提议定反革命流氓罪,可人家只是偷窥,没有动手啊。最后,还是一位军代表有见地,想了一个又贴合实际,又浪漫的罪名:反革命偷看青春罪。”
   
    我们聊得热烈,笑得大声,一位老同志一直闭目养神。见我们再无可讲,他终于开口了:
   
    “ 你们都说完了吧,我给你们说个猛的,也是真实案例,发生地点是昆明,80年代平反错案时,我亲手纠正的。两个年轻工人,其中一个家里有点小钱,买了块上海牌手表。你们要知道,那时候有块上海手表,可是很不得了的事情,跟你们女同志现在有个LV包包差不多。买表的那哥们儿,姑且称甲吧,有一天无聊,跟朋友乙打赌,说:你如果把路边那坨屎吃了,我就把手上的上海表扒给你!乙一听,靠,还有这么好的事,二话没说,就把路边那坨屎吃了……”
   
    我们都被雷住了,认真听老法官讲。
   
    “乙吃完,漱了口,嘿嘿,这个是我想像的,他总不能含着屎说话吧,就对甲说,把表给我吧!这个时候,甲反悔了,他肯定没想到乙会真得会把屎吃了,只好赖账不给。乙火了,要打甲。甲只好说,那我也吃一坨屎,就当还你吧,于是忍着恶心,也吃了路边另外一坨屎。”
   
    也许是情节太过离奇,车内安静极了。老法官点了根烟,继续说:
   
    “倒霉的是,乙吃的是新拉出来的屎,所以没事。而甲吃的是陈年旧屎,有毒,当时就不行了,送到医院时,人已经死了。出了人命,单位当然不会放过乙,把他扭伤到了公安机关。至于怎么定罪嘛……”老法官坏笑着看了看我们。”
   
    “反革命杀人罪?”“反革命贪婪罪?”
   
    老法官答:“反革命赌博吃屎致人死亡罪,15年!”




   1966年五月政治局扩大会议通过的《五一六通知》精神,全党面临的是“一个伟大的无产阶级文化革命的高潮。”要求全党“高举无产阶级文化革命大旗,彻底揭露那批反党反社会主义的所谓‘学术权威’的资产阶级反动立场,彻底批判学术界、教育界、新闻界、文艺界、出版界的资产阶级反动思想,夺取在这些文化领域中的领导权。而要做到这一点,必须同时批判混进党里、政府里、军队里和文化领域各界里的资产阶级代表人物,清洗这些人,有些则要调动他们的职务。尤其不能信用这些人去做领导文化革命的工作。”


   毛泽东在事前已做了大量的组织和铺垫工作。主要有:1、迅速培植一文一武两支“左派”力量。为了帮林彪扫清掌握军权的障碍和回报林对毛的全力吹捧、支持,毛泽东于1965年底帮林彪以莫须有的罪名除掉了总参谋长罗瑞卿;利用对《海瑞罢官》的批判,培植了中央和上海左派力量(陈伯达、康生、江青、张春桥、姚文元包括关锋、戚本禹等人);2打倒了彭真和陆定一,清除了北京市委和文化部这两个“文化革命”的重要障碍。
   所谓林彪委托江青所谓部队文艺工作座谈会。1962年2月,江青在上海主持召开了近20天的“部队文艺工作座谈会”,并要求与会者“不准记录,不准外传”,特别“不准让北京知道”。对会后整理出来的“座谈会纪要”,毛泽东高度重视,决定把这一个莫名其妙的座谈会的纪要修改成一颗轰击全国思想文化界的重量级的原子弹。经过张春桥、陈伯达和毛泽东本人反复修改的《纪要》是如何显示它那无以估量的“杀伤力”的。它认为整个文艺界“被一条与毛主席思想相对立的反党反社会主义的黑线专了我们的政”,号召要“坚决进行一场文化战线上的社会主义大革命,彻底搞掉这条黑线。”而毛泽东亲自加上的话有:“搞掉这条黑线之后,还会有将来的黑线,还得再斗争”;“只要我们不抓,很多阵地就只有听任黑线去占领,这是一条严重的教训。”等等。4月10日,经毛泽东批准,中共中央转发《林彪同志委托江青同志召开的部队文艺工作座谈会纪要》,要求各级党委“认真研究,贯彻执行”(以上引文均摘自《中华人民共和国专题史稿》〈十年风雨〉章节)。




5月20日,北大传达《五一六通知》。在康生夫妇的策动下,北大哲学系以聂元梓为首的7人于5月25日贴出了《宋硕、陆平、彭佩云在文化革命中究竟干了什么》的大字报,把矛头直接指向了北大党委。批判“资产阶级学术权威”突然转向批判一向具有神圣领导地位的党委。毛泽东从康生那里得知此事后,却反其道而行之,对这张大字报高度赞扬:“5月25日聂元梓的大字报,是全国第一张马列主义大字报,是二十世纪六十年代中国北京公社的宣言书,意义超过巴黎公社”。毛泽东指示康生将大字报立即广播,6月2日见报,各单位的党组织已经不是作为运动的领导核心,而是成为批判运动的首当其冲的对象了。北京大学发生的“6.18”事件,当天上午9时到11时,北京大学几个系的学生,将40多位干部、教师拉出来批斗,并采取了脸上抹黑、戴高帽子、罚跪等暴力行动。工作组发现后立即予以制止。6月20日,刘少奇将驻北京大学工作组关于这次事件处理情况的《北京大学文化革命简报(第9号)》转发全国。刘少奇在为中共中央起草的批语中说:“中央认为北大工作组处理乱斗现象的办法,是正确的,及时的。各单位如果发生这种现象,都可参照北大的办法处理。”




    毛泽东在会上的讲话尖锐而激烈:“中央下令停课半年,专门搞文化大革命,等到学生起来了,又镇压他们。说得轻一点,是方向性的问题,实际上是方向问题,是路线问题,是路线错误,违反马克思主义的。这次会议要解决问题,否则很危险。他还说,我是没有下去蹲点的,有人越蹲越站在资产阶级方面反对无产阶级。规定班与班、系与系、校与校之间一概不准来往,这是镇压,是恐怖,这个恐怖来自中央。”
   
    1966年8月4日,毛泽东把矛头直接对准了刘少奇和在京常委。当刘少奇在发言中说到“我在北京,要负主要责任”时,毛泽东说:你在北京专政嘛,专得好!当叶剑英说到“我们有几百万军队,不怕什么牛鬼蛇神”时,毛泽东说:牛鬼蛇神,在座的就有。毛泽东还批评说,现在的民主是压出来的,我看垮台好,不垮台不得了。······为什么天天讲民主,民主来了又那么怕?刘少奇说:无非是下台,不怕下台,有五条不怕。所谓“五不怕”,即“不怕撤职,不怕开除党籍,不怕老婆离婚,不怕坐牢,不怕杀头。8月5日,毛泽东写出了《我的一张大字报》,直接把刘少奇等“一线集体”树为对立面,并公开宣战;2、下令撤销6月20日刘少奇批发的《北京大学文化大革命简报(第九号)》,以激烈的方式全盘否定刘少奇在中央《五一六通知》下发后所做的工作以及工作思路和工作方针。 8月7日,毛泽东《我的一张大字报》作为全会文件印发给会议代表讨论,不点名地批判刘少奇。会议由此扭转了方向,把批判刘少奇“资产阶级司令部”和“资产阶级反动路线”作为全会的主要内容之一。8月12日下午,全会根据毛泽东审定的名单重新选举党中央政治局常委。林彪名列第二,取代了刘少奇的位置,成为毛泽东的接班人,刘少奇从第二位下降到第8位,原副主席朱德降到第9位,原副主席陈云降到第11位。全会没有重新选举党中央副主席,但会后不久,林彪又被宣布为副主席,而刘少奇、周恩来、朱德、陈云的副主席职务和邓小平的总书记职务,以后再不提起,实际上使林彪成为惟一的副主席。“炮打司令部”:毛泽东发出的文革总攻令 2016年3月23日 :共识网 作者:大海之声




人民日报副刊主编陈笑雨在“文革”开始不久自杀了。他是副刊主编,理所当然属于文艺黑线人物。批斗文艺黑线人物,他被拉去陪斗了一场,他就自杀了。听说他陪斗以后回到家里又挨家人批斗。红卫兵批斗,那是“造反有理、革命有功”,当然不问是非、不分青红皂白;如果自己的亲人也和红卫兵一样,那真是无路可走了。无独有偶,郭小川的妻子也在揭发郭小川,所以,有人叫郭小川赶快躲起来。有一天下午,郭小川的小女儿梅梅来我们家,她说,她在外面听到一些说法,回家说了说,她妈妈马上记下来。梅梅吓坏了,不敢再回家,在我们家吃了晚饭,马上乘火车到河南她爸爸那里去了。这一场革命真是史无前例,妻子出卖丈夫、妈妈出卖女儿,人们难道真是疯了!在讲到毛泽东身边的一些人时,他说得最多的是一位姓陈的女孩子。他称她小陈。这位小陈长得非常漂亮,能歌善舞,又很聪明。要她跳什么舞,就能跳什么舞。有一次,她看毛闷闷不乐,就要毛猜一个谜语。这谜语是“毛泽东打喷嚏”。老人家猜不出来。她说:“很简单么,‘毛病’。”引得老人家哈哈大笑。她曾要求毛批准她入党,要求给她一份职务。这两个要求都没能达到,为此,她离毛而去······这位“红旗学生”不和大家一起上课。她要把老师叫去,单独给她讲课。学校叫她填表,她说:“填什么表,你们叫汪东兴去填。”这位如此特殊的学生就是来我家打电话的那位女士。还是叶师傅最了解底细。他告诉我们:那位女士原来是江青看中去当她的护士的,后来,江青把她推荐给毛泽东,用意据说是企图在毛泽东身边安插一个自己的人。她虽然长得还算漂亮,但是她的那种作派叫毛泽东受不了。终于使毛大发脾气,拍桌子叫她滚蛋。真叫她滚蛋了,那江青的面子往哪儿搁。还是周恩来想出了一个办法,把她送到北京外语学院去学习。这样,她就住到月坛北街她这里来了。沈容,《热闹的月坛北街》史海沟沉2016年3月22日












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