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[国学论道] 《诗经》英译(精选)/郭国汀編译

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发表于 2/18/2017 19:06:37 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
《诗经》英译(精选)/郭国汀編译 Chinese Peom Book translated and edited by Thomas G Guo

中国语言文字的优雅简约,早在三千年前便已达到相当完美的境界。《诗经》中有不少烩炙人口,明快流畅的情诗颂歌。适用于传情达意,抒情阐怀之传神词语比比皆是。排比,描述,比喻,象征,隐喻,习语,成语等文学修辞令人叹为观止。凡此种种迄今仍被华语世界文人墨客广为采用。中国古文言文之简约优雅恐怕在全世界各国语言中独一无二。
      《诗经》收集了上自黄帝,下至孔子时代,二千多年间官方与民间的颂歌与情诗,及政论言情抒意短诗。生动反映了人们对纯真美妙的爱情的响往追求,体现了统治者经国治世外交内政等政治,经济,军事,行政管理等各种活动;演译解释了天命人生及天灾人祸等社会现实生活的洋洋大观, 不乏对浓溢相思恋情的细腻描绘,对情人心理活动的深克刻划。
       《诗经》是一部传神地再现古圣先贤之治国理念,敬天畏神的传统价值哲思,及热情欧歌爱情亲情与人生感怀的经典之作,是中国文学艺术文化之渊源。虽然早在1865年英国剑桥大学历史教授吉姆斯雷格已正式翻译出版了《诗经》英文译本,但其译文明显存在不少由于误解造成的错译,英文译本的优雅流畅信达皆仍有相当大的空间。被逼流亡海外,我被迫偿试改行作专职中英社科人文翻译。出于对传统中华文化文明价值的热爱与敬畏,首选了《诗经》作为翻译蓝本,在参考借鉴雷格教授英译本的基础上,作了较大幅度的修正创新重译,同时根据我对中国文言文的理解与中国习俗及表达方式的常识,对于现代国人难以理解的部分作了注释分析,以帮助读者能方便地欣赏《诗经》原著与译著之神韵。吾曾被学界专业人士谬赞为“法界翻译第一人”, 余期望将来能成为华语世界政法社科人文中/英译专家第一人。

2015年10月1日国殇日于加拿大哥伦比亚省维多利亚市

窈窕淑女,君子好逑(诗经:關睢)
the modest, retiring, virtuous, young lady, for our prince a good mate she. trans by James.
This is the first sentence of the Poem Books. My trans is : "Every virtuous lady with a slim figure are attractive and beautiful, and every intelligent gentleman love such charming ladies".
It is human nature that every young girl will fall in love when spring is coming, while every young boy will love beautiful and gentle elegant girl, both external and internal.
悠哉悠哉,展转反侧(诗经:关睢)
long he thought, Oh! long and anxiously; on his side, on his back, he turned , and back again. trans by James
This is describe the boys and girls who are falling in love and lost in missing their sweetheart, while in the evening lie on bed can not fall into sleep. So excite imaging and dreaming, carry them into a paradise.
"Is there a girl who know me? is there a girl who love me? only the wind of spring know that I am so lonely; the passion's tree, and the love's flower, when will it bring the sweet fruit? Oh, someone far away from me who is calling me and only calling me." This is the first love song I learn when I was sixteen years old, and for singing this song, I was forced by the Party secretary of our sport team to reveal who taught me to sing the "yellow song" for hours. I firmly refuse to reveal who taught me to sing the song, for I would rather receive any punishment than betray my friend. I really enjoy the beautiful melody of the song.
忧心忡忡,忧心惙惙(诗经:草蟲),如有隐忧(诗经:泊舟)
"my sorrowful heart is agitated. my sorrowful heart is very sad, as if suffering from a painful wound". trans by James
Thomas G Guo's translation: "My broken heart is nervous, my melancholy mind is blue, as if suffering from a depress hide from somewhere could not able to identify". When worrying about love,health, family, friends, job, career, politics, economy, culture, religion, and future etc, we might fall into melancholy and depress even frustration condition. The expression of Chinese show it convincing power in very concise style.
有妳怀春,吉士诱之(诗经:野有死鹿)
"there is a young lady with thoughts natural to the spring, and a fine gentleman would lead her astray. " trans by James
Thomas G Guo's translation: "When young lass fall in day dream love, it is danger to be seduced by even a gentleman". These is none young lass do not enjoy day dream love, neither a young boy do not fall into sexy delusion. It is the most dangerous for young maid lost their virgin when they are eighteen. Confucius praise the poem book so much that it has collected three hundred poems, which taught us all idea and principle of life, in a word, thought elegant without evil idea.
一日不见,如三秋兮(诗经:采葛)
(Honey), a day without seeing you, is like three seasons! trans by James
when one falling in love, he or she always has such sweet experience; if a young lass and a teenage boy have such crazy passion is not surprise at all, while a middle age couple have such cute emotion, it should be very adorable; provide a sunset husband and wife still have such enviable feeling, it must be the God blessing.
青青子衿,悠悠我心;青青子佩,悠悠我思(诗经:子衿)
"with the blue collar,prolonged is the anxiety of my heart; with the blue girdle gems, long do I think of you."trans by James
This love song describe a young lady wear a green shirt missing her sweetheart; while looking at the purple gems dangle in her breast, she is falling into deep thought of her dearest one. Unlike Western girls and ladies always express their hot passionation in a crazily and exaggerated way, Chinese girls and ladies prefer internal express, used body language, eyes, figure, smile and shy depict their strong and deep passionation.
有美一人,清杨婉兮。邂逅相遇,适我愿兮。(诗经:野有蔓草)
"there was a beautiful man, lovely, with clear eyes and fine forehead. we met accidentally, and so my desire was satisfied."trans by James
Here professor James trans the beautiful person as a handsome man, according to traditional Chinese custom, I think the beautiful person here should be means charming girl or lady rather than a man, for girls are educated to be shy and never initial to chase boy. Even if met her dearest one by accident, the girl always keep silence and only smart guy who understand the body language could possible fulfil his desire and satisfy. Thus this poem depict a gentleman met a young pure tender shy lass by accident, then convincing and seducing her to satisfy his desire for romantic love.
有美一人,伤如之何;寤寐无为,涕泗滂沱。(诗经:泽陂)
"there is the beautiful lady, I am tortured for her, but what avails it? waking or sleeping, I do nothing; from my eyes and nose the water streams."trans by James
This love poem portray a young man who fall in love with a charming lady secretly, one-way love usually as a tortured by his dream lover; despite desire and love her, He dare not do anything day and night, but only tear himself with water flowing from his nose and eyes lonely and miserable. It told reader a different story about a shyness young boy who are not courage enough to pursue his love.
When being a young man, I am afraid I was such a man, although I deeply fall in love with an excellent intelligent charming girl in law school in Jilin university for four years, although we studied together at main library every night, despite I love with her deeply, I never show my true adoration for her, but simply keep silence and hide my true feeling for her, for I do not want to lost her pure invaluable friendship, which I am scare if I pursue her will lost. As the result, I lost both love and friendship of her as the reward. My personal experience taught me that if one love someone, he or she should show and express his or her true feeling to his or her sweetheart and honey,in a clear and sincere way. If lucky enough, he or she will win both; in worse situation, still possible remain the friendship, in worst case, not worse than utterly silence which in a large degree might lost all.
手如柔荑,膚如凝脂,领如蝤蛴,齿如瓜犀,秦首娥眉,巧笑倩兮,美目盼兮(诗经:碩人)
(Oh My darling, a young man fall deep in love with his charming girl then sing a song like this)
your (her) fingers like the blades of the young white-grass;
your skin like congealed ointment;
your neck like the tree-grub;
your teeth like melon seeds;
your forehead cicada-like;
your eyebrows like the silkworm moth;
what dimples, as your artfully smiled!
how lovely your eyes, with the black and white so well defined!
It might be the first love poem in the world which appeared at least three thousand years ago in China.
所谓伊人,在水一方,宛在水中央(诗经:蒹霞)
(a girl fall in love standing by the river and fall into day dream)the man of whom I think, is somewhere about the water, as if he is right in the midst of the water.trans by James
This is one of the most beautiful words in Chinese to describe lover's missing emotional feeling, which touch millions Chinese young girls and boys heart.
妻子合好,如鼓瑟琴。(诗经:)
"loving union with wife and children, is like the music of lutes." trans by James
I think professor James here misunderstand the "Zi"s meaning again, it is not means children but husband. Chinese culture paint the perfect relationship between husband and wife is the love union as harmony as the playing concert, symphony melody amount flute, lutes, violin, pinon, and all music instrument together. Ancient emperor love music and dance very much and emphasis on harmony as one of the top value of life and love. Chinese never portrait the relationship amount mother and children as the loving union which like harmony among music instruments. Therefore, correct translation should be " Loving union with wife and husband just like the music instruments play together to reach a harmony melody".
执子之手,携手同行(诗经:比风),与子偕老(诗经:击鼓)
"we held their hands.let us join hand and go together.we were to grow old together with them".trans by professor James Legge
I think Professor James Legge misunderstood the " Zi" meaning, here it means "you" rather than 'their' or I instead of 'we'; thus, correct translation should be: (sweetheart) "I will hold your hand and let us join hand and walk together, and I want to grow old together with you".
未见君子,忧心忡忡,既见君子,我心则降(诗经:出车)
"while not see my husband, my hearts must be full of grief. when I see him, my heart will be at rest".trans by James
This poem depict a lady's inner mind when she worry about her service as army general's husband who might far away from home and fighting against state enemy, which made her worry about his safety day and night; when she finally welcomed home of her heroes husband, she rest her heart with happiness satisfy. " Junzi" only describe highly educated gentlemen and army general with rich knowledge and wisdom, not depict ordinary soldier or common people; when a wife can not see her husband, it must be during the war time, Army general bear heavy responsibilities to defense state in danger situation,which made wife day and night can not sleep well, for caring her husband's safety. Only when the war is over and victory husband home that could bring a loving wife rest her mind and obtain a quite soul.
岂不尔思,劳民忉忉;岂不尔思,我心忧伤(诗经:羔裘)
how should I not thinking anxiously about you? my toiled heart is full of grief. how should I not thinking anxiously about you?my heart is wounded with sorrow.
How powerful Chinese language? only used sixteen words, the boy or the girl express his or her missing his/her lover in clear and concise beautiful words so vividly and convincingly. Either use modern Chinese or English, it is impossible to fulfill the role.
知我者,谓我心忧,不知我者,谓我何求。悠悠苍天,此何人哉。(诗经:黍離)
"those who know me, said I was sad at heart; those who did not know me, thought I was seeking for something. Oh distant and azure Heaven! by what man was this brought about?" trans by James
Thomas G Guo's translation: "whoever know me understand that my broken heart, those who did not know me, will wonder what I am seeking for. Oh my God, who and what I am?" It is believed that lawyers are social elite, it also accepted that maritime lawyers are elite amount the lawyers, then whoever as the top maritime lawyer, must be the triple elite of a country! My God, who and what I am?
天命靡常, 命之不易;上天之载,无声无臭; 永言配命,自求多福;(诗经:文王)
the appointment of Heaven is not constant. the appointment is not easily preserved.the doing of High Heaven, have neither sound nor smell.alwasy striving to accord with the will of Heaven. so shall you be seeking for much happiness. trans by James
溥天之下, 莫非王土。 率土之滨,莫非王臣。(诗经:北山 book VI )
Under the wide heaven, all is the King’s land. Within the sea boundaries of the land, all are the King’s servants. (trans by James Legge, The Chinese Classics The Book of Poetry Vol five, Hong Kong University press 1960 p.360)
This claim might be the first sovereignty declaration in the history of the world. Ancient Chinese thought they are in the canter of the earth and the world, all others are barbarous, therefore, Chinese called their country as the "Centre Kingdom". All territory under the Heaven are belong to King and all officials around world are the subjects of the King. It is one ruler, not elite noble ruler, nor multiple or many democratic rulers.
蕩蕩上帝, 下民之辟。疾威上帝,其命多辟。天生烝民于中国(诗经:蕩)
"how vast is God, the ruler of men below! how arrayed in terrors is God, with many things irregular in his ordinations! Heaven gave birth to the multitudes of the people in the middle kingdom". trans by James
"Oh, greatest God! you are the top ruler of human being. How revere and terror is God! Your remarkable fate has so many irregular face. Heaven born with multitudes people in the middle kingdom." trans by Thomas G Guo
In ancient China, God and Heaven are changeable term and means same being which create everything and being the super-power as the top ruler of universal and human being. Everything come from the God and Heaven, every power in the earth are authorized and appointed by the God and Heaven, Heaven is justice, shapeless, no form nor smell, full of revere and adore as well as terror power. Ruler and people must be always respect and obey the will of the Heaven and the God. Thanks the Heaven born into Middle China so large number of people, make it greatest state in the world.
惠此中国,以绥四方,以为民求,俾民忧泄,国无有残.( 诗经:民劳)
"let us cherish this centre of the Kingdom,to secure the repose of the four quarters of it.(495)and make it a gathering place for the people. (496)that the sorrow of the people may be dispelled.that it may not everywhere suffer such wounds." trans by James
"To benefit and basis interest of the Central Kingdom, we should negotiate and compromise with all states around us, to meet the people's requirements, to reduce and release the sorrow and worry of the people, to defend our territory from invasion and maintain security of our state." trans by Thomas G Guo
This poem is the wise man give an advise to the ruler of the Central Kingdom, how to make foreign and domestic policy, dealing with state affair involving diplomacy, internal affairs, and defense issues.
莫扪朕舌,言不可逝矣。无言不讐,无德不报,惠于朋友,庶民小子,子孙绳绳,万民靡不承。(诗经:抑)
"no one can hold my tongue for me; words are not to be cast away. every word finds its answer; every good deed has its recompense. if your are gracious among your friends, and to the people, as if they were your children, you descendants will continue in unbroken line." trans by James
"None can hold my tongue, for my words will last forever, all my words will come true; your every good deeds will be reward; (if you obey my order and love and respect me in any situation) all benefits will extending to your friends, people, and all young men, from one generation after another, continue in unbroken line forever. " trans by Thomas G Guo
this statement come from the Heaven and God, who instructed the ruler of the middle Kingdom, told him who and what is He, how He will rewards the Ruler if he respect and love Him obey His order and will.
民之质矣,日用饮食。群黎百姓,徧为尔德(诗经:伐木)
"the people are simple and honest, daily enjoying their meat and drink. all the black haired race, in all their surnames, universally practice your virtue." trans by James
This is a wise old man give advise to a King, told him how lucky that he have such a simple and honesty people who only asking for daily eating and drinking; ordinary people love and support King, before of his virtue but powerful force. So for keeping political power in the hand of King's family from one generation after another until the timeless future, the key issue is that King should love and care his people with admirable virtues, Respect and obey the will of the Heaven, love and care people's interest, being a virtue model of the people.
战战兢兢, 如临深渊,如履薄冰。(诗经: 渂天)
"we should be apprehensive and careful, as if we were on the brink of a deep gulf, as if we were treading on thin ice."trans by James Legge in 1865
"To be apprehensive and careful, (we should be)as if on the brink of a deep abyss (chasm), and as if walking on thin ice." trans by Thomas G Guo
Leaders when handle state affairs must be always discreetly and apprehensively take care and consider it deliberatively, for decision-making, policy-making and law-making will affect million and billion people's life and state's safety and security. The duty and responsibility of a legitimacy government is defense state against foreign enemy, maintain social order of life and production, protect private and public property, offer education, culture, art, entertainments, and promoting healthy economic development environment. State should never competitive with private company or individuals for interests, not to say to dictatorship all business. The CCP regime, by the contrary, they ignorant almost all duty and responsibility of the government while do all they can to rob and stole wealth and forbidden any freedom thought and citizen societies.
敬天之怒,无敢戏豫。敬天之渝,无敢驰驅。(诗经:板)
"Revere the anger of Heaven, and presume not to make sport or be idle. Revere the changing moods of Heaven,and presume not to drive about at your pleasure. " trans by James
"I always respect the Heaven so much. I dare not make fun or mock the Heaven when it reveal its anger, even when the Heaven show its pleasure, I dare not enjoy myself as I like according to my delusion and dream. " trans by Thomas G Guo
Here is the statement of a King who did not understand why the Heaven give him up. He prey to the Heaven and trying let He know that I always respect and obey the will of the Heaven. The disaster fall upon the kingdom must be a mistake.
高山仰止,景行行止(诗经)
"the high hill is looked up to: the great road is easy to be travelled on." trans by James
Thomas G Guo's translation: " by raising up our head we can look at the High mountain's summit, while by walking we could cover however long and great road to the end." When describe how we adore and admire a holy sage or a great man, we use this idiom to show our affection and respect. Any good idea must implement in practice to reach its aim. By acting not only by thinking, we create new items, obtain great achievements. Here walking on a well constructed road is the only way to arrive its destination.
他山之石,可以攻玉(诗经:鹤鸣)
"the stones of those hills, may be used to polish gems." trans by James
This expression is famous for the earliest open door policy of a state. Any state want to prosperous and promising, must be open its door with a sincere heart, to learn from foreign countries, other nations knowledge and technique and science, cultures and values. It proved that Chinese is always open mind and heart great nation with a great culture.
In the long history of China, only during middle Ming Dynasty and later Qing Dynasty, a few emperor either for country's safety or ignorant, close her door against foreigners influence. General speaking, Chinese nation is a proud, open, generous, and confident nation which always learn from others. However, during 1949 to 1979 under Mao's bloody cruel and foolishest ruling, China not only close its door, but also her windom and build up a barn with iron, to lock all Chinese in body, closed their eyes, shut their mouth,block their ears, bound their hand and foot, suffocated their breath and thought. Even today, the CCP regime still sealing internet, terminating medias, culminating vedia, in order to fool people and international opinion for its extremely selfish interests, to seize political power as longer as possible.
兄弟睨于墙,外御其务(诗经:常隶)
"brothers may quarrel inside the walls, but they will oppose insult from without." trans by James
This remark use family affair to show what foreign policy a country should take. Just like brothers quarrel in home is usual and does not a serious matter, whenever there are insult from outside family, brothers always united together to defense family's benefits and reputation. So do the state foreign policy. Political parties just like brothers within a family in a state, whenever foreign enemies invasion or attack one's country, political enemy within a state always put their domestic argument aside, united together to fight the common enemy. However, the CCP as a foreign power sponsored rogue party, did not obey the principle at all. They pay lip service only to the United Union anti-Japanese during the WWII, Mao made an evil policy of the CCP which order the CCP army use 70 % development, 20 % dealing with MGD government, and only 10 % fighting against the Japanese. In reality, the CCP almost did not fight with Japanese in movement war, but repeatedly attack and fight to Government army who are fighting against Japanese. The most heinous crimes the CCP had committed during the war is that the CCP malice cooperate with the Japanese to eliminated GMD armies.
禹曰:惟德动天,无远弗届,满招损,谦受益,时乃天道(尚书:大禹谟)
King Yu said, “it is virtue which moves Heaven; there is no distance to which it does not reach. Pride brings loss, and humility earn benefits: this is the way of Heaven.” trans by James
殷鉴不远(诗经:蕩), 天降丧乱,灭我立王。中国,进退维谷(诗经:桑柔)何辜今之人。天降丧乱,饥馑蔫臻(诗经:云汉)
"the beacon of Yin is not far distant. Heaven is sending down death and disorder, and has put an end of our king.the middle Kingdom go forwards or backwards is alike impracticable. what crime is chargeable on us now, that Heaven thus sends down death and disorder, famine comes again and again." trans by James
"Yin Dynasty just fall down not long time ago as an example, the Heaven is anger with us and send down death and disorder to us, and eliminated our King, our middle Kingdom facing go forwards or backwards is alike impracticable. what crimes is chargeable on us now, for the Heaven is sending down death and disorder as well as famine repeatedly?
昊天疾威,天笃降丧,瘨我饥馑,民卒流亡(诗经:召渂)
Compassionate Heaven is arrayed in angry terrors; Heaven is indeed sending down ruin, afflicting us with famine, so that the people are all wandering fugitives.trans by James
In ancient China, Chinese believe the Heaven, equal Western idea of the God, which authorized and appointed power to the Son of the Heaven,and such authorized and appointed is not permanently, but changeable according to the deed of the Kings or emperors. They must obey the will of the Heaven and care and love his people, can never do anything arbitrary against the will of the Heaven, otherwise the Heaven will punish him and authorized a new King to rule the Kingdom, and this is why Ancient Kings or emperors usually are not tyranny or despots, which are few, most of Kings and emperor are good person,who respect and obey the order of the Heaven and love and care his people; despite not all of them are extremely wise or full of intelligent. The CCP regime can not compare with ancient emperors in essence, they are criminal in nature, stupid fool in intelligent sense.
上帝不临(诗经:云汉), 昊天上帝,则不我遗(诗经:云汉),爱莫助之(爱莫能助)(诗经:民)
"God does not come to us.Nor will God from His great heaven, exempt even me.I love him, but can do nothing to help him." trans by James
"(Now) the God do not want to come to us, the God in great Heaven seems give me up, even I love the God still helpless. " trans by Thomas G Guo
The ruler of middle Kingdom mourn for losing the God and Heaven's favour . Despite He love the God and Heaven,who already give him up, still help nothing for it is too later to correct the wrong deeds.
巧言如簧, 颜之厚矣。(诗经:巧言)
their artful words, like organ tongue, show how unblushing are their faces. trans by James Legge
In Chinese language we do not add subject to show who speak and how it express, but Chinese understand what the writer said. Ancient Chinese written language is very concise.
靡哲不愚。 哲人之愚,亦维斯戾。(诗经:抑)
There is no wise man who is not stupid. The stupidity of the wise man, is from his doing violence to this natural character. trans by James
I always self-laugh myself as the " stupid fool", today when I read this statement three thousand years ago, I am quite happy, for I might be a wise man or philosopher too, although while sometime I did do some stupid fool matter, even recently I trusted a stranger ( a famous writer) who seems sincerely concern my poor financial situation and initially offer to do me a little financial favour, I really appreciate with his sound kind-heart help without any hesitate; however, only few days later he withdraw his oral offer without any reasonable reason but excuse. So I self-laugh myself as the stupid fool again, for I so easily trusted a guy who is not deserve trusting at all,simply waste my time and emotion for nothing. One of my character is that I always believe others and thought that they must be same as I have a pure golden heart full of love and understanding! In reality, there are very few people like me, for I am a born noble soul with rich love in my mind and heart. This is why one of my best friend Mr. Huang Xiaoming pointed out twenty years ago that "you are the guy who is living in the Heaven, not in this world".
既明且哲,以保其身 (诗经:民)
intelligent is he and wise, protecting his own person. trans by James
Thomas G Guo’s translation : “Being intelligent and wise, for (or in order to) protecting yourself”. Translation is an art require accurate and elegant mind, which demand translator full of knowledge and rich in many disciplines. I am one of the best legal translator while I was practising in China as a maritime lawyer. After ten years forced exile life, now I might have become a best political, history, law, and religious translator in the world. Up to date, I have been translated twenty-five leading works in above field and will go on to translate more excellent work both into Chinese as well as into English.
哲夫成城,哲妇倾城。懿阙哲妇。为枭为鹜,妇有长舌,维厉之阶。(诗经:瞻仰)这恐怕是男尊女卑的渊源。 古人云: “女子无才便是德”, 孔子曰:“唯女子与小人难養也!近之则不孙,远之则怨。”《论语•阳货第十七》
A wise man builds up the wall of a city, but a wise woman overthrows it. Admirable may be the wise woman, but she is no better than a owl. A woman with a long tongue, is a stepping stone to disorder.
Women used to be thought as inferior than men, both in China and in Western culture, bible said that the God according to his own imagine create Adam first, then used a rib of Adam create Eva, thus, Man is superior than women. Chinese generally believe that Woman has long tongue and "three women standing together will make a noise boring you to death". Even Western women only after WWI obtain their right of vote. The main reason is that women's traditional duty were at home, to do domestic work, which recognize as equal important only in recent decade. Confucius did not respect women as he said it utterly clear that only women and 'little men' (mean man) are difficult to handle; treating them too close or too intimate, they will not respect you; while if treating them too cold or too far away from them, they will complain. I believe such opinion is the true thinking of Confucius. But time has changed, nowaday, many women become president and prime minister in many country, almost in every area, women play an important role as men. Before the God everyone is equal, whether male or female.








 楼主| 发表于 3/4/2017 16:25:47 | 显示全部楼层
Thanks all above friends comment, I have to recognize that I am not expert in this area, and I did not study it carefully, but I believe that I am a genuine Chinese gentleman who loves Traditional Chinese culture, especially Confucius and Mencius and others, ewhile respect and love western culture and their great thinker and philosophers, such as Plate, Aristotle and etc. To my limited knowledge about both Chinese and Westen culture, I love both of them very much and I also believe both of them are equal and mutual benefits to learning from each other. The present China under the CCP regime, Much Chinese lost their morality and become rotten the roots and seeds in not because the Confuciusiness and Mencius at all but because of the Marxism and Leninism, that is the Lennis Party-state culture which is evil criminal ideology poison Chinese mind through more than 60s years force brainwashing by the CCP.
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