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郭律师马克思研究(手稿)

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发表于 3/7/2017 04:07:04 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 郭国汀 于 3/7/2017 04:08 编辑

郭律师马克思研究
全世界第一个准确预言共产主义必定灭亡的大师是上个世纪的著名社会学家赫伯特史滨塞,1898年当全球并无一个所谓社会主义国家存在时,他即宣称即将到来的社会主义是奴役制。但他坚信社会主义将取得胜利。1905年在接受采访后,他写了一信确认:社会主义将不可避免取得胜利,尽管所有的反对;它的建立将是人类有史以来最大的灾难;迟早它将被军事暴政终结。除了最后一点不太准确之外,其它各项均惊人地准确。苏联和东欧共产党政权的虽然并非被军事暴政终结,但是所有的共产党政权本身皆变成了实质的军事暴政。
HerbertSpencer wrote an article on the coming slavery hundred yearsago, he thought the socialism will inevitable triumph. In Oct 1905, awell-known Frenchman M.G.Daveray, visited Mr.Spencer, who later wrote a letterto him confirmed that “(1)socialism will triumph inevitably, in spite of allopposition; (2) its establishment will be the greatest disaster which the worldhas ever known; (3) sooner or later, it will be brought to an end by a militarydespotism. [1]

1906年普列汉诺夫辛辣地指出“一开始列宁是个布朗基主义者远盛于马克思主义者。他在挥舞着最严格的马克思主义正统旗帜的同时,却兜售着布朗基主义的私货。”[15]1917年夏天,他发文称:“列宁号召与德国议和,为了推翻克伦斯基临时政府并夺取权力,将是在俄国的土地上疯狂和播种无政府骚乱绝对危险的事”。[16]普列汉诺夫称“1917年10月列宁的政策是精神错乱的产物。”[17]作为俄国马克思主义之父,早在十月革命暴发三天后他便准确预言了苏俄革命的恶果。1917年10月28日普列汉诺夫和维拉及列夫共同致彼得堡工人公开信预言:“十月革命是历史上最严重的灾难,它将引发内战,并将国家倒退到远远超出1917年2月革命业已取得的成果。”[18]普列汉诺夫于1917年预言:布尔什维克党之所以有力量,在于其消耗我们的人民和无视我国的社会经济条件。布党将持续多年,我们的人民唯有在蒙受巨大的教训后才会觉悟。然后布党将终结,但是布党灭亡之日仍相当遥远。中国人何时能觉悟?!
G.Plekhanovin 1917 predicts that “the strength of Bolshevism lies in the weariness andignorance of our people and also in our backward economic condition. Bolshevismwill last many years and our people will only attain consciousness after thishard lesson. Then there will be an end to Bolshevism. But the day is far off. [2]
美国著名历史学家史德华史密斯早在1964年即写了一部类似《共产主义黑皮书》的巨著指出:“共产主义仅是一种完全悖离整个人类进化史的政治意识形态,且由于其实质反人性,它必将在未来无法准确测定之日,被今天仍受其统治的人民抛弃”。
Stewart-Smith  declared in 1964, “It is quite simply thatcommunism is a political ideology diametrically opposed to the entire historyof human evolution, and that because of its essentially anti-humancharacteristics it will at some, as yet unknown, date in the future be sweptaway by the people over whom it at present rules”. [3]
The authoritarian attitudeof his brother-in-law began to irritate Edgar. [4] Josef Moll came toBrussels to recruit Marx and Engels to the League of the Just. Marxdeclined…communism, was the seize of power by the proletariat according tostrict economic laws. The workers have to be told it is their historic role tobreak the power of the bourgeoisie by revolutionary action; Jenny soon feltKarl’s explanation, made his usual authoritarianmanner, did not please the watchmaker Moll. [5]
The word of ‘socialism’ is admittedly one of thenoblest and most inspiring words every born of human speech.[6] It derived from the Latin‘socius’, meaning a comrade, Coined by an anonymous writer in an English paperin August 24, 1833.  after French writerReybaud in his “Reformatories Moderns” published in 1840, everyone whocomplained of social inequalities and every dreamer of social Utopias wascalled a socialist.
RichardT.Ely in his Socialism and Examination of its Nature,strength, Weakness, and Social Reform[7] asserted that “the originof socialism is the invention in technical industrial and science. In 1738, Kayinvented fly shuttle, 1769 Watt patented steam engine, 1770 Hargreaves’sspinning jenny,1769, Arkwrigth invented his water frame; 1779  Crompton invented the “mule”; 1787 Cartwrightinvented a “power loom”, 1793, cotton-gin, these inventors may in a sense becalled the fathers of modern socialism. “socialism is a religion and Marx isits Luther.” Marx’s Capital frequently called ‘the Bible of socialism’.[8]
Leibnitz expressed The idea of social evolution as“the present is the child of the past, but it is the parent of the future.”[9] Everything changes;nothing is immutable or eternal. Whatever is, whether in geology, astronomy,biology, or sociology, is the result of numberless, inevitable, relatedchanges. Only the law of change is changeless. [10]
In the words of Professor Richard T.Ely, “all that issignificant in human history may be traced back to ideas,”[11]But ideas themselves canbe traced back to material sources.
RobertOwen,whom Liebknecht called, “by far themost embracing, penetrating, and practical of all the harbingers of scientificsocialism”,[12]Engelspraised that “ a man of almost sublime and childlike simplicity of character,every social movement, every real advance in England on behalf of the workers,links itself on to the name of Robert Owen.”[13]born a humble parentage on14 May, 1771 in a town in North Wales, at seven he had familiarized himself with Miltons’s Paradise Lost,  thirsted for knowledge a passion forknowledge was the controlling force of his life, barely ten he set out to fightthe battle of life for himself in London, apprentice to a draper, from a smallpeddling business he had built up one of the largest and wealthiestestablishments in London, read prodigiously, laid the foundations of literaryculture which characterize his whole life and added tremendously to his power,rise of this poor, strange, strong lad, from poverty to the very pinnacle ofindustrial and commercial power and fame, as a successful leading manufacturer, in 1800 great experiment, toconversion of a miserable, stupid, and vicious set of people into a happyindustrious, and orderly community, acting on the theory that man is thecreature of his surroundings, and that by diligent attention to the developmentof his nature he can be brought to perfection. [14] according to H. B.Gibbins, the term ‘factory girl’ was an insulting epithet and it was impossiblefor a girl who had been employed in a factory to obtain other employment. Shecould not look forward to marriage with any but the very lowest of men. [15]his experiences at NewLanark ,which was entirely successful, had convinced him that human characterdepends in large part upon environment. He said of his success ‘yet these menwere my slave’. In 1815 he pressed a meeting of Glasgow manufactures topetition Parliament to short on the hours of labour in the cotton mills. 1825 Owenbegan the greatest and most splendid of his social experiments in the villageof Harmonie, Indiana in the beautiful valley of the Wabash. In Feb and March,he addressed two of the most distinguished audiences in the Hall ofRepresentatives at the national capital, the President of the USA, the Judgesof the supreme court, members of the cabinet, entire membership of both houseof congress. Lord Herbert said “a failure like Jesus Christ’s . He establishedinfant schools; he founded the great cooperative movement; he helped to makethe trade unions;..his socialism has not been realized yet, nor has Christ’sbut it will come!”[16]Owen’s dying words was “Reliefhas come”.
SaintSimon born of a noble family at Paris in 1760, admitted theexistence of classes of talent as expressed by the motto ‘from each accordingto his capacity; to each according to his deeds’.[17] In 1816 Simon assertedthat politics were but the science of production and predicted their absorptionby economy.(212) it is conversion of political government of men into anadministration of things and a direction of the process of production; thus theabortion of the state, recognized the class struggle in the French Revolution,saw that the political question was fundamentally an economic question,declaring that politics is the science of production and prophesying thatpolitics would be absorbed by economics.[18]
CharlesFourier born in 1772, draper’s son, he elaborates the propositionthat human nature is perfectible through the free play of the appetites andpassions and asserts that misery and vice spring from the restraints imposed bysociety.[19]His criticism of modern society is most valuable as anticipating that ofscientific socialism; he has an insight into the history growth of mankind; hedivided it into four periods of development, savagery, barbarism,patrirchalism, and civilization. His saying ‘in civilization poverty is borneven of superabundance ’; Owen’s ‘our best customer, the war, is dead’. Headvocated industrial co-operation.[20]
Utopian philosophers treat man as a plastic thing, orsomething that may be put up or down, ripened or retarded, molded, polished,made into solid or fluid or gas at the will of the leader.
Proudhon,socialist thinker, link between the Utopists and scientific  socialists, in 1839 he published “What isProperty?” the famous motto is “Property is robbery” or “property is theft” ,which caused much stir and indignation. He first use the expression “scientificsocialism”. In 1858 he fully developed his system of mutualism.  Louis Blanc. And French Utopian socialistEtiemme Cabet, who first used the term of ‘communism’ in 1840.  
There are thirty six states which have at one timebeen under communist rule. By the late 1970s there were sixteen countries. Marxargued that the capitalism contained the seeds of its own destruction. Bynurturing a highly educated population, communism contained the seeds of itsown destruction.
Karl Popper remarks that ‘Marx’s burning protestagainst these crimes (capitalism) will secure him forever a place among theliberators of mankinds. [21]
The disciplesof Jesus ‘were of one heart and of one soul.’
Marxis regarded as one of the greatest thinkers of the century, and few others haveinfluenced the development of economics thought as he has. Socialism to thestrict Marxist means a conception of religion, of literature, and of science,as well as of an economic philosophy. [22] It is true that insocialism Marx occupies a position like that of Adam Smith in the history ofpolitical economy, all going before him in a manner preparing the way for him,and all coming after taking him for a starting point. [23]the Manifesto, nosentences ever coined in the mint of human speech have held such magic powerover such large numbers of men and women of so many diverse races and creeds,it bears the unmistakable stamp of genius.[24]
The last words of the great French Utopist Saint Simonwas  “the future is ours”! EbenezerElliott, expressed in “the corn-law Rhymer” what is a socialist? One who iswilling to give up his penny and pocket your shilling. ” socialists were allsordid, envious creatures, yearning for the equal division of unequal earnings.[25] ‘ the wish is the fatherof thought’.
F.A.Voigt pointed out “the kingdom of heaven on earthis always the procreation bed which can be made to fit mankind only by war,terrorism, the concentration camp, the firing squad and the hangman’s rope. Itis impossible to establish the kingdom of heaven on earth without at the sametime establishing the kingdom of hell.” [26]
Mr.Raymond Robins, in American senate sub-committee,told them one of his conversation with Lenin: “Lenin in Kremlin said to me, theRussian revolution will probably fail. We have not developed far enough in thecapitalist stage, we are too primitive to realize the socialistic state. But wewill keep the flame of the revolution alive in Russian until it breaks inEurope…remember that the little man in the Kremlin told you that a proletarianworld revolution was born”[27]
Louis Boudin in 1907 in his The Theoretical System ofKarl Marx[28]concluded that “the Marxian theoretical system is one solid structure andcannot be properly understood unless viewed as a whole; it must be examined,accepted or rejected in its entirety. Its foundations lie in the past, itsframe work embraces the present, and its lofty tower pierces the future”. Boudinasserted the “Marx’s socialism is neither the result solely of his hatred ofthe oppressors and love for the oppressed of the present social system, nor isit the dreamlike construction of his fervid imagination; it is the logicalconclusion of his reading of the past and his understanding of the present ofour civilisation. He further put it that “one can accept the Marxian system asa whole or leave it as a whole, but cannot take part of it, and leave the rest,for he cannot take the conclusions without admitting the premises.”[29]
A determined opponent of dogmatising,Engels revised many former concepts regarding forms and methods of proletarianstruggle for workers rights and a radical reformation of society in the lightof history and the major changes taking place in his own day. [30] He sawworking class movement successes as proof of the validity of the Marxism theoryon the historical role of the working class[31].  achieved by using legal methods strengthenedhis view that universal suffrage and other legal methods now made it possiblefor the working class to win political power by peaceful means. He anticipatedthe reactionary forces, inevitably involved the violation of constitutionrights and the open use of force, which might compel the masses to offer directresistance, to attempt to seize power by force, by use of arms.[32] Hecontinues to see any attempt at armed uprising as for edovural if the rulingcircus still command the armed forces.
Marx and Engels Both began their adult lives as freethinkers and revolutionary democrats [33], they saw as itshistorical mission, the overthrow of the power of the bourgeoisie and thecreation of communism. Marx’s famous aphorism: “the philosophers have onlyinterpreted the world, in various ways; the point is to change it.” Bothessentially fighters, came to grips with the problems of political and statepower; they concluded that state power has always been the product of thedevelopment of class contradictions, and exposed the character of therepresentative apparatus and ideology, the realisation of human aspiration forgenuine freedom and social equality. therevolutionary programme of the dictatorship of the proletariat, the  conquest of political power by the workingclass in alliance with the non-proletarian sections of the working people, wasthe culminating point of Marxism. [34]
Without revolutionary theory, there can be norevolutionary movement. The economic manuscripts remain completely unknown toEnglish readers.
Karl Liebknecht, describedhow Helene Demuth sometimes bearded Marx in his rages. ‘she would go into thelion’s den, and if he growled, she  wouldgive him such a piece of her mind that the lion become as meek as a lamb.’[35]
A week before Engels death, SamuelMoore, the translator of the Capital came to visit him and asked whether knowwho Frederick Demuth’s father was, on the slate Engels wrote that Marx was thefather. Moore then went to Eleanor’s horse told her what had been written onthe slate. She demanding him retreat the statement, exonerate Marx for blame.Moore returned to Engels bedside and described his meeting with Eleanor. Oncemore the chark moved on the slate ‘Freddy is Marx’s son, Tussy want to make anidol of her father.’[36]
On August 4, 1895, the day beforeEngel’s death, Eleanor went to London determined at all costs to learn thetruth, the third time, Engels wrote on the slate that Freddy was the son ofMarx. She was so shattered that she wept on the neck of Louise Freyberger, thelast of Engels many mistresses. [37]
Jenny Marx in her “a short sketch of aneventful life’ writes ‘in the early summer of 1851 there occurred an eventwhich I shall not touch upon further, although it brought about a greatincrease in our private and public sorrows.”[38]
Proudhon’s famous “Property is theft”, he first usethe expression of “scientific socialism”. Etienne Cabet , a French utopiansocialist, first used the term “ communist” in 1840. “Workers of all lands,united”. Originally written by Karl Schapper, not by Marx.
Jenny firmly believed in Marx’s messagethat only by establishing the dictatorship of the proletariat could the worldbe delivered from the curse of capitalism. [39] it has been said thatbehind every great man stands a women, but it is true that the women behindevery great man is the victim of his passions, be they for art, music, science,business or politics.
Marx wrote his son in law, Paul Lafargue, ‘you knowthat I have sacrificed my entire fortune to the revolutionary struggle. I donot regret it. On the contrary, I would do the same, if I had to start mycareer again, but I would not marry. [40]  
Jenny’s closest friend and confident in happychildhood was Sophie Marx, she realized Karl was anextraordinarily determined human being, strong willed and brooking nointerference from anyone. “he was a terribletyrant, he forced them all, Jenny, Edgar, and Sophie, to push him in a cartfast down, insisted they eat the pie he had baked with his dirty hands fromdirtier dough. They submitted to it because, as their reward, Karl told themmarvellous story. ”[41] Tussymany years later, shed light on a basic trait of Karl’s character: in any groupactivity it was he who would assume command. Jenny was 12 and Karl was 8, butshe submitted to his will, her brother Edgar too, followed Karl blindly, lateras a devoted communist. [42]
Through his personal of courage; he found the women ofhis heart; won her heart; ask for Jenny’s hand, neither his heart nor his headwas in Master study; sealed the fate; met her fate ; pay lip-service to theirchurch; we like in fateful time; follow in the footsteps ancestors;
The president of the supreme court of Rhinelanddeclared in 1816 that Jews were not permitted to practice law, no matter howhighly respected they were by citizens. [43]
Goethe’s Faust “striving –he whoever ceases strivingwill be redeemed.”
Marx wrote the essay of Reflection of a young man onthe choice of a profession:
The chief guild which we must direct us in the choiceof a profession is the welfare of mankind and our own perfection. Man’s natureis so constitute that he can attain his own perfection only by working for theperfection for the good, of his fellow men. If he works only for himself, hecan never be a perfect, truly great man.
History calls those men the greatest who have ennobledthemselves by working for the common good; experience acclaims as happiest theman who has made the greatest number of people happy; religion itself teachesus that the ideal being who all strive to copy sacrificed himself for the sakeof mankind.
If we have chosen the position in life in which we canmust of all work for mankind, no burdens can bow us down, because  they are sacrifices for the benefits of all;then we shall experience no pretty, limited, selfish joy, but our happinesswill belong to millions, our deeds will live on quietly but perpetually atwork, and over our ashes will be shed the lot tears of noble people. [44]
当马克思年仅12岁时,有一天燕妮的父亲领着女儿和马克思做长途森林散步,途中谈及法国大革命,马克思问原因,因社会不公,其父虽同情革命但认为革命并非解决解决的良方。因带来恐怖及拿破伦独裁,他向马介绍了他赞同的圣西门的观念:社会应负责对最穷的阶级的道德和物质条件。(15)应向社会每个成员提供工作和收入,限制私有财产和继承权。
Karl called Westphalen his ‘dear fatherly friend’. ‘aproof of his love’, in his PhD thesis: “ you, my fatherly friend, have alwaysbeen to me a living example that idealism is no illusion but the truth”.(15;MEGA I, 1, p.12.
Jenny become the centre of the social whirl of Trier;her mother basked in her daughter’s glory; a young lieutenant Karl vonPannewitz, fell upon his knees before her and asked her to be his wife; Jennycarried away by her handsome suitor, accepted, and her mother lost no time ininforming that Jenny was engaged (16) ; her father taught her that above everyman-made law stood the law of one’s conscience. Slowly her feelings began tochange. A few months after, she has accepted his proposal she told him that shecould not become his wife.
In 1830s, Europe was in the throes of a series ofupheavals and revolutions, in Poland, Italy, France and Belgium, the peoplewere on the barricades to protest against the existing order.(17) Westphalenreminded Jenny and her friends, it was easy to start a revolution, but verydifficult to establish an new and just order. The lightning of love has notstruck her heart. Karl’s father wrote to Karl said “despite your many goodtraits, the prevailing force in your heart is egotism.”[45]
At Bonn university, Marx take homer and the elegies ofPropertius, history of art, mythology of the Greeks and Romans, also lawcourses and developing a considerable knowledge of its finer points.[46]
In University, Marx’s nights were filled with riotouspartying, drunken revelry and dealing in the traditional style of a Germanyfreshman student. In a fight with a fellow-student, had cut his left eye, hehad arrested and spent a night in jail for rowdiness and drunkenness and wasaccused of carrying prohibited weapons in Cologne, cost more money than hisfather had counted giving him.(21)
Jenny: suddenly the picture of a black wild boar cameto her mind and made her shiver, she called him in her love letters, herdarling little wild boar[47](小野猪)
Marx have to serve in military for a year in 1838, he askedhis parents to send him a certificate stating he was medically unfit to serve.(25) but his father died on 10 may 1838, and Karl did not home to attend hisfather’s funeral. Marx father has expressed misgivings about his son’scharacter, “is your heart equal to your head? You are dominated by a demon notgiven to everyone, is this demon divine or Faustian? This is the most painfuldoubt in my heart, will you ever be receptive to truly human, domestichappiness? [48]
Most members of Jenny’s family shared these doubts.Ferdinard, become the first councillor in Trier, requested Berlin police tokeep him informed about the activities of Marx. “Marx was not a serious studentof law at all, he was attending classes in philosophy and history, but wastemost of his time arguing about God, Man and society, in the among of radicalsand atheists, while consuming bear and wine by litre and smoking cigars.” “Thephilosophers have only interpreted the world, the time has come to change it”was his PhD thesis. He passed the university of Jena instead of Barlin.
Pavel Annenkov, a Russian, describes the young Marx asa man of considered energy, will power and unshakable conviction, whose sharpvoice had a metallic ring that did not permit any objection. ‘In front of myeyes stood the embodiment of a democratic dictator, as we see him in moment offantasy. [49]
While Marx was writing Hegel’s philosophy of law, heremembered a passage in Heihe’s essay about Borne concerning religion:’ Heavenwas invented for people to whom the earth has nothing to offer…hail to thisinvertion, hail to a religion that offers suffering human kind in the bittercup of life a few sweet, sleep producing drops, mental opium, a few drops oflaw loope and charity.48. [50]
Theses on Feuerbach, Marx wrote: ‘the philosophershave only interpreted the world in various ways: the point is to change it’. Itis not true at all, Socrates, Plato, and many others fought valiantly to changeit.
When no one else could control Marx’salarming explosions of temper, Lenchen would go into the lion’s den. If hegrowled, she would give him such a piece of her mind that loon became as meekas a lamb.’ Whlhelm Liebknecht, who know the family well wrote.[51]
‘Jenny is most like me, but Tussy is me’ Marx said,‘the whole family became my bond slaves’, wrote Tussy. As Marx put it, theexpropriators will in the end be expropriated. Mohr (Moor) on account of Marx’sdark skin.
Marx is not responsible for the legends whichaccumulated around him or the crimes committed in his name. [52] Marx is a man who setgreat store by the truth.(Payne 1971.5)
Marx’s proofs concerning the dictatorship ofthe proletariat were in fact prophecies state with great force and conviction.The class struggle must necessarily lead to the dictatorship ofproletariat  was his most originalcontribution to the theory of class struggle, and he meant by the dictatorshipof the proletariat precisely what he said: The ruling power would fall into thehands of the poor farmers and the unskilled and semi-skilled workers. Thearistocrats, bourgeoisie, and the skilled workers would be dethroned, andmajority poor, would inherit the earth. Then in the course of time the dictatorshipof the proletariat would give way to a classless society. [53]
The authors of the Manifesto were men of greatintellectual gifts, they won immortality. “Marx was passionately devoted to hismother, always speaking of her with reverent admiration.”
Marx ‘s life was itself a splendid example of nobleidealism, and underlying all his materialism there was a great religiousspirit; he was an agnostic, even an atheist, but he was full of sympathy with the underlying ethicalprinciples of all the great religions.[54]
Engels found in Marx a twin spirit. They were “twosouls with but a single thought, two hearts that beat as one.” The legend ofMarx’s infallibility was created by Engels, who was well aware that Marx wasfallible, sometimes fumbled, contradicted himself, suffered atrociously from alack of intellectual discipline, he was human , all too human, heir too many ofnormal vices of mankind. [55] Engels first, then thecommunists, simplified Marx almost out of existence, he become a totem, banner,a set of easily remembered apothegms. The dictatorshipof the proletariat was simplified to simply a dictatorship which rarelyconsulted the needs of the proletariat and never permitted them to occupy thestate of power. The proletariat merely become the instruments of doctrinairerevolutionary who believed firmly that they had the right to dictate in thename of proletariat. Marx has envisioned a government of an entirely differentkind.[56]
Marx had spoken with a deep respect for religiousexperience, was considerably more merciful and understanding.  The communists simplified Marx’s doctrinesuntil become almost meaningless they simplified the state by killing all thosewho opposed them. In the name of Marx they introduced forced labour,concentration camp, torture chambers, Marx himself would have been their firstvictims. [57]
During the early months of 1850 the Germany émigrésstill dreamed of revolution. Marx and others had brought into being a universalsociety designed to bring about a wave of revolution, throughout Britain,France, and Germany. The kings and Queens of Europe would be assassinated, dictatorships would be established byrevolutionaries determined to crush all opposition and to make amends…fromfew surviving documents of the universal society and a report written by asecret agent, to Lord Palmerstone, show the high hope of émigrés. But only fewmonths, they quarrelled bitterly among themselves, in summer no longerexistence. [58]
The real Marx, the man of flesh and blood, who lived alife  of appalling misery and poverty,spending more than half of it in exile, tortured almost beyond endurance bycontinued frustrations and failures going through long periods of depression,dreaming of the day when there would come about a truly classless society whenall men would be equal. [59]
Marx had no particular gift for history or mathematics. At Bonn University Marxsowed his wild oats, drank hard, wrote seams of poetry, spent money at a prodigiousrate, and joined a secret revolutionary society. He fought a dual, and on avisit to Cologne, on behalf of the revolutionary society, he was arrested forbeing in possession of a pistol. Marx enjoyed the University of Berlin, indanger of becoming a permanent student, one of those undisciplined scholars whowander from class to class and never settle down. He read omnivorously, livedthe life of a bohemian. Desire to be a poet, he wrote three books of poems anda poetic tragedy Oulanem, his desire to destroy the world, thus freeingmankind, which is chained, shattered, empty, frightened. [60]
So much reading of philosophy and writing of poetrybrought on a nervous break down and he spent some months recuperating atStralau, a small village on the river of Spree. He was forced to resign the editor-in-chief in March 1843.
In his one the Jewish Question, his solution of theJewish question was not very different from Hitler’s, for it involved the liquidationof Judaism. Money was the root of all evil; the Jews were in possession ofmoney, thus, Judaism must be uprooted. [61]In a contribution to thecritique of Hegel’s philosophy of law, he does not talk about the dictatorshipof proletariat, but about abolition of the proletariat.[62] In 1844, “The Economicand Philosophical Manuscript” he discusses the problems of alienation. He hasreason to feel alienated, for he was in exile, without country, religion, hiswife and family; from contemplating his own alienation he enlarge on thealienation of man.[63] Only by the revolution ofthe proletariat will man come into his own, free of all the miseries ofalienation.(17)
In Critique of Critical Critique, Marx and Engelsbelieved that: “If the proletariat is victorious, itdoes not at all mean that it gemes the absolute master of society, for it isvictorious only by abolishing itself and its opposite. Then the proletariat,and its determining opposite private property, disappear.”[64]
Herwegh, a poet, in March 1848 told Marx that Germanyin Paris were beginning to rally and arm themselves, he planed to dispatch toGerman a force of 4-5000 well-trained volunteers, who would establish arepublic by force of arms. Marx asked who the leader was. Herwegh declared thathe, Herr von Bornstedt, had established a union of German Democratic Society,of which he is president, he hope Marx join them. But Marx would not accept asecondly role in the coming revolution, with Engels and Schapper, Bauer andMoll, he founded the Germany workers union.[65]
Marx wrote to Lassalle on the last hectic months of1818 ‘today I have received a summons, everyone thinks I am going to bearrested tomorrow’. Marx was accused of an offence against the press laws;urged the population to refuse paying taxes and thus force the government torecognize the people’s assembly again. [66] In spite of the gloomypolitical situation, Karl and Jenny greeted the New Year with champagne  toast on the victory of the revolution.
In Feb, Marx have to appear before the court inCologne to defend himself against the change of ‘incitement to rebellion’, hedid it so convincingly that he was acquitted. In the best style of Hegeliandialectics, the accused become the accuser. Not he but the King and hisministers were to blame for the violation of the constitution. By thecancellation of the constitution in March, the Crown made a revolution and castaside the existing legal conditions. It cannot appeal to laws that it has soshamefully overturned. The suppression of freedom of expression was a sign ofdespotism, and it was the right of all citizens to fight against it’.[67] A few days later Marxreceived an expulsion within 24 hours.
While Jenny was away in Holland, it wasvery probably at this time that Lenchen conceived a child by Marx.[68] “ a very happy event,yesterday we learned of the death of my wife’s 90 years old uncle, Jenny wouldinherit  £100 or more ‘unless the old dogleaves part of his fortune to his housekeeper’. Marx wrote to Engels, while Jennytold a friend she inherited a sum of £ 150-200 from an old relative inScotland. [69]
The well-known German naturalist Carl Vogt, in august1850 had visit Marx and wrote: “if he had as much heart as mind, as much loveas hate…this men does not have a noble heart in addition to his eminent mind.But I am convinced that the most dangerous personal ambition has eaten upeverything good in him. He makes fun of the fools that believe his proletariatcatechism, the only people he respects are the aristocrats, he says he needs aforce to drive them from power, and has found that for only in theproletarians, which is why he is basing his system on them…I have theimpression that the purpose of all his activities is to attain personal power.”[70] Marx rebated “Vogt thatswine, is trying to fool the Germany philistine into believing that I am livinghere at the expense of the worker’s. I am not telling my wife anything of thisshit.” [71]
Marx went to Holland in Feb 1861, to see if he canwheedle a few coins out of his well-to-do uncle Lion Philip, in the Dutch townof Zalthommrel, where he flirted with his young and charming cousin Namnettebefore travelling on to Berlin, Where he was enthusiastically received by hisadmirer Lassalle, who introduced him as the leading theoretician of socialism.[72]
Lassalle proposed Marx came to Berlin establish anewspaper, he would contribution 2-30000 thalers. In the end, the question ofMarx’s return to German was decided by Chief of police Von Zedlitz who rejectedMarx’s application for repatriation, he returned to London at the end of 1861.[73]
Belgian police arrested Marx, having learned thatlegacy of 6000 gold francs from his father’s estate, he spends 5000 on riflesfor arming workers.[74]
In may1849 the last new newspaper essays, Marx wrotethat when our turn comes, we shall not disguise our terrorism. But the royalterrorism, the terrorists by grace of God and the law, are brutal, contemptibleand vulgar in practice, cowardly, secretive and double tongued in theory, andboth in practice and in theory they are without honor. ”[75]
During the early months of 1850 the Germany émigrésstill dreamed of revolution. Marx and others hadbrought into being a universal society designed to bring about a wave ofrevolution, throughout Britain, France, and Germany. The kings and Queens ofEurope would be assassinated, dictatorships would be established byrevolutionaries determined to crush all opposition and to make amends…fromfew surviving documents of the universal society and a report written by asecret agent, to Lord Palmerstone, show the high hope of émigrés. But only fewmonths, they quarrelled bitterly among themselves, in summer no longerexistence. [76]
The worst blow fell in June 1851, HeleneDemuth gave birth to Marx’s illegitimate son. The affair was hushed up, butJenny suffered a nervous breakdown and Marx himself was desparately frightenedthat Jenny would divorce him and that he would become the laughing stock.[77]
On 23 May 1863, Lassalle was elected President of theGeneral German workers’ union, Engels considered it a scandal that not Marxelected. [78]one day, when Karl excitedly showed Jenny the news that Lassalle has lost hislife in a duel, she thought it was better for the cause; she convinced onlyMarx has a right to that position.[79]
In April 1967, Marx went to Hamburg with themanuscript of the Capitalist and spent a few weeks in German. [80]
Marx fight with Mikhail Bakunin, whoconsidered the dictatorship of the proletariat danderous, because like anydictatorship, it violated the human rights of freedom. “ I regret the blindnessof those who believe that they can achieve economic equality and justice in anyother way except by freedom. Equality without freedom is a terrible fiction,created by swindlers to mislead fools. Equality without freedom means statedespotism. [81]
The revolutionary programme of thedictatorship of the proletariat, the conquest of political power by the workingclass in alliance with the non-proletarian sections of the working people, wasthe culminating points of Marxism.[82]
The iron laws of Marxist history were then unknown tothe world, and scientific Marxism was something beyond the scope of Marx’swildest dreams. A roar of thunder.
When Engels examine the papers left by Marx after hisdeath, he discovered with a sense of shock that Marx had written very little ofimportance during the last fifteen years of his life. [83] Eleanor become themistress of Edward Aveling, an unspeakable cynic, who finally hounded her intocommitted suicide.[84]
In his early year Marx had thought of himself as agreat promethean figure destined to change the world, but during his lifetime,the world had not appreciably changed as a result of his writings and his ideas.During his life time there appeared in England only one article on his life andideas. By E.Belfort Bax in Modern Thought in 1881.
Princess Victorial of Prussia, in 1879wrote to Sir Mountstuart Grant Duft, a liberal MP of UK, asking whether he knowanything about Karl Marx. He thus invited Marx to lunch at the Devonshire club.Later he report to the Princess that asked whether he thought disarmament wouldnot reduce the possibility of revolution in Europe. Marx answered thatdisarmament was inconceivable because scientific advances would continuallyproduce more deadly weapons, more money would spent in developing them. Thepoor would become poorer, the possible of revolution would become greater. Marxsaid he expected Russian ‘ a great but not distant crash’. [85]Marxsaid he had believed he would be summoned to become the first socialistdictator of Germany with power to order all the affairs of the nation, but hespoke without enthusiasm.
The last person to see him alive was Helene Demuth.When he died, he regarded himself as a failure, and he had long abandoned thehope that the revolutionary movement in Europe would follow the rules he hadoutlined with such astonishing self-assurance in the communist manifesto, andin fact those laws were not obey. What happened was something totallyunexpected and unforeseeable. [86]
Lenin took possession of tablets of the law, erasedsome of them, added others, gave them a new focus and new definition, providednew interpretation and pronounced himself the faithful follower of Marx when hewas creating a new system of ideas with only the most tenuous connection withthe ideas of Marx, nevertheless there has been no Lenin without Marx.[87]
Morality meant nothing to Marx, dreamed toannihilating whole classes in order that his belief in the eventual triumph ofthe proletariat would be vindicated. Yet he would have objected violently tothe tyranny imposed on the victorious proletariat, the torture chambers, the lackof freedom of press, the continuing dictatorship of self-elected bureaucratswith guns and propaganda machines to keep the people in subjection. Instead,new kings emerged, a new aristocracy was proclaimed, and an all-powerful statein possession of the entire wealth of the country dictated how every menshould. The romantic Germany dream ended in a Russian nightmare. [88]
But Marx was not responsible for the fact that we livein an age of violent revolution. With or without Marx the world would be in arevolutionary ferment. He was not the first to rage against social injusticeand vast inequalities of wealth.
The authoritarian attitude of hisbrother-in-law began to irritate Edgar. [89] Josef Moll came toBrussels to recruit Marx and Engels to the League of the Just. Marx declined…communism, was the seize of power by theproletariat according to strict economic laws. The workers have to be told itis their historic role to break the power of the bourgeoisie by revolutionaryaction; Jenny soon felt Karl’s explanation, made his usual authoritarianmanner, did not please the watchmaker Moll. [90]
Karl Kautsky in 1918 wrote TheDictatorship of the Proletariat, arguing that Lenin’s ‘revolutionarydictatorship’ was far from removed from what Marx had in mind. When he used thephrase ‘the dictatorship of the proletariat’. Marx has not meant by this ‘aform of government’. [91]
Kautsky insisted that “The proletariatclass struggle, as a struggle of masses presupposes democracy…masses can not beorganised secretly and above all a secret organisation cannot be a democraticone. It always led to the dictatorship of a single man, or of a small knot ofleaders. The ordinary members can only become instruments for carrying outorders. Such a method may be ended necessary for an oppressed class in theabsence of democracy, but it would not be promote the self-government andindependence of the masses, rather would it farther the Messiah-consciousnessof leaders, and their dictatorship habits. [92]
In April 1893, Engels had drawn up a new will namingSam Moore, Bernstein and Louise as his executers. All manuscript of a literarynature in the handwriting of Marx and all family letters written by oraddressed to him which shall be given by my executers to Eleanor Marx.Bernstein, who are very true friends.[93]
On March 26, 1895, Engels drew up a codicil to hiswill. Clarifying the position over Eleanor’s rights to her father’s letters andmanuscripts. Bernstein and Bebel to inherit Engels manuscripts, thecorrespondences with Marx, and Engels’ own authors’ rights. His personalbelongings were to be shared among Laura, Eleanor and Louise; Louise also toreceive all furniture and effects, as well as an option on the lease of thehouse. Pumps’ legacy was to be Pound 2230. [94] On May 26, 1895, Engelsdrew up the will, Bernstein and Bebel were to inherit Engels manuscripts, thecorrespondence with Marx, and Engels own author’s rights. His personalbelongings were to be shared among Laura, Eleanor and Louise Kautsky. On August5, he died peacefully. Engels leave the legacies Pound 5000 each to Laura andEleanor, to Pumps 2230.[95]
In August 1874 Eleanor accompanied Marx to Carlsbad,where he was taking a cure; return to London in early October, after stoppingat Dresden, Leipzg, Berlin, and Hamburg, where Marx visited his publisherMerssner. [96]In August 1876, Eleanor again accompany her father to Carlsbad, a total amnestyfor the French exiles was proclaimed in July 1880. [97]
On December 19, 1890, Eleanor wrote toLaura: “ Freddy (Demuth) has behaved admirably in all respects and Engel’sirritation against him is as unfair as it is comprehensible.  We should none of us like to meet our pasts,I guess, in flesh and blood. I know I always meet Freddy with a sense of guiltand of wrong done. The life of that man! To hear him tell of it all is a miseryand a shame to me.[98]
On July 26, 1892, Eleanor wrote toLaura: “Freddy’s wife some time ago ran away, taking with her not only most ofFreddy’s own things and money, but worst of all Pound 24 placed in his keepingby his fellow workmen…I cannot help feeling that Freddy has had great injusticeall through his life. [99]
Marx was the real father of Helen’s sonFreddy: Engels had loyally assumed paternity in order to avoid friction in theMarx family. It was only during Engels final illness that Sam Moore, one of hisexecutors, told Eleanor the truth. Eleanor insisted his deathbed, but Engelscould no longer speak: he had to confirm what Moore had told her by writing ona slate.[100]
In may 1891, in Paris thousand of unemployed workerscongregated in the place de la Concorde. Lafargue, campaigning of Frenchworkers party, arrested and sentenced a years imprisonment for incitement acrime. [101]
Eleanor wrote to Laura on November 11, 1893 mentionedthat “Louise has him (Engels) splendidly in hand, and he is happy as a schoolboy”; Pumps rose is hopelessly out of joint, was ruthlessly bundled off!” “youknow the general is always under the thumb of the ‘lady of the house”. WhenPumps was with him, she was good in his sight; now Pumps is dethroned andLouise is the Queen who can do no wrong. ( Feb 22, 1894 Eleanor to Laura)“thegeneral has been convinced that like Pumps I am only speculating on him, andonly jealous of Louise being in his house. Etc. ( on November 22, 1894 Eleanorto Laura)
General said he had given Karl Kautsky some Mohr’sManuscripts, but Karl had not gone on; that he did not know Bernstein wouldprobably refuse on the ground of want of time… I said I was sure Bernsteinwould gladly do the work. Just as Karl took the Manuscripts to Stattgart andBebel.( December 15, 1894 Eleanor to Laura)[102]
Laura bought the house, an imposing property withabout 30 rooms, gardener’s quarters, out buildings, conservations and an orangegrove.
On 8 June 1897, Aveling, using Alec Nelson namesecretly married  a 22 year old aspiringactress, Eva Frye, at Chelsea Register office. then continuing live withEleanor, at end of August, he taking with him everything of value in the houseand left a note with the address of an intermediate through whom Eleanor couldcontact with him. He had already spend more than half the money Engels left toEleanor. The truth might never known, Bernstein surmised Aveling had asked herto sell one of Marx’s manuscripts, she refused. [103] Eleanor turn to Freddybegged him to find Aveling. But on 1 Sept Aveling returning of his own accord,and they resumed their life together. The only clue is Eleanor’s a distressedletter to Freddy on 2 Sept 1897: “I am failing a most horrible position utterruin, everything, to the last penny, or utter, open disgrace”.[104] But word slightlydifference: “I am faced with a fearful situation, extreme ruin, everything tothe last farthing or utter disaster before the whole world.  ”[105]
Eleanor was also much concerned about Bernstein andhis increasing tendency toward revisionism. Liebknecht had been sentenced to 4months imprisonment under 1877 anti-socialist law. [106] “now we have not generalto influence Bernstein…of course, I know Bernstein would never misused anyletters ( of Mohr, Engels) (on 8 January 1898)[107]. On 31 March, 1898,Eleanor committed suicide by taking prussic acid, only 43 years old, 12 yearslater, Laura and her husband committed suicide too.
“Dear Freddy, It really seems as though we are being punished”.(on13 January 1898)[108] So dear, dear Freddycome, I am broken. My dearest Freddy, I know it is brutally selfish of me, butdear Freddy you are the only friend with whom I can be completely frank. I haveto deal with such heavy trouble, and all this without any help… I am a beast tocomplain to you. Forgive my egoism.[109] “Edward gone to Londontoday he donot want me to go with him, this is sheer crudity. I have nothingand I see nothing worth having for”. (3 Feb 1898); “ my dear Freddy, you havenot understand me at all. I am too deeply immersed in trouble to explainmyself. Much suffering has taught me to understand. (Feb 7, 1898)[110]
“my dear, dear Freddy, I regard you as one of thegreatest and best of the men I have known. It is a bad time for me. I fearthere is little to hope for, and the pain and suffering are great. Why we go onlike this ? I do not understand. I am ready to go and would do so with joy, butas long as he need help, I have a duty to remain. Dear Freddy, how I wish Icould talk with you. But I know it cannot be . your Tussy. [111]
Helene had practiced all the arts of self-sacrificewhile servicing the Marx family, she now performed the supreme art ofself-sacrifice by abandoning her son. In 1890, when she died a few days beforeher death, she made her son the sole legatee of an estate Pound 95. [112]
“Dear, it will soon be over. My last word to you isthe same that I have said during all those long sad years-love.” [113] My dear, dear Johnny(Longuet), my last word is for you. May it be your task to be worthy of yourgrandfather. Your Tussy.”
Herbert Spencer once declared that socialism wasslavery.


[1]John Spargo, Socialism A Summery and Interpretation of Socialist Principles,revised ed. NY, The Macmillan Co. 1909.p.6-7. quote the English translationform the London Clarion, December 18, 1905.

[2]Quote from D.G.Stewart-Smith, The Defeat of Communism, London Ludgate PressLimited. 1964, p.9.

[3]D.G.Stewart-Smith,The Defeat of Communism, London Ludgate Press Limited. 1964, p.9.

[4] H.F. Peters, Red Jenny, A lifewith Karl Marx,  London, Allen &Unwin 1986 p.68

[5] H.F. Peters, Red Jenny, A life withKarl Marx,  London, Allen & Unwin1986 p.71

[6]John Spargo, Socialism A Summery and Interpretation of Socialist Principles,revised ed. NY, The Macmillan Co. 1909.p.8

[7]Richard T.Ely, Socialism and Examination of its Nature, Strength, Weakness, andSocial Reform,NY, Thomasy Cowell & Publishers 1894.p.51. Ely was theprofessor of political science and history at university of Wisconsin.

[8]Richard T.Ely, Socialism 1894.p.96.

[9]Edward Clodd, Pioneers of Evolution from Thales to Huxley, p.1

[10]John Spargo, Socialism A Summary and Interpretation of socialist principles,NY, The Macmillan Co. 1913.p.77

[11]Richard T.Ely, Studies in the Evolution of Industrial society. P.3. quoteSpargo, 1913.79.

[12]Wilhelm Liebknecht, Karl Marx: Biographical Memoirs, p.101.

[13]F.Engels, Socialism, Utopian and Scientific, London, 1892,p.20-25.

[14] William Morris, E.Belfort Bax,Socialism Its Growth and Outcome, London Swan Somnen Sohein & Co.1893.p.208.

[15]H.B.Gibbins, The Industrial History of England, London, Methuen and Co.

[16]John Spargo, Socialism A Summary and Interpretation of socialist principles,NY, The Macmillan Co. 1913.p.45

[17] William Morris, E.Belfort Bax,Socialism Its Growth and Outcome, London Swan Somnen Sohein & Co.1893.p.211

[18]Engels, Socialism, Utopian and Scientific, p.15.

[19] William Morris, E.Belfort Bax,Socialism Its Growth and Outcome, London Swan Somnen Sohein & Co.1893.p.214.

[20] William Morris, E.Belfort Bax,Socialism Its Growth and Outcome, London Swan Somnen Sohein & Co.1893.p.214

[21]See The Open Society and Its Enemies Vol. II.p.122.

[22]Richard T.Ely, Socialism 1894.p.97

[23]Richard T.Ely, Socialism 1894.p.97

[24]John Spargo, Socialism A Summery and Interpretation of Socialist Principles,revised ed. NY, The Macmillan Co. 1909.p.71

[25]John Spargo, Socialism A Summery and Interpretation of Socialist Principles,revised ed. NY, The Macmillan Co. 1909.p.1

[26]Normon Thomas, Socialism On The Defensive, NY,Harper & Brothers Publishers1938, p.297

[27]Paul Milinkov, Bolshevism: An International Danger, NY, Charles Scribner’sSons, 1920, p.295.

[28] LouisBoudin, The Theoretical System of Karl Marx, Chicago, Charles H.Kerr & Co.1915.p.255.

[29]Louis Boudin, The Theoretical System of Karl Marx, Chicago, Charles H.Kerr &Co. 1915.p.256.

[30] Karl Mark and F. Engels CollectedWorks Vol.50. 1892-1895. NY International Publishers 2004 p.XV.

[31] Karl Mark and F. Engels CollectedWorks Vol.50. 1892-1895. NY International Publishers 2004 p.XVI.

[32] Karl Mark and F. Engels Collected WorksVol.50. 1892-1895. NY International Publishers 2004 p.XX.

[33] Karl Mark and F. Engels CollectedWorks Vol.I NY International Publishers1975 p.XIII.

[34] Karl Mark and F. Engels CollectedWorks Vol.I NY International Publishers1975 Vol.I XV.

[35] Robert Payne, The Unknown Marx, NYuniversity Press 1971,p. 328.

[36] Robert Payne, The Unknown Marx, NYuniversity Press 1971,p. 329

[37] Robert Payne, The Unknown Marx, NYuniversity Press 1971,p. 329

[38] Robert Payne, The Unknown Marx, NYuniversity Press 1971,p. 126

[39] H.F. Peters, Red Jenny, A lifewith Karl Marx,  London, Allen &Unwin 1986 p.xiii.

[40] Kapp Ivonne, Eleanor Marx (NY1972) p. 298.

[41] H.F. Peters, Red Jenny, A lifewith Karl Marx,  London, Allen &Unwin 1986 p.14 see also, Krosigk, Lutz graf Schwerin, Jenny Marx, & KarlMarx (Wnppertal 1975) p.17.

[42] H.F. Peters, Red Jenny, A lifewith Karl Marx,  London, Allen &Unwin 1986 p.14

[43] Krosigk, LutzGraf Schwerin, JennyMarx, and Karl Marx (Wappertal 1975) p. 14.

[44]MECW.Vol.I.1975.8-9.

[45] MEGA II,1,P.289

[46] H.F. Peters, Red Jenny, A life withKarl Marx,  London, Allen & Unwin1986 p.45

[47] H.F. Peters, Red Jenny, A lifewith Karl Marx,  London, Allen &Unwin 1986 p.22

[48] MEGA III,1, p.308.

[49]H.F. Peters, Red Jenny, A life with Karl Marx, London, Allen & Unwin 1986 p.47 see Nicolajcosky, Boris and DttoMacnchen, Helfen, Karl Marx: Man and Frighter (London 1976) p.125.

[50] Heine Heinrich, SamtlicheSchriften,ed Klans Briegleb (Munich 1974) p.103.

[51] Ronald Florence, Marx Daughters,Eleanor Marx. The Dial press NY. 1975. P.11.

[52] Robert Payne, The Unknown Marx, NYuniversity Press 1971,p.10

[53] Robert Payne, The Unknown Marx, NYuniversity Press 1971,p.6

[54]John Spargo, Socialism A Summery and Interpretation of Socialist Principles,revised ed. NY, The Macmillan Co. 1909.p.69

[55] Robert Payne, The Unknown Marx, NYuniversity Press 1971,P.8

[56] Robert Payne, The Unknown Marx, NYuniversity Press 1971,P.8-9

[57] Robert Payne, The Unknown Marx, NYuniversity Press 1971, P.9

[58]Robert Payne, The Unknown Marx, NYuniversity Press 1971, P.21

[59] Robert Payne, The Unknown Marx, NYuniversity Press 1971,P.9

[60] Robert Payne, The Unknown Marx, NYuniversity Press 1971,P.12

[61] Robert Payne, The Unknown Marx, NYuniversity Press 1971,P.14

[62] Robert Payne, The Unknown Marx, NYuniversity Press 1971,P.15

[63] Robert Payne, The Unknown Marx, NYuniversity Press 1971,P.16

[64] Robert Payne, The Unknown Marx, NYuniversity Press 1971,p.17

[65] H.F. Peters, Red Jenny, A life withKarl Marx,  London, Allen & Unwin1986 p.79

[66] H.F. Peters, Red Jenny, A life withKarl Marx,  London, Allen & Unwin1986 p.88

[67] H.F. Peters, Red Jenny, A life withKarl Marx,  London, Allen & Unwin1986 p.90

[68] H.F. Peters, Red Jenny, A life withKarl Marx,  London, Allen & Unwin1986 p.101

[69] H.F. Peters, Red Jenny, A life withKarl Marx,  London, Allen & Unwin1986 p.112

[70]Vogt Karl, Main Prozeb die Allgemeine Zeitung (Grent 1859)p.151.f.

[71]MEW.30.11.

[72] H.F. Peters, Red Jenny, A life withKarl Marx,  London, Allen & Unwin1986 p.127

[73] H.F. Peters, Red Jenny, A life withKarl Marx,  London, Allen & Unwin1986 p.129

[74] Robert Payne, The Unknown Marx, NYuniversity Press 1971,P.20

[75] Robert Payne, The Unknown Marx, NYuniversity Press 1971,p.20

[76]Robert Payne, The Unknown Marx, NYuniversity Press 1971, P.21

[77] Robert Payne, The Unknown Marx, NYuniversity Press 1971,p. P.22

[78] H.F. Peters, Red Jenny, A life withKarl Marx,  London, Allen & Unwin1986 p.134

[79] H.F. Peters, Red Jenny, A life withKarl Marx,  London, Allen & Unwin1986 p.141

[80] H.F. Peters, Red Jenny, A life withKarl Marx,  London, Allen & Unwin1986 p.145

[81] H.F. Peters, Red Jenny, A life withKarl Marx,  London, Allen & Unwin1986 p.157

[82]K.Marx, F.Engels Collected works Vol. I, International Publishers New York,1975. Preface P.xv.

[83] Robert Payne, The Unknown Marx, NYuniversity Press 1971,P.26

[84] Robert Payne, The Unknown Marx, NYuniversity Press 1971,P.27

[85] Robert Payne, The Unknown Marx, NYuniversity Press 1971,P.28

[86] Robert Payne, The Unknown Marx, NYuniversity Press 1971,P.29

[87]Robert Payne, The Unknown Marx, NYuniversity Press 1971, P.30

[88] Robert Payne, The Unknown Marx, NYuniversity Press 1971,p.29

[89] H.F. Peters, Red Jenny, A lifewith Karl Marx,  London, Allen &Unwin 1986 p.68

[90] H.F. Peters, Red Jenny, A life withKarl Marx,  London, Allen & Unwin1986 p.71

[91]Karl Kautsky, The Dictatorship of the Proletariat (University of Michigan PressAnn Arber 1964, 1919 ed) p.140.

[92]Karl Kautsky, The Dictatorship of the Proletariat (University of Michigan PressAnn Arber 1964, 1919 ed) p.19-20

[93] The Daughters of Karl Marx: FamilyCorrespondence 1866-1898.p.253.

[94] The Daughters of Karl Marx: FamilyCorrespondence 1866-1898. p.268

[95] The Daughters of Karl Marx: FamilyCorrespondence 1866-1898. Introduction by Sheila Rowbotham, translated by FaithEvans. Andre Deatsch, 1982. p.268

[96] The Daughters of Karl Marx: FamilyCorrespondence 1866-1898. Introduction by Sheila Rowbotham, translated by FaithEvans. Andre Deatsch, 1982. p.116

[97] The Daughters of Karl Marx: FamilyCorrespondence 1866-1898. Introduction by Sheila Rowbotham, translated by FaithEvans. Andre Deatsch, 1982. p.123.

[98] The Daughters of Karl Marx: FamilyCorrespondence 1866-1898. Introduction by Sheila Rowbotham, translated by FaithEvans. Andre Deatsch, 1982. p.224

[99] The Daughters of Karl Marx: FamilyCorrespondence 1866-1898. Introduction by Sheila Rowbotham, translated by FaithEvans. Andre Deatsch, 1982. p.240

[100]The Daughters of Karl Marx:Family Correspondence 1866-1898. Introduction by Sheila Rowbotham, translatedby Faith Evans. Andre Deatsch, 1982. p.222

[101]The Daughters of Karl Marx:Family Correspondence 1866-1898. Introduction by Sheila Rowbotham, translatedby Faith Evans. Andre Deatsch, 1982. p.227

[102]The Daughters of Karl Marx: FamilyCorrespondence 1866-1898. p.261

[103]The Daughters of Karl Marx:Family Correspondence 1866-1898. p.297

[104]Robert Payne, The UnknownMarx: Documents concerning Karl Marx, NY university Press 1971,P.333.

[105]The Daughters of Karl Marx:Family Correspondence 1866-1898. p.297

[106]The Daughters of Karl Marx:Family Correspondence 1866-1898. p.298

[107]The Daughters of Karl Marx:Family Correspondence 1866-1898. p.301

[108]The Daughters of Karl Marx:Family Correspondence 1866-1898. p.333.

[109]The Daughters of Karl Marx: FamilyCorrespondence 1866-1898. p.334.

[110]The Daughters of Karl Marx:Family Correspondence 1866-1898. p.336.

[111]The Daughters of Karl Marx:Family Correspondence 1866-1898. p.336-7.

[112]The Daughters of Karl Marx:Family Correspondence 1866-1898. p.328

[113]Robert Payne, The UnknownMarx: Documents concerning Karl Marx, NY university Press 1971,P.326


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