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100 Famous Women in China

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 楼主| 发表于 4/7/2019 07:17:32 | 显示全部楼层
83. Yuan Lingyu 阮玲玉 (died early and had largest funeral internationally)
Yuan Lingyu (04/26/1910—03/08/1935) was born in Shanghai. She reached the highest level of acting arts in the time of silent films. Her father died when she was only six years old. She lived with her mother. At the age of eight, she entered Shanghai Shung Tak Female School. She was clever and studied hard. She was one of the best students so that she was often chosen to attend singing and dancing performances. She thus developed her interest in acting.
        In 1926 when she was sixteen, she was admitted to Shanghai Mingxing Film Company and began her filming career. Her maiden movie was Couples Only in Name, and others. In 1928, she went to work with another film company and acted in six movies. In 1930, she worked for still another film company. She had the main role in Three Modern Females. She acted in twenty-nine movies all her short life.
        On the eighth of March in 1935, at the age of twenty-five, she made suicide by taking too much sleeping pills. The reason for it was that her husband often ill-treated, even beat her. She could not endure it any more. When the husband found her taking too much sleeping pills, he did not send her to the nearest hospital for treatment immediately, he was first considering whether her suicide would harm his reputation. So he took her to a Japanese hospital far from home. But this hospital did not have emergency room. He then took her to a private clinic of his friend's. But this clinic could not do it. Finally he took her to a big hospital at eleven in the next morning after so many hours. Her life was not saved.
        Her early sad death shocked Shanghai and her fans when newspapers reported it. At the funeral ceremony, even three of her fans made suicide on spot. They left their will, saying that when Yuan was gone, there was no reason for the trio to live in this world. Three hundred thousand people attended her funeral and the procession lasted three li (half a kilometer). Next day, the New York Times had the headline like this “The recent largest funeral internationally.”
 楼主| 发表于 4/14/2019 07:05:03 | 显示全部楼层
84. Jiang Qing  江青 (Mao's fourth wife)

Jiang Qing (03/05/1914—05/14/1991) was born in Zhu Town of Shandong province. Her original name was Li Yunhe.  Her father Li Dewen opened a carpentry shop. Her mother was his concubine, who had been a maidservant. (She might be hired by Kang Sheng, later a communist party member in YanAn.) In the summer of 1921, Jiang Qing studied in a primary school, but in 1926, was expelled by the school. Her father died of some disease in the same year and her mother took her to live with her brother-in-law in Tianjin city, who was an officer in the army of the warlord Zhang Zuolin (03/19/1875—06/04/1928), who ruled the northeastern China. Jiang Qing had worked for three months as a child laborer in the factory of British-American Tobacco Co., Ltd.
        In 1928, the troop of the brother-in-law moved to somewhere else, and her mother took her to live with her cousin in JiNan city of Shandong province. In spring of 1929, when she was fifteen years old, she learned to be an actress in a theater in the city. In May of 1931, she married a man from a wealthy family, but got divorced in July. Then she went to Qingdao city, close to the East Sea. From July of 1931 to April of 1933, she worked in a library there.
        But in February of 1932, at the age of eighteen, she lived with (not married to) Yu Qiwei, three years older than she. He was a university student, majoring in biography, who was also the leader of the propaganda department of the communist party there, and had contact with those in the circle of so-called communist culture. She had acted a one-scene play named Put down your whip, which could be performed in the street in protest to the Japanese aggression. In February of 1933, she took oath and joined the communist party through Yu Qiwei in a warehouse in Qingdao city.
        In April, Yu was arrested and she ran away to Shanghai. In May of 1933, she attended The Great China University as an auditor student. In July she worked as a music teacher in a primary school in the western suburb of Shanghai, and acted in some amateur plays after work. In September of 1934, she was arrested, but in February, 1935, she was released and went to Peking to live with Yu Qiwei again, who had been released, too. But in March, she returned to Shanghai to join the Diantong Film Company, using her stage name Lanping. She acted the heroine in the play Nara, and got good comments. Afterwards, she played some roles in two movies. In September, she lived with Tanner, a movie commenter. In April of 1936, she married Tanner. The ceremony was held together with other two couples, before Liuhe Pagoda in Hangzhou city in the moonlight. A romantic ritual. As she still kept in touch with Yu Qiwei, in July, Tanner could not bear it and committed suicide in vain.
        Then She went back to Shanghai and joined the Lianhua Film Company. She had a role in the film Blood on Wolf Mountain. In February of 1937, she acted in the drama Thunderstorm. On the thirtieth day of May, Tanner attempted the second suicide, but still of no avail. Afterwards he went to France and lived there forever. In July of 1937, as the Anti-Japanese War broke out, she left Shanghai, and in August, she arrived in YanAn and changed her name to Jiang Qing. In November, she was enrolled in the Anti-Japanese Military and Political University.
        On the tenth day of April in 1938, the Lu Xun Arts College was founded and she was appointed the instructor of the drama department. She acted in two dramas, and in August, acted in a Peking opera. Her efforts were appreciated and soon afterwards, she was promoted to be the secretary in the office of the military committee, close to Mao now. It was said that she often went to see Mao and asked for instructions from him. The intimacy changed their relationship and soon she lived with Mao, in place of his current wife He Zizhen, who was studying in Moscow, Soviet Union, at the time. In 1939, she married Mao. But at the time, she had not been divorced to Tanner yet and Mao had not been divorced to He Zizhen yet. Both committed bigamy.
        Therefore, quite a few communist party leaders opposed the marriage. Zhang Wentian was the chief opposer, who maintained his opinion that He Zizhen was a good comrade and must be respected as a legal wife. Besides, She had been hurt in the long march and could not be ignored like this. Wang Shiying had been in Shanghai and knew all the love affairs of Jiang Qing, which were really scandals. And as the chief leader of the communist party, Mao should not marry a woman with such scandals. So he wrote a letter about the scandals. He asked Nan Hanchen to sign the letter, too, who also worked in Shanghai and knew all these. (both were persecuted to death by Jiang Qing in the cultural revolution.) Only Kang Sheng (1898—1975) supported their marriage.
        Then the communist party had a meeting and put up three conditions: 1) Jiang Qing should not interfere with political affairs; 2) Jiang Qing could not take any office inside or outside the communist party; 3) Jiang Qing's main task was to look after Mao in his health and personal life.
        When CPC reigned the mainland, she was a member of National Movie Advisory committee and the head of movie bureau of the propaganda department of the central committee of CPC. In 1963, under Mao's secret instruction, she raised up the leftist thinking in name of Beijing opera revolution as she had learned how to play Beijing opera. She created eight so-called model Beijing operas. All the old things and classics were forbidden.
        In May of 1966, she was appointed the vice leader of central cultural revolution group, and then  the proxy leader. At the ninth and tenth national CPC conference, she was appointed a member of the central political bureau of CPC. She instigated the red guards to criticize many old CPC cadres. She secretly instructed her followers to persecute actors and actresses, who knew her scandals in Shanghai and most of whom were tortured to death. In 1971, after the Lin Biao's Incident, she and Wang Hongwen, Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan formed the so-called gang of four. They wanted to seize the power out of the remaining old cadres and ruled China all by themselves. But they failed with the death of Mao.
        On the sixth day of October in 1976, the gang of four were respectively arrested. In July of 1977, she was expelled from CPC at a CPC central meeting. During the period from the twentieth day of November in 1980 to the twenty-fifth day of January in 1981, the gang of four respectively got verdicts. Jiang Qing was sentenced to death, but got two years' probation. Then the sentence was reduced for life. On the fourteenth day of May in 1991, during her release on medical parole, she made her suicide.
        Jiang Qing had a daughter with Mao, born in 1940 and called Li Na, who is alive now in her retirement.
 楼主| 发表于 4/21/2019 07:22:48 | 显示全部楼层
85. Wang Renmei 王人美  (an actress nicknamed The Wildcat of Shanghai)

Wang Renmei (12/24/1914—04/12/1987) was born in Changsha town of HuNan province in a teacher's family. Her father was a mathematics teacher in the First Normal School of the province. Even Mao Zedong had been his student. So the girl had good education since childhood. She had brothers and sisters, seven in all, including herself, the youngest sister. Her mother died of stroke when she was only seven and in a primary school.
        In 1926, she graduated from the primary school, and was admitted to the First Female Normal School of the province. She liked mathematics and wanted to be a mathematics teacher like her father. On the nineteenth of September in the same year, her father was stung by wasps and died from it.
        Her eldest brother had been to Germany for university, known Zhou Enlai there. But when he returned, he died of some sort of disease. In 1927, after the death of her father and mother, her family members scattered and she went with her two brothers to Wuxi city, where the family of the wife of her second brother lived.
        At the beginning of 1928, her two brothers took her to Shanghai. She and her third brother entered  the Methodist Girls' School, where she learned singing and dancing while her brother learned mandolin. As her second brother knew the founder of the Mingyue Singing & Dancing Troupe, the trio soon worked for it. She was the singer and dancer. Her third brother played mandolin and her second brother was in charge of costumes and the arrangement of the scenes.
        In May of 1928, the troupe made a tour around East Asia, to Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Penang, Bangkok, Malacca, Jakarta, and Sumatera, and other cities. In 1929, the troupe was dismissed. She went back to Shanghai and learned English for a year in a school. While she was learning English, she rehearsed a children's play called Little Painter, which was a success. Therefore, the school hired her as a singing teacher and she then got pay.
        In 1931, she became a movie actress. She played the main role in the movie Wild Roses. In 1934, she acted in the movie Songs of Fishermen, which continued to show in cinemas for eighty-four days, the longest period among all movies shown. It attracted a million of audience, and in 1935, she won the Honorary Award of the international film festival held in Moscow, Soviet Union. It was the first award for a Chinese movie star to have won.
        Anyway, in spite of the great success, the company discontinued her contract because they thought that a married woman would lose her attraction to the audience. However, she did marry the actor, who was the main male character in this movie. In 1937, when Japanese army occupied Shanghai, the Japanese wanted her husband to make a movie for them, but he declined. In autumn of 1938, with the help of friends, the couple escaped to Hong Kong. In 1939, the couple were invited to act in the movie Wings of China, and they accepted. This movie described the development of the air force of China.
        When the Japanese took Hong Kong, they escaped to Chongqing city, the temporary capital of the Chinese government. Then the couple often lived separately. At the end of 1943, the husband went to Chengdu city and in 1944, invited by the Roc Drama Club, she went to Kunming city to act the drama Peacock. Soon the club was dismissed. To make her living, she had to work as a typist in the supplies department of the American military base there. The husband could not bear the separation, and so they divorced in 1945.
        After the surrender of Japan, she returned to Shanghai, and then moved to Hong Kong. In 1950, she came back to Shanghai again under the influence of the propaganda of CPC. But in 1952, when CPC waged the rectification movement in the film circle, she was slandered to have the intercourse with KMD spy head Dai Li. She was almost insane and was sent to an asylum. Then her second sister took her to Beijing and she was by degrees recovered. Then she was assigned to work in Beijing Film Factory. In 1955, through the introduction of friends, she married a painter. They often quarreled owing to different characters. However, they maintained the marriage till her death.
        In 1957 during the anti-rightist movement, she was sick again and her husband sent her to an asylum again. Anyway, she handed in her applications for joining CPC. During the cultural revolution, she was sent to labor in the countryside. And her husband was put in jail as a KMD spy for seven years. In 1979, she was redressed and her application to join CPC was approved.
        In 1980, she got a stroke and paralyzed on bed. In 1986, she got stroke once more and became human vegetable. On the twelfth of April in 1987, she died in Beijing at the age of seventy-three. In 2003, she was chosen by the film Acting Arts Academy of China to be one of the one-hundred excellent movie stars in the one-hundred years in China. In 2013, Prof. Richard J. Meyer of Seattle University wrote a book about her, titled Wang Renmei: The Wildcat of Shanghai published by the press of The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
 楼主| 发表于 4/28/2019 06:31:00 | 显示全部楼层
86. Chen Yanyan 陈燕燕  (an actress nicknamed Queen of Tragedies)

Chen Yanyan (01/12/1916—05/07/1999) was the daughter of a mandarin, born in Ningpo town of Zhejiang province adjacent to the East Sea. Soon her family moved to Peking. She went to the Moira House Girls School. In 1930 when she was fourteen, she began to like filming. After school, she often went to see film shooting of outdoor scenes by any film companies.
        Once when the movie Spring Dream of Old Capital was in shooting process, she went to the conductor and recommended herself. As she was pretty and lovely, the conductor let her play a side role. She must wear long fur coat and high-heeled shoes, flirting with a bodyguard of some officer. She was only fourteen, and had no such experience. She failed the performance. The part of the film was cut off. Anyway, she was a potential movie star. The conductor went to her home to talk with her parents. As she persevered in her wish to be an actress, her mother agreed first. Originally her father did not like his daughter to be an actress. At last, he yielded to the mother. So the mother accompanied her to Shanghai. Thus she started her filming career.
        At first she worked as a trainee, and sometimes helped in the darkroom. Then she played some side roles. Gradually her performing ability was acknowledged in the film circle. She acted in Maternal light, Three Modern Ladies, etc. She was apt to play young girls. So she had the nickname: Little Pretty Bird. In 1936, she acted in New & Old Times, etc. In 1938, she filmed Story of Lute, etc. In 1942, she acted in Madame Butterfly, etc. When she reached mid-age, she acted some tragic roles and was nicknamed Queen of Tragedies.
        She got married to the cameraman of the company in 1937 and bore a daughter for him. But soon there was a conflict between them and finally they divorced. Afterwards, she married Wang Hao, an actor. In 1949, they moved to Hong Kong. In 1952, they founded a film company of their own. They shot outside scenes in Hong Kong or Taiwan. When the husband betrayed her, they divorced. And she lived single ever since. She stopped acting in 1972. And in 1993, she was conferred the Memorial Award of the Golden Horse Awards. She died on the seventh of May in 1999 at the age of eighty-three.
 楼主| 发表于 5/5/2019 07:01:55 | 显示全部楼层
87. Gong Qiuxia 龔秋霞 (a famous actress and singer with silver voice)

Gong Qiuxia (12/04/1916—09/07/2004) was born in Chongming town of Jiangsu province, which is now part of Shanghai. She was known to have the silver voice. In 1930, she was a student in Renshan Girls School in Shanghai, and at the same time she was admitted in a training class for singing and dancing. In 1933, she joined Shanghai Plum Singing & Dancing Ensemble. During that time, she acted in drama and operas, such as Imperial Concubine Yang, Backstage, etc. But she soon felt that it was not a regular acting troupe, and so she left it. Then the troupe was dismissed.
        In 1936, she had a part in the movie Parents and Offspring. It was her first movie. She married the conductor. In 1937, she acted in New Year's Money, for which she won great fame. Every New Year's Day in China, parents would give children money put in a red envelope, meaning good luck for the whole year. Another famous movie for her was Strange Case in an Ancient Pagoda. She also sang the theme song of the movie herself. Then she sang theme songs for other movies. Those songs soon became popular. She had a contract with a gramophone company to make records. She was both the singer and actress.
        In May of 1945, she held a personal concert to sing most of all the popular theme songs she had sung in movies in Lyceum Theater, Shanghai. After 1949, she acted in more than sixty movies, such as Flower Street, Harvest Moon, Thunder, and Three Smiles, etc. She played the role of a good wife. After 1956, she had no more gramophone records made. In 1967, she and her husband moved to live in Taiwan. The last movie she acted in 1980 was Rouge. In 1993, she attended the International Film Festival in Shanghai. On the seventh of September in 2004, she died of heat disease in Hong Kong at the age of eighty-seven.
 楼主| 发表于 5/12/2019 07:32:46 | 显示全部楼层
88. Yuan Meiyun 袁美云 (first actress in China acting a boy)

Yuan Meiyun(1917—02/19/1999)was born in Hangzhou city of Zhejiang province. She began to learn Peking opera at six and acted on the stage at nine. When her father died, her mother, for five hundred yuan, let her daughter of ten learn acting further from an expert in that field. Her performance was applauded by audience, which attracted the attention of a movie conductor.
        In 1932, at the age of fifteen, she acted in the film Little Actress. The heroine in the film had almost the same experience as she, and so she acted the role like living her own life. The film was a great success. She was then nicknamed Little Actress. In 1933, after she finished some more films, she took the main role in a film shooting an Peking opera. As she learned Peking opera as a little girl, her performance in that movie was excellent. Then in the movie Disguised Girl, she acted a boy, which was a comedy. The movie was welcomed by the audience. Therefore, it became a serial.
        In 1937 when Shanghai was occupied by the Japanese, she filmed The Lady of the Camellias, Sunrise, Lady's Fan, etc.  In 1938, she went to Hong Kong and filmed Female Master there. In 1944, she acted the hero, not the heroine, in the Red Chamber Dream. Once she had an accident. At that time, all the film studio in China had an underground level like basement. When it was night and she went to her dressing room to change. She missed a step and got the fall. She rolled through the staircase into the basement and fainted. Luckily she only hurt her knees as there were wooden chips and nails. When the film Red Chamber Dream finished, she gained a bit weight and did not look so good on the screen as before. Her health got poor and she stopped acting in 1948.
        In 1938, she and her husband joined the same film company and they began to like each other. Afterwards, her husband turned to be the conductor. When she stopped filming, she helped her husband to make the films. They returned to the mainland in the eighties and lived a retired life there till their last days.
 楼主| 发表于 5/19/2019 07:45:20 | 显示全部楼层
89. Bai Hong 白虹 (the first singer queen in China)

Bai Hong (02/24/1919—05/28/1992) was born in Peking in a mandarin family. At the beginning of 1931, Shanghai Mingyue Singing & Dancing Ensemble came to Peking to enroll singers and dancers. At the time she was twelve, lovely with white skin. She was accepted and went to Shanghai with the ensemble. Thus she began her career.
        At first she acted operas on stage, such as Three Butterflies, Grape Fairy, Little Painter, etc. Her acting ability was acknowledged. In 1932, her first song was recorded for the gramophone, and through 1933, she already produced many gramophone records. Then the ensemble put an advertisement to introduce her, which made her popular. At that time, many famous singers sang their favorite songs on radios. They earned income from the radio broadcast with business advertisements.
        In 1934, the newspaper Grand Evening Post in Shanghai held a competition for female radio singers. They would put the information on their newspaper for which singer, at what time, on which radio and what song she would sing. Audience could listen to whichever singer they liked and then voted for her. The competition began on the twenty-sixth of May and ended on the fourteenth of June. The result was that Bai Hong was voted the first with 9103 votes and Zhou Xuan was the second with 8876 votes. Their photos appeared separately on the cover of Singer Illustrated Magazine, which was first published in August of 1935. She was the first singer queen in China.
        In 1934, she acted in the musical film Fairy Maidens and also sang the theme song. In April of 1936, the Mingyue Singing & Dancing Ensemble held a performance for their fifteenth anniversary in Jincheng Theater. The five-scene opera Fairy Maidens was performed. More than sixty famous actors and actresses joined the performance with Bai Hong as the heroine. It was a great success. Afterwards, they went to perform in Nanking city and every night was full house. In July of 1936, the troupe had a tour in the south Asia for one year and returned to Shanghai next July. In 1938, drama acting became popular in Shanghai. She acted the main character in Thunder, and then in Sunrise.
        Between 1938 and 1940, she filmed Lady's Fan, Three Musketeers, and Empress Wu the Great, etc., and also sang the theme songs. From the thirty-first of December in 1940  to the fourth of January in 1941, she performed the European-styled opera Song of the Earth, which described the rebellion of the villagers in the south of the Yangtze River, and which hinted that the Chinese people rose against the Japanese. Therefore, it was forced to stop.
        In late 1942, they rehearsed the three-scene opera Song of the Fashion. Round the Chinese New Year in 1943, the opera was shown in Majestic Theater. But as she was exhausted in the rehearsals, once she fainted on the stage. The performance ceased. She was sick for some time. In December of 1944, she held her own concert in Suzhou city. Then two days in January of 1945, she gave her solo concert in Lyceum Theater n Shanghai. The songs she sang were Ave Maria by Schubert, Merry Widow Waltz, Carmen, and many Chinese popular tunes.
        In 1936, she married a composer, who was more than ten years older than she, and they had four children. After the surrender of Japan, for most of her time, she sang on the stage, and her husband was the conductor of the orchestra. But on the twenty-fourth of January in 1950, they declared  divorce. Then she went to live in Beijing. In August that year, she married an actor. Afterwards, she joined a military ensemble as an actress. She acted the dramas Sunrise and Mother, etc.
        During the cultural revolution, she was persecuted and put in prison as she had known the scandals of Jiang Qing when in Shanghai. Luckily she survived. She retired in 1979. But not long after, she was diagnosed to suffer from cancer and died on the twenty-eighth of May in 1992 at the age of seventy-two.
 楼主| 发表于 5/26/2019 08:44:18 | 显示全部楼层
90. Chen Yunshang 陳雲裳 (Film Queen of China)

Chen Yunshang (08/10/1919—06/30/2016) was born in Hong Kong, but her family moved to Canton when she was a little child. She had an English name: Nancy Chan. Since a child she learned mandarin, Peking opera, and Canton opera, which means to use Canton dialect in the dialogue. She was beautiful, and could sing and dance. In 1933, at the age of fourteen, she joined a film company. In 1936, she was invited to Hong Kong to act in The New Youth, which earned her popularity. In the subsequent four years, she had more than twenty films made in the dialect of Cantonese.
        In 1938, she was invited to Shanghai to act the role of Mulan in Mulan Joins the Army, in the language of mandarin, which also became popular and for which she won the Film Queen of China held the third time in Shanghai. During the next five years, she had more than twenty films made in mandarin. In ten years she had fifty-seven films in all. An astonishing number.
        In 1945, she married a practitioner in Hong Kong, Therefore, she retired from the screen and set her heart on looking after her husband and family. She seldom participated in social activities. She lived peacefully in Hong Kong till her death on the thirtieth of June in 2016 at home at the age of ninety-six.
 楼主| 发表于 6/2/2019 07:44:43 | 显示全部楼层
91. Yin Guifang 尹桂芳 (a famous actress of Shaoxing opera)

Yin Guifang (12/01/1919—03/01/2000) was born in a poor family. Her father died when she was only seven. She was a famous actress of Shaoxing opera or Yue opera, like Beijing opera. Shaoxing is a town in Zhejiang province, which has a simplified name Yue. There are many local operas in China. Beijing opera is only one of them. In every opera, the actors and actresses sing in different dialects. The dialogue or words of songs in Beijing opera  are said or sung in mandarin. Those of Shaoxing opera are said or sung in Shaoxing dialect.
        Yin always acted the main male character. In Shaoxing opera, only actresses perform. No actors traditionally. So the male characters were played by actresses attired like actors, yet in female voices. Nowadays, Shaoxing opera had a little reform. Actors were trained to play male roles.
        At the age of ten, she began to learn the acting of Shaoxing opera in Sheng town in Zhejiang province, which was deemed the “homeland” of Shaoxing opera. In 1933, she went with her troupe on a performing tour to Shaoxing, Ninpo, and Hangzhou, and some other towns. At the end of 1934, another troupe needed an actress to play as an actor. Therefore, she was invited to go there. Thus she became famous.
        In 1938, she came to Shanghai and soon in 1940, she became the chief actress in the troupe. Generally the performance of Shaoxing opera was about old stories, that is to say, the costumes were of the old styles like people wore in the ancient China. In 1942, despite the opposition of the owner of the theater, she insisted in playing modern stories, that is to say, the actresses wore modern costumes, like people in the forties of the nineteenth century wore. The owner objected to it because he was afraid that the change might affect his box office earnings. Anyway, the new opera Gold and Beauty was on in June, which was welcomed by the audience. The new notion was a success.
        In spring of 1945, she invited some play writers to write new operas, such as Desert Prince, and The Love's Dream, etc. However, at the same time, they also acted some old operas like Baoyu and Daiyu, both were the names of the hero and heroine in the well-known novel Red Chamber Dream. They did this to meet the wish of part of the audience who liked to watch old stories. In 1946, she and her partner founded their own troupe. Besides the former operas, they had a new opera Begonias, which was the nickname of an actor in the opera. It was a tragedy.
        In 1947, when another famous actress of Shaoxing opera want to have benefit performance for the people in some disastrous regions, she supported the action and gave up her own plan to make a film. In 1948, she was voted to be the “Emperor of Yue Opera”  because she acted the male role. In 1952, she performed The Tale of West Chamber and The Tale of Liang Shanbo and Zhu Yingtai, another tragedy. In 1954, there was a joint performance for many local operas. Their opera Qu Yuan won the first prize for the play, the acting, and the music. The Character Qu Yuan was a patriotic poet as well as a high-rank official in Chu state in the first warring period (770—221 BC). In 1955, she was selected as the so-called people's representative of Shanghai municipal conference.
        In 1959, her troupe was relocated to Fuzhou town in Fujian province across to Taiwan, and she was chosen to be the people's representative of the town's conference. In 1960, she was accepted to be a member of CPC. During the cultural revolution, she was beaten by the local red guards and became handicapped. One of her legs and one of her arms were paralyzed as her spine was damaged. In 1978, after the arrest of the gang of four, she was rewarded with a lot of titles: member of national literary federation, vice chairwoman of Fujian branch of national dramatist association of China, and member of Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) in Fujian province. In 1979, though paralyzed, she went to Shanghai to hold her solo concert, helped by Shaoxing Opera theater of Shanghai and the Academy of Arts of China. In the concert, she sang some famous pieces of her tune in her opera Memory of My Country. In 1986, they held the celebration of their fortieth anniversary of their troupe. From the tenth to the seventeenth of December in 1990, the troupe went to perform in Hong Kong. On the first of March in 2000, she died, leaving her arts of Shaoxing opera for her disciples to inherit.
 楼主| 发表于 6/9/2019 07:19:35 | 显示全部楼层
92. Zhou Xuan 周璇  (a movie star and singer with golden voice)
Zhou Xuan (08/01/1920—09/22/1957) was born in Changzhou town of Jiangsu province. She was the second child of the eight sisters and brothers. In 1923, she was kidnapped by her uncle, who liked to smoke opium. The uncle gave her to a Wang family in another town for the exchange of some money. When Wang couple divorced, they gave her to a Zhou family in Shanghai, which gave her the chance to be a movie star.
        She liked to sing, and at school, her grade in the singing class was always the first. In 1928, the family was broke and the adoptive father wanted to sell her to a brothel, but her adoptive mother strongly objected to it. In 1931, she joined the Mingyue Singing & Dancing Ensemble. In 1932, she acted the main role in the musical drama Express Train on stage, and sang the theme song, which became popular and was made in the gramophone record. In the same year, she performed in another musical drama.
        At the beginning of 1934, after her performance on stage for some time, she was invited to sing on radio. Then she was the second in the radio singer competition and got the nickname golden voice. In 1935, she was invited to act in her first film Children of Trouble Time. Only she had a side role. But it was the first step for her to enter the film circle. In 1936 she acted the main role in four films.
        In 1937, she acted in the musical film for some business advertisement, which was not so welcome as others, but the theme song When Will You Come Again was very popular. Almost all people in Shanghai knew it and the records sold well. Her most popular film was Street Angel, in which two theme songs were especially welcomed by the public. They were Wandering Songstress and Song of four Seasons. Afterwards, she joined the performing tour in Hong Kong and Philippines. She returned with the troupe in the summer of 1938.  
        In February of 1940, she took the part of the heroine in the film Dong Xiaowan (see above), who was a famous prostitute at the end of Ming dynasty. In June of the same year, she acted in the famous love comedy Three Smiles, and in December, she acted in the movie Tale of the West Chamber.   In 1941, Shanghai Daily held an activity to vote for film queen. She was voted to be the film queen, but she refused to take  the title, because she thought that too much honor was not a good thing.
        In June of 1944, she accepted the role of the heroine in the film Red Chamber Dream.  It was the first Chinese film that was introduced to Japan. In March of 1945, she began to act in the film Phoenix on the Wing. And in May of the same year, she gave her solo concert for three days in Jindu Theater in Shanghai, singing all her popular songs.
        In winter of 1946, she was invited to fly to Hong Kong and in January next year she began to shoot her first film in Hong Kong. Her theme song Night of Shanghai became a popular song ever since. In the same year, she shot another film, in which she played two different roles: a village girl, kind and naive; a Hong Kong girl, naughty and haughty. In 1948, she acted in the film Secrets of Qing Palace, which was another of her master pieces and which attracted international attention for a Chinese female movie star.
        She returned to Shanghai from Hong Kong in 1950. And in January of 1951, she was invited to play the main role in the film Dove of Peace, but during the shooting, she fell sick and was diagnosed of some kind of nerve disease. She was sent to a nursing home. In July of 1957, she got meningitis and was sent to the hospital. She died of that disease on the twenty-second of September.
        In autumn of 1936, she got engagement with a composer and married him on the tenth of July in 1938. The marriage lasted for three years. Then each suspected the other of having affairs with someone else. After a series of quarrels, Zhou Xuan left home and they got divorced in 1941. Then she lived together with a cloth businessman without a formal marriage. She had two sons with him. Then it was rumored that the man cheated her out of her money. So in 1950, she made open declaration to stop living together with him. Then she knew a painting teacher. But when she prepared to marry him in May of 1952, the teacher was arrested for cheating and sentenced for three years' service. She lived alone till her death.
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