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楼主: 郭国汀

中共政权酷刑研究报告(修正版)

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 楼主| 发表于 2/8/2018 16:39:12 | 显示全部楼层
It would be hard to read a national
newspaper on any given day without finding a reference to
death squads, disappearances, torture, mutilation, mass rape,
siege and starvation of civilian populations, or arrests of dissi-
          dents somewhere in the world.[1]

[1] A recent search of the NEXIS database revealed that during the last two
years there were approximately 87,000 news articles in the United States which
mentioned the term "human rights."



 楼主| 发表于 2/8/2018 17:02:14 | 显示全部楼层
First-generation" rights are"the traditional liberties and privileges of citizenship,
covered by the first twenty articles of the [Universal Declara-
tion of Human Rights]: free speech, religious liberty, the right
not to be tortured, the right to a fair trial, the right to vote,
and so forth."[1]
The socio-economic "second-generation rights" are
--the right to work, the right to fair pay, the right to food,
shelter and clothing, the right to education, etc.[2]
         

[1] JEREMY WALDRON, LIBERAL RIGHTS 5 (1993).

[2] See id. at 4-5. Third-generation rights, which I will not address here,
concern collective and communal rights involving national self-determination, cul-
tural practices, use of native languages and so on. See, e.g., Berta Esperanza
Hernlndez-Truyol, Report of the Conference Rapporteur, 44 AM. U. L. REV. 1389,
1407 (1995) (Final Report to the Conference on the International Protection of Re-
productive Rights, referring to "first (civil and political rights), second (social and
economic rights) and third (solidarity) generation human rights."); Kathleen
Mahoney, Theoretical Perspectives on Women's Human Rights and Strategies for
their Implementation, 21 BROOK J. INTL L. 799, 837-38 (1996) (noting that third
generation "group or peoples' rights are of greatest interest to developing coun-
tries."); Stephen P. Marks, Emerging Human Rights: A New Generation for the
1980s?, 33 RUTGERS L. Rev. 435, 441 (1981) (observing that Karel Vasak has dis-
tinguished the third generation of human rights as being "predicated on brother-
hood (fraternitd), in the sense of solidarity" as opposed to rights predicated on
libertd (first generation rights) or dgalitd (second generation rights)); Feisal Hussain
Naqvi, People's Rights or Victim's Rights: Reexamining the Conceptualization of
Indigenous Rights in International Law, 71 IND. L.J. 673, 713 (1996) (understand-
ing third generation rights, such as the right to "cultural integrity" and "the right
to development" as "expand[ing] the economic entitlements of individuals."); Barba-
ra Stark, Conceptions of International Peace and Environmental Rights: "The Re-
mains of the Day", 59 TENN. L. REV. 651, 654 (1992).



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