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Two Republics in China

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 楼主| 发表于 1/10/2020 08:48:14 | 显示全部楼层
Chapter 4. The Second Civil War Between The National Party and the Communist Party

Conflicts Between The Two Parties to Take Over Areas Occupied By Japan

After Japan surrendered, there arose a problem as to who would take over the areas that had been occupied by the Japanese army. The National Party thought that they were the legal government and had the right to these areas. Afraid that the Communist Party would take those areas when the Japanese army withdrew, the national government ordered the Japanese army to remain in the areas they occupied till the army of the national government came to take them. However, the Communist Party declared that they had the right to these areas. So regardless of any orders from the national government, they marched to some of the areas controlled by Japan and took over by force.
Now, most of the national government army was in the southwestern provinces and part of it was stationed to south of the Yangtze River. Almost no national Army forces were in the areas north of the Yangtze river. And the army of the Communist Party spread widely in the countryside north of the River and in the northeastern provinces. But when the Communist Army commanded the Japanese army to surrender to them, the Japanese army refused as they had received orders not to surrender to the Communist Army. Therefore, the Communist Army had to fight the Japanese army and the puppet army to occupy towns possessed by the Japanese army.
Even before Japan surrendered, the national government and the Soviet Union signed a treaty stipulating that the national government recognized the independence of Outer Mongolia (as the Chinese called it), and the special rights of the Soviet Union in northeastern China, in exchange for the Soviet Union’s promise not to support the Communist Army in occupying the northeastern provinces. From then on, Outer Mongolia became the Mongolian Republic and Inner Mongolia still belonged to China.
 楼主| 发表于 1/12/2020 09:12:38 | 显示全部楼层
From August 14–23, Chiang Kai-shek telegrammed Mao three times to invite him to Chongqing to talk about the future of China. On August 25, the Communist Party issued a declaration that the national government must recognize the government in YanAn (denoting the local red government of the Communist Party) and its army in the so-called liberated areas as lawful, and that all the parties were legal and would have to organize a joint government. On August 26, the Communist Party decided that Mao should go to Chongqing to negotiate. But the talks did not produce an agreement, especially about who would take over all the areas occupied by the Japanese army. So while the talks were going on, the fighting was going at the same time. For the Communist Party, when they attacked the Japanese army and the puppet army to take over towns in their possession, they had to fight the National Army as well, as both wanted to take the same town.
By August 26, the Communist Army took 59 towns from the hands of the Japanese. Then under orders from the national government, the Japanese army and the puppet army attacked the Communist Army and restored more than 20 towns by the end of September. The Communist Army changed their original plan; they gave up the eastern part of the Ping-Han railway line and concentrated on the northern provinces. So many of the Communist Army set out for the north and by the end of November, more than 100,000 communist soldiers reached northeastern China, the farthest place, where the National Army could not arrive ahead of them.
On the 10th of September, the Communist Army attacked several towns under control of the national government in Shanxi province and took most of them within ten days. Then they surrounded Tunliu. The national defensive army in Changzhi sent 6,000 soldiers to Tunliu, but they were blocked on the way by a communist detachment. This strategy was often used by the Communist Army to surround some place and lay an ambush along the likely approach route by which reinforcements would come. So the National Army from Changzhi could not go to Tunliu and had to return to Changzhi. On September 12, the Communist Army took Tunliu and came to surround Changzhi. On the 2nd of October, a national reinforcements went to Chingzhi, and as usual, encountered a communist detachment who came out of ambush and surrounded them. As the communist detachment met with strong resistance, they adopted another stratagem. They surrounded the national reinforcements from three sides, leaving one side open for them to escape, and laid another ambush down that way. The reinforcements did escape, only to fall into the second ambush, and was wiped out on the 5th of October. This ruse was often used in Chinese war history. It was not invented by the Communist Party.
 楼主| 发表于 1/13/2020 08:54:16 | 显示全部楼层
On the 10th of October, after lengthy peace talks, the National Party and the Communist Party at last signed an agreement, called the 10/10 agreement, which contained the articles to form a joint government, to nationalize the armies of both sides, and to implement democracy and constitutionalism.
Although the peace agreement was signed, the Communist Party still planned to stop the National Army from going to the northern areas to accept the surrender of the Japanese army there. They looked upon the northern areas as belonging to them, and considered the National Army to be trespassing if they went there.
On the 20th of October, when the National Army arrived at Zhuang River, on the way to Handan, and on October 22 crossed the river, the Communist Army was waiting for them. On October 24, the National Army broke through the blockade and reached Matou Town in a narrow valley where they were encircled by the Communist Army. On October 28, more Communist Army troops came and they began the attack. At the same time the Communist Party sent an envoy to see the commander of the new 8th army of the national government and persuaded him to betray the national government. On October 30, the new 8th army declared their insurrection. On October 31, the main national forces broke the encirclement of the Communist Army and escaped south. From October of 1945 to January of 1946, the Communist Army occupied Jinpu railway line, Longhai railway line, Jiaoji railway line, and all the towns along the three lines. These areas had strategic importance and were threats to the safety of Nanking and Shanghai.
 楼主| 发表于 1/15/2020 08:56:51 | 显示全部楼层
America’s mediation between the National Party and the Communist Party

After the outbreak of the Pacific War, beginning with the Japanese raid of the Pearl Harbor, America aided China a lot, in both military action and supplies of goods. Joseph Stilwell, chief of staff of the Allies, came to China. His main job was to guarantee that the supplies needed in the Anti-Japanese War reached the hands of the National Army through the highway from Burma to Yunnan province.
At the request of the Allies, in early 1942, the national government sent its army into Burma, where it would be under the command of Joseph Stilwell to aid the English army. But when the Chinese army reached Burma, the English army there was already defeated by Japan. Then the Japanese army surrounded the Chinese army, which, nevertheless, succeeded afterwards in breaking through the encirclement, and separated into two parts. The first part, under orders from Joseph Stilwell, went to India, and the second part returned to Yunnan province through the virgin forest. The international supplies were mostly used in the Burmese battlefields and only a few reached the national government. Chiang Kai-shek was dissatisfied with this and also with the failure of the Chinese army under the command of Joseph Stilwell in the Burmese war. Therefore, in 1943, Chiang asked twice for Stilwell to be replaced. But Chiang did not succeed because of the opposition of Alfred Marshall in the United States.
After the spring of 1944, the withdrawal of the National Army after the Japanese army attack made President Roosevelt send his vice president Wallace to China to see what was the real situation. Wallace was not impressed with the national government of China. In August, three times, President Roosevelt asked Chiang Kai-shek to give the command of the Chinese army to Stilwell, but Chiang replied that if he had to give up his command of the army to Stilwell, he would rather break off relations with the Allies and fight Japan with Chinese forces alone. At length, after consideration, President Roosevelt gave order to replace Stilwell and appointed Wedemeyer for the task, on the 18th of October, 1944.
Meantime, with the quick development of the communist forces, an American delegation headed by Colonel Barrett went to YanAn, in July of 1944, followed on the 7th of November, 1944, by Patrick Jay Hurley, American ambassador in China, who went to YanAn to talk about the legal status of the Communist Party. They reached an agreement to end the dictatorship and one-party rule, to include all the parties in the Anti-Japanese War in the joint national government, to recognize the legal status of all the parties, and to distribute all the supplies among them.
 楼主| 发表于 1/17/2020 09:18:36 | 显示全部楼层
Patrick Jay Hurley came back to Chongqing and had a conversation with Chiang Kai-shek, who had three conditions: 1) the national government recognized the lawful status of the Communist Party and would reorganize its army; 2) the Communist Party must give the command of its army to the military committee of the national government and the national government would appoint some generals of the Communist Party as members of the military committee; 3) the aim of the national government was to realize Three Principles of the People. Of course, two conditions were denied by the Communist Party. They could never yield the command of their army to anyone else, and their aim was to install communism. But in face, no one in the Communist Party knew what communism really was. They mainly used it as a slogan to mislead people.
After Japan’s surrender, the Communist Party and the National Party fought each other over the areas occupied by Japan. To appease both sides, Hurley suggested Chiang Kai-shek invite Mao to Chongqing for a talk. Though Mao came, the fight continued. The Communist Party, supported by the Soviet Union, took the initiative to attack the National Army. On November 26th, 1945, Hurley handed in his resignation to President Truman. Fearful of a civil war in China, President Truman sent Alfred Marshall there, who arrived in Shanghai on the 20th of December, 1945.
Alfred Marshall talked to both sides and then formed a trio group. Besides Alfred Marshall, Zhang Jun represented the National Party and Zhou Enlai the Communist Party. On the 10th of January, 1946, they reached an agreement for truce, effective at zero hour on the 13th of January. Both sides issued orders for a ceasefire.
On the 5th of January, Chiang Kai-shek made a suggestion to Alfred Marshall about how to reorganize the army of both sides. On January 23, a trio group discussed it. Alfred Marshall suggested that after the reorganization, there would be only 60 divisions, 20 of them under the communist command. As to the navy and air forces, the Communist Party would have 30% of each. Chiang did not consent to that, but made some concessions. However, on 25th, the trio signed an agreement. Then they flew to Peking and YanAn to oversee the preparations.
 楼主| 发表于 1/19/2020 08:43:36 | 显示全部楼层
On the 11th of March, Marshall went back to the States. The two parties went back to war. When Marshall came to China again on April 18, the situation was serious. Chiang Kai-shek told Marshall that the Communist Party would not abide by the agreement and was continuing its attack on Changchun City. Chiang added that the National Army might withdraw from the northeastern provinces and leave the problem up to the international parties to decide. Marshall promised to transport the 60th national army and the 93rd national army to those provinces, but he refused to have two more armies transported there. (If two more armies had been transported there, China might have had a different future. Was this a typical case of a gentleman fighting a rogue?)
In late May of 1946, the National Army counterattacked the Communist Army and took Changchun and pursued the Communist Army to the Songhua River, approaching Harbin. Then, under pressure from Marshall, on June 6 Chiang Kai-shek had to give order to the National Army to stop further attacks for 15 days. (Another wrong decision.) During the truce, the military trio had talks concerning the restoration of traffic and a truce throughout the northeastern areas. In July, Marshall found that the military conflicts had become worse. In mid-July, seven American mariners were kidnapped by the Communist Army in the eastern Hebei province and at the end of July, some American transport trucks were ambushed by the Communist Army on the way from Tianjin to Peking. Three mariners were killed and 12 wounded.
At Marshall’s suggestion, on the 11th of July, John Leighton Stuart was appointed ambassador in China to help Marshall with the mediations. As Chiang Kai-shek said that the final goal of the Communist Party was to attain power over all the country, not just a truce with the national government, all these negotiations ended in nothing. On the 15th of November, 1946, the People’s Conference for drawing up the constitution opened and the Communist Party refused to attend. On the contrary, they declared on November 16 that they considered the conference unlawful. On January 8, 1947, Marshall went back to America. The national government was about to send a delegation to YanAn for peace talks, but the Communist Party said that there was no need unless the People’s Conference and the Constitution were declared unlawful.
So the door to peace talks was closed.
 楼主| 发表于 1/20/2020 08:49:01 | 显示全部楼层
The national Government Was Expelled to Taiwan

The second civil war actually began

On the 26th of June, 1946, the day when the effective truce period was over, the National Army started their onslaught to the Communist Army, but they had already escaped. This date is considered by historians as the actual outbreak of the second civil war between the Communist Party and the National Party.
To protect the Nanking wing, from July to December, the National Army attacked the Communist Army in the northern Jiangsu province seven times. The result was that the National Army occupied all the towns in that area, but the Communist Army annihilated the 69th division of the National Army. Who was the winner? The Communist Party. The towns were still there. If they were lost, they could be retaken some time later. But once a division was wiped out, the National Army had lost a division forever. Mao Zedong’s strategy was to make the first aim the annihilation of the national army, not to keep possession of towns. Once the National Army was totally wiped out, who could fight them for the towns? Therefore, from a strategic point of view, Chiang Kai-shek and the National Party were doomed to lose in the long run.
On the 20th of July, the Communist Army began their attack of Datong Town in Shanxi province. In August they surrounded the town, but by September they could not take the town and had to retreat. In October, Marshall was hard at work trying to broker an agreement, but the national government made two last minute demands that again sabotaged his efforts. On October 11, the National Army made a surprise attack and took Zhangjiakou in Hebei province. When Liang Shuming, a mediator belonging to none of the parties, read in the newspapers that Zhangjiakou was taken by the National Army, he sighed, “By the time we woke up, the peace was already over.”
But he was wrong in that. When Mao secretly made up his mind to rule China by himself with his party, peace was already out of the question. Chiang Kai-shek only wanted for his rule and that of the National Party to last a bit longer, hoping to defeat the Communist Party by force. However, he always chose wrong tactics; so his case was already hopeless. Wise stratagems can enable the weak to conquer the strong. If statesmen or generals wish to be wise and victorious, they must learn from history.
 楼主| 发表于 1/22/2020 08:29:17 | 显示全部楼层
On August 10, the Communist Army occupied some hundreds of miles of railway line between Tangshan and Lanfeng. When the National Army counterattacked, the Communist Army withdrew, but they annihilated another division of the National Army during the process in early September. In late October, the National Army took 25 towns and it looked like victory was theirs. But they were wrong. The Communist Party still had their full forces while the National Army was diminishing, division by division. Once they had a town, they had taken on a burden, just like the Japanese army had done. If Chiang Kai-shek had been wise enough, he would have concentrated his army on wiping out the Communist Army bit by bit. Instead he lost the mainland to the Communists. The tragic fate of the common Chinese people was thus sealed.
From December in 1946 to April in 1947, the Communist Army eliminated more than 40,000 of the National troops and took 11 towns in the northeastern provinces. On the 10th of March, 1947, the National Army came to assail YanAn. The Communist Army withdrew from it and adopted their well-known guerrilla strategies. The National Army could not get at them, let alone to extinguish them.
In Shandong province, the Communist Party often boasted of their best strategy used in the campaign in Menglianggu area from late March to early May. The National Army gathered 450,000 men and planned to occupy all the so-called liberated areas from the Communist Party. The National Army strategy was to advance step by step, pushing forward like a wall and leaving no gap for guerrilla movements, which was temporarily successful. But the strategy of the Communist Army was to make a sham retreat to let the enemy think that they were trying to escape, while they would seek for chances to attack a small part of the National Army. Like eating a big cake, bite by bite.
The 74th division of the National Army was thought of as a trump division, but Zhang Lingfu, their commander, was an arrogant and thoughtless man, though brave. He marched ahead, leaving other two divisions far behind. Although this region was controlled by the National Army, there were gaps between their troops. So the Communist Army made a bold plan to wedge between the groups and surround the 74th division. When Chiang Kai-shek learned that his 74th division was in danger, he commanded other divisions close to Zhang to rush to his rescue. The Communist Army knew that reinforcements would be coming from the National Army, as usual, and so they ambushed them at Huangya Mountain and blocked the way to Menglianggu.
 楼主| 发表于 1/24/2020 08:49:20 | 显示全部楼层
This was the decisive battle. Whoever won in this battle would win in the entire campaign in the region. The Communist Army reached the top of the mountain a few minutes earlier, seizing the high ground, and got control of the entire battlefield. Though the national reinforcements did their best to launch attack after attack from the foot of the mountain, geography was not in their favor. Meanwhile, the Communist Army poured fire at the surrounded 74th division. The Communist Army sent a suicide squad to steal in and make a surprise attack on the command center of the 74th division, which was in a cave. When they got to the entrance, only three of them were still alive. They shouted, “The first battalion go east; the second battalion west; the third battalion, block the front exit.” Then they yelled inside, “Hands up!” When Commander Zhang Lingfu came out and saw only three of them, he fired and killed one. But a Communist soldier shot him dead before he could do more. The whole 74th division and a regiment from the 83rd division with them were all eradicated, over 30,000 in all.
On the 31st of July, 1947, the Communist Party officially named their army the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA, as it is known today), and it was divided into four so-called field armies. They recruited mostly young people in the countryside, who were generally illiterate and easily tricked into sacrificing their lives. So their army swelled in size. They used ten times the troops to attack the National Army and it was said that when one enemy soldier was killed, they could sacrifice ten of theirs.
In the second civil war, there were three major campaigns besides many minor battles.
 楼主| 发表于 1/26/2020 09:24:48 | 显示全部楼层
The campaign in the northeastern provinces
The first campaign was waged from the 12th of September to the 2nd of November, in 1948, in the northeastern provinces. There the situation was favorable to the Communist “Liberation” army, because during the Anti-Japanese War, they had guerrillas in the northeastern China controlling wide swathes of the countryside. When the National Army was transported there to take over what was in the hands of the Japanese army, they only occupied cities such as Shenyang, Changchun and Jinzhou. The Communist Party wanted to take over all the provinces in the northeastern China first, because there were factories that could make weapons for them, and also this area provided grain supplies for their army. Then they would go down south to the coastline.
For this campaign, the 4th field army, under the command of Lin Biao, gathered 700,000 men while the National Army had only 550,000. As a result, the casualties of the Liberation Army, including those wounded, were 609,000 and those of the National Army 470,000.
At the beginning of the campaign, the Communist Liberation Army had already surrounded Changchun. They originally planned that if they could take Changchun, they would get supplies from it. However, the city was built so strong that it was not easy to take. Therefore, they had to surround it lest the National Army in the city came out to interfere with their other schemes. On the 7th of September, Mao telegrammed Lin Biao to attack Jinzhou. If they occupied Jinzhou area, they would block the National Army from escaping south.
On the 24th of September, 1948, the National Army telegrammed Chiang Kai-shek for reinforcements. Chiang commanded Wei Lihuang in Shenyang to send a detachment to rescue the army in Jinzhou, but Wei refused to carry out the order on the excuse that it might jeopardize the safety of Shenyang. Chiang had to transport the 49th army by air to Jinzhou. But only two regiments landed successfully. Then the airport was blocked by Communist anti-aircraft guns on the 28th and the airplanes could not land any more. On October 1, the Communist Liberation Army surrounded Jinzhou after taking over all other towns in its vicinity.
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