天易网

 找回密码
 注册
楼主: 海外逸士

Two Republics in China

[复制链接]
 楼主| 发表于 8/25/2019 06:53:09 | 显示全部楼层
Seeing that even his former subordinates had betrayed him, Yuan had to declare openly that he was rescinding the empire and restoring the presidency on the 22nd of March, 1916. He had been Emperor only for 83 days. Once a high military official of the Qing Dynasty, he had turned against the empire, and then he was subverted in turn. He contracted a fatal disease and died on the 6th of June.
If he had not been so ambitious and had contented himself with the presidency, Yuan would have been spared the hatred of almost all the people in China. He would not have been betrayed by his closest generals, who commanded part of his new army. But he went against the historical tide, against the will of people. He wanted to turn back time to the imperial age. As a president, his subordinates only had to stand up before him and salute him, whereas during his heady days as emperor, his subordinates had to kneel before him and kowtow to him. Any man who has had a chance to stand up never wants to bend his knees again. Sense of dignity.
There would have to be a public funeral for Yuan. According to the law, when the president died, the vice president would succeed him. So Li Yuanhong became the president. Also, as a rule, the public funeral for a deceased president should be led by the succeeding president. But Li had a little problem with Yuan, for Yuan had imprisoned Li. That made it rather hard for Li to feign any esteem of Yuan. So on the day of the funeral, he just went there to bow once and left, back to his office. As etiquette required, he should have bowed at least three times. Then the Premier Duan Qirui took over the role.
 楼主| 发表于 8/26/2019 06:52:35 | 显示全部楼层
Restoration of the abdicated emperor
Li and Duan had also clashed. Their opinions and political attitudes were different. As Li had no supporters in the government, Duan had no respect for him. Duan also had command of part of the new army. So Li sought support outside the capital.
         In May of 1917, during the First World War, there was a dispute about whether China would join in the war or not. Duan, supported by Japan, was in favor of joining the war, while Li and most of the congressmen thought it better not to join the war. On the 23rd of May, Li issued an order to remove Duan from the office of premier. Duan went to Tianjin City and instigated all the governors to declare independence. So Li summoned General Zhang Xun (1854–1923) to the capital to mediate.
         Zhang Xun was still loyal to the Qing Dynasty and the soldiers in his army still maintained their queues. So his army was called the pigtail army. He thought that this was a great opportunity and took five thousand soldiers with him. On the 14th of June, he entered Peking. On the night of the 30th of June, he sent his soldiers to occupy strategic points like the railway station and telegraph office. He went to see Li and tried to persuade him to return the political power to the abdicated emperor Fu Yi, by now using the Western name of Henry, but got a flat refusal.
On the 1st of July, 1917, Zhang Xun let the abdicated emperor sit on the throne again and issue a few orders, such as to change the national flag from the five-colored flag (the symbol of Republic of China) to dragon flag (the symbol of the Qing Dynasty).
 楼主| 发表于 8/28/2019 07:12:16 | 显示全部楼层
On the 2nd of July, Li went to the Japanese embassy for protection while issuing two orders: appointing Feng Guozhang as the deputy president and restored Duan to the office of the premier. So on the 3rd of July, Duan gathered his army, and on the 14th day, he defeated Zhang Xun’s pigtail army. Zhang Xun escaped to the Dutch embassy, then went to live in Tianjin City. The Emperor abdicated once more. And Duan went to the Japanese embassy to welcome Li back to his presidency. On the 28th of August, Li went to Tianjin City after resigning.
Thus, in the early history of the Republic of China, there were two restorations. One was under Yuan Shikai, who wanted to be emperor himself and founded the Empire of China. The other was Zhang Xun, who put the abdicated emperor on the throne again. But both quickly ended in failure. The chariot of history always runs forward and no one can pull it back. People won’t go back to the old life style once they start to enjoy a new one, especially one that offers more freedom and dignity.
           As Li Yuanhong resigned from the presidency, the deputy president Feng Guozhang became the president. Feng was the governor of Jiangsu province and lived in Nanking. Now he was the president and had to take up office in Peking. That left the position of governor of Jiangsu province vacant. Duan wanted to appoint Duan Zhigui as the governor there, but Feng wanted to appoint Li Chun, the present governor of Jiangxi province as the governor of Jiangsu province. He promoted Chen Guangyuan, who was the commander of the twelfth division, to be the governor of Jiangxi province. Both were supporters of Feng. Before he left for Peking, he divided his army into two divisions. The sixteenth division would stay in Jiangsu province. He brought his fifteenth division to Peking as his bodyguard so that he wouldn’t be controlled by Duan.
Duan dismissed the old congress because most of the congressmen had opposed him on the question of joining in the First World War. Since there was no more congress, the Duan government declared war against Germany and Austria.
 楼主| 发表于 8/30/2019 07:05:12 | 显示全部楼层
May 4 student movement
                On the 23rd of August, 1914, Japan declared war against Germany and took over Jiaozhou Bay in Shandong province, formerly occupied by Germany. They fought for 70 days. Then in January 1915, Japan had put the 21 articles to Yuan, who accepted most of them. These were considered a national insult, which caused great dissatisfaction with the government among Chinese intellectuals, including university students.
                China declared war against Germany on the 14th of August, 1917, actually at the end of the First World War, so that China was one of the victorious countries. But at the Paris Peace Conference, which produced the Versailles Treaty, Japan was allowed to continue its occupation of Jiaozhou Bay, which should have been returned to China since it was in the territory of China and formerly was occupied by Germany.
        The public called upon the Chinese representative at the conference to refuse to sign on the treaty, but the government secretly instructed the representative to go ahead and sign it. When the news became openly known, the students at Peking University held an emergency meeting on the 1st of May. On the night of the 3rd day, students from other universities joined in the action. They decided to hold a demonstration on TianAnMen Square on the 4th of May, which was Sunday. Thus began the May 4 movement.
        At one o’clock in the afternoon, the students marched towards the neighborhood where all the embassies were and distributed copies of a memorandum, which was refused by all the embassies except the American one. Then they went to the residence of Cao Rulin, minister of transportation (to complain about the railway problem with Japan), where they saw Zhang Zongxiang, the Chinese ambassador to Japan. The students gave both a good beating and set fire to the residence. For that, 32 students were arrested.
        To rescue the students, the professors called on the public to declare a strike of all students, teachers, workers, and shop-owners. The government forbade it and arrested more people. The chaos lasted into June; people answered the call of the professors and the movement spread to many cities. Even railway workers started to strike. On the 11th of June, Professor Chen Duxiu (1879–1942) and others distributed pamphlets in public, and Chen was arrested. The chaos worsened. Under such pressure, the government had to give in. It dismissed Cao and Zhang from office and released those in jail. On the 28th of June, the representative attending the Paris Peace Conference did not sign the treaty.
This movement was influential not only in politics, but also in culture. Many changes were introduced. Professor Hu Shih proposed that language as spoken should be used in writing instead of the classical language. Hence, the language style in use was changed, even in newspapers. So the May 4 movement is also called the new cultural movement.
 楼主| 发表于 9/1/2019 07:59:38 | 显示全部楼层
Battles in the southwestern provinces

Chinese historians define the men who command independent armies as warlords. In many periods this included the governors of provinces, and even premiers like Duan, who had his own army. The local warlords often disobeyed the central government. If the central government wanted any governor to obey its orders, it had to send an army to defeat him. And the provincial governors often fought one another to increase their power base. As a result, many periods of history were fraught with turmoil.
Although Yuan Shikai died, his former supporters controlled most provinces. Only five provinces in southwestern China were under the influence of the national Party. They were Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Guangdong and Guangxi provinces.
In Sichuan province there were three armies. One came from Yunnan province. One came from Guizhou province. And the third one was formed of local soldiers. Each of them wanted to take control of Sichuan province and they fought one another from time to time. Premier Duan of the central government wanted to control this province, too. So he sent a detachment of his army to Sichuan province. Then, the three local armies united to fight against Duan’s army, which had to retreat.
After the failure of the second revolution, Sun Yat-sen endeavored to make another attempt. He gained the support of the Navy’s First Fleet. In 1917, the governor of Guangdong province proposed to Sun that he could use this province as his headquarters against the warlord government in Peking. On the 10th of July, Sun took two warships to Shantou Town and sent Zhang Binglin to Guangdong province as his representative. The situation in that province was complicated, though. On the 17th, when Sun arrived in Canton on board a warship, he was welcomed. On the 22nd day, the commander of the First Fleet brought his fleet to Guangdong province, too. They announced that since the dismissal of the Congress, any orders from the Peking government were unlawful.
 楼主| 发表于 9/2/2019 08:36:19 | 显示全部楼层
When Duan learned the news, he promoted the commander of the Second Fleet to be the commander of the navy and appointed another admiral as commander of the First Fleet, which was not under his control any more. On the 25th day Duan ordered to remove the governor of Guangdong province from office, but the governor refused to recognize the order.
Sun Yat-sen invited the congressmen to come south. In mid-August, more than 130 congressmen arrived in Canton. On the 18th, at a welcome party, all the attendees agreed to organize a new military government, which was founded on the 10th of September. When Duan heard of this, he issued a “wanted” bulletin for Sun Yat-sen, and the military government also issued a “wanted” bulletin for Duan. The five provinces in the southeastern China supported the military government against Duan, who sent his army into Hunan province in hopes of defeating the army of the military government.
On the 6th of October, two armies engaged in battle near Xiangtan Town. Contrary to Duan’s hopes, his army was forced to withdraw. It looked bad for him, and many provinces announced their support for the military government. Duan had to resign as premier.
President Feng called upon both sides to stop fighting. Duan had always been a threat to the independent governors in the southeastern region, and now they felt that the sword of Damocles had been removed, so they agreed to the truce. But on the 2nd of December, 1917, Duan instigated ten northern governors to take action against the southeastern provinces. On the 6th, they pressed President Feng to issue orders to continue the war. Meanwhile, Zhang Zuolin, the warlord in the northeastern China, led his army into Peking. Under such pressure, Feng had to ask Duan to resume the office of premier.
发表于 9/2/2019 19:13:51 | 显示全部楼层
夺取全国政权的时候到了!
张国堂
2019年09月02日
  8月31日大约20点,我在宜昌闹市区高喊:反对屠杀香港人!释放杨恒均!释放高智晟!释放郭飞雄!释放政治犯!支持《零八》!惩办河南艾滋病爆发的祸首李长春!惩办腐败分子曾庆红!我是张国堂!我是中国共和党的主席!上街吧!示威游行吧!出了事情由我张国堂负完全责任!我反复这样高喊,但民众反映冷漠。我在路上问行人:“知道杨恒均吗?”都说不认识,也不关心。又问知道香港的示威游行吗?答曰知道。我问您怎么看?他说:“他们是吃饱了闲得无事而闹事。”我又问“您知道法轮功吗?”他答“知道。”我说“谢谢您。”然后就告别了。
  9月1日大约10点,我又在宜昌闹市区高喊:为法轮功伸冤!法轮功冤枉!法轮功不是邪教,共产黨才是邪教!为新疆的穆斯林伸冤!为新疆的伊斯兰教徒伸冤!为西藏人伸冤!为东方闪电伸冤!为一切被定为邪教的教派伸冤!他们都不是邪教,只有共产黨才是邪教!共产黨罪恶滔天,杀人如麻,上亿中国人死于共产黨之手!反对屠杀香港人!我是张国堂,我是中国共和党的主席!我与共产黨势不两立,不共戴天!我张国堂就是要夺取政权!中国共和党万岁!张国堂万岁!我反复这样高喊,绝大多数人仍然冷漠,但我注意到有一个人以敬佩的目光看我。
  当天下午,我又在宜昌闹市区高喊:为地主伸冤报仇!为死难的国民党将士(官兵)伸冤报仇!为大跃进后的大饥荒饿死的人报仇雪恨!为在大饥荒中饿死的人报仇雪恨!诛灭毛泽东的九族!诛灭周恩来的九族!诛灭邓小平的九族!诛灭刘少奇的九族!诛灭朱德的九族!诛灭十大元帅的九族!诛灭习近平的九族!千刀万剐习近平!凌迟处死习近平!我是张国堂,我是中国唯一合法的总统!悔改吧,悔改吧!退出共产黨吧!我张国堂宽大为怀,凡在共产黨垮台之前公开退出共产黨的人,我必保证他平安!凡顽固不化的人,到时候我必将杀无赦!我反复这样高喊!众人大多冷漠,也有极少数人以崇敬的目光看我。
  虽然没有人支持我,但也没有人阻止我。无人支持是因为众人胆怯、恐惧。没有人阻止我,说明共产黨人心丧尽。我高喊杀气腾腾的口号,没有公安人员找我的麻烦。我仍然平安无事。这一切说明:大决战的时候到了,推翻中共政权的时候到了!夺取全国政权的时候到了。我张国堂决定在广州发起大游行,推翻中共,夺取政权!胜利属于张国堂!胜利属于中国共和党!胜利属于我主耶稣!胜利属于孔孟之道!中国共和党万岁!张国堂万岁!我主耶稣无穷大岁!
  建立功名的时候到了!改朝换代的时候到了!夺取富贵尊荣的时机到了!好男儿就当光宗耀祖、青史留名!有志者都要向广州聚集!发起示威游行!不要理睬公安局,直接上街示威游行,要在闹市区游行示威,发传单,高呼口号。就是要杀气腾腾,就是要制造白色恐怖。要叫中共高官吓得魂不附体。
 楼主| 发表于 9/4/2019 07:22:20 | 显示全部楼层
Duan re-organized his army to attack the army of the military government, which now lost the support of the other governors and had to fight alone. It was soon defeated. But Wu Peifu (1874–1939), the commander of Duan’s army, ceased his assault and made a truce with the military government, ignoring Duan’s command. As Feng and Duan always had conflicts of opinion, or in reality, of personal interests, both agreed to resign at the same time. That was on the 4th of September, 1918.
Sun Yat-sen’s goal was to let his National Party unite the whole of China under the rule of his party. But this ran counter to the interests of the warlords. So he lost most of his supporters and only a few were left. On the 21st of May, 1918, he left Canton for Shanghai, where he met Chiang Kai-shek (1887–1975). The military government was controlled by the armies of Yunnan and Guangxi provinces.
As Sun resigned and left Canton, his army (under the command of Chen Jiongming) went to Fujian province, and together with the army under the command of Chiang Kai-shek they defeated Duan’s army there. That happened in June of 1918.
Although Duan was not in the cabinet, he still had his army. So Zhang Zuoling (1875–1928) and Wu Peifu allied to fight him. On the 14th of July, 1920, Duan’s army was overcome. Then Xu Shichang, who had nothing under his control, was selected (not elected, as there was no more congress) by the warlords to be a puppet president.
In August 1920, the army stationed in Fujian province marched back to Guangdong province to assail the Guangxi province army there. On the 28th of October, the military government was back under the control of Sun’s army. So on the 28th of November, Sun returned to Canton.
On the 12th of January, 1921, a special congress was organized and on the 2nd of April, the congress held a session to annul the military government and resume the name of the Republic of China. On the 7th day, Sun was elected President and took an oath at a ceremony on the 5th of May.
 楼主| 发表于 9/6/2019 07:26:42 | 显示全部楼层
Sun Yat-sen went north, looking to overthrow the Peking government
Sun Yat-sen still persisted in marching north to overthrow the Peking government. He thought of it as a warlord government, not a revolutionary government. He wanted to found a revolutionary government for the people. Anyway, the governors of all the provinces and even Chen Jiongming (1878–1933), the commander of his army (actually another warlord), did not see things that way. Those men only wanted to have a federal government of warlords.
On the 26th of March, 1922, Sun Yat-sen held a meeting and decided to go north to take down the Peking government. On the 9th of April, when the Revolutionary Army reached the Meng River, it was blockaded by Chen Jiongming’s army which was encamped there. Sun gave orders that if Chen’s army did not make way for him, he would launch an attack. When Sun reached Wuzhou Town, he summoned Chen to meet him, but Chen refused to go there. Sun removed him from the position of commander. Chen wanted his army to prepare for a war against Sun, but the army in Canton refused to carry out his order. There was nothing he could do but go back to his old home in Huizhou Town. However, part of his army was still loyal to him.
In early April 1922, Wu Peifu sent an emissary to contact Chen and asked him to prevent Sun Yat-sen by force from going north. Meantime, Duan and Zhang Zuolin wanted to ally with Sun to vanquish Wu. The situation got complicated. Everyone was putting his own interests first and relationships between friends and enemies often changed.
 楼主| 发表于 9/8/2019 07:14:54 | 显示全部楼层
On the 23rd of April, Sun Yat-sen gathered his generals for a meeting in his presidential residence to decide what to do next. There were two options. One was to first annihilate Chen’s army so that he could not give the Revolutionary Army a stab from behind. Chiang Kai-shek held this opinion. The other was to immediately march north, while doing their best to avoid any conflict with Chen’s army. Sun tended toward the second opinion, as he thought that Chen had not really betrayed him, at least not yet. He had no reason to attack Chen. Chiang Kai-shek thought that Chen would at long last betray Sun. Since Sun did not believe him, he left Guangdong province, while writing a letter to Chen advising him not to betray Sun.
When Sun Yat-sen came back to Canton, he still allowed Chen to be the commander of the first army. But Chen refused to take the appointment. On the 28th of April, Zhang Zuolin, Duan Qirui and Sun Yat-sen formed an alliance to fight Wu Peifu. Sun thought that this created an opportunity for him to go north.
On the 4th of May, Zhang’s army was beaten by Wu’s, and Zhang had to retreat back to where he had come from, northeastern China. Wu took control in Peking. Wu had a secret agreement with Chen Jiongming that he would drive away the current president, Xu Shichang, and Chen would drive away Sun Yat-sen. Then the first step was to let Li Yuanhong back into the presidency and get him to wipe out all the warlords everywhere, except of course the two of them. If Li failed to do so, he would be the scapegoat. If he succeeded, Wu and Chen would use the congress to have themselves elected as the president and the vice president.
So they announced that the current president Xu was illegal. Xu resigned on the 2nd of June. Once back in the presidency, Li denounced that warrant that was out for Sun Yat-sen and invited him to Peking to discuss national affairs. He also appointed many warlords in the south, but none of them accepted his appointments. Afterwards, as Wu and Chen saw that Li could do nothing for them, they forced Li to quit the presidency again. Li went back to Tianjin City.
On the 9th of May, Sun issued an order for a general attack, and on the 13th of June, the Revolutionary Army put Wu’s army to rout in Jiangxi province. Wu sent his man to Chen and asked him to take action as soon as possible.
您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 注册

本版积分规则


站内文章仅为网友提供更多信息,不代表本网站同意其说法或描述,也不构成任何建议。本网站仅为网友提供交流平台,对网友自由上传的文字和图片等,本网站
不为其版权和内容等负责。站内部分内容转载自其它社区、论坛或各种媒体,有些原作者未知。如您认为站内的某些内容属侵权,请及时与我们联络并进行处理。
关于我们|隐私政策|免责条款|版权声明|网站导航|帮助中心
道至大 道天成

小黑屋|手机版|Archiver|联系我们|天易综合网 (Twitter@wolfaxcom)

GMT-5, 10/23/2019 09:01 , Processed in 0.129987 second(s), 12 queries , Gzip On.

Copyright 天易网 network. All Rights Reserved.

© 2009-2015 .

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表