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Two Republics in China

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 楼主| 发表于 9/9/2019 08:24:41 | 显示全部楼层
Chen Jiongming Turns Traitor in Canton

When Chen went back to his hometown, he took with him a lot of guns and ammunition, enough to arm 40 battalions. On the 20th of May, Chen’s subordinate, Ye Ju, led his troops into Canton and started a treasonous action. By the 1st of June, the situation had become acute. Liao Zhongkai, a faithful follower of Sun, sent a telegram to Sun Yat-sen asking him to come back to Canton. When Sun was back in Canton, he summoned Chen, but Chen refused to come.
On the 12th of June, Sun Yat-sen ordered Ye Ju out of Canton. Next day, Chen and Ye secretly met at Shilong. They knew that, to prevent Sun from going north to fight Wu, they would have to cut off his access to financing. Liao was the person who provided Sun with everything. So they decided to kidnap Liao. On the 14th day, Chen sent a telegram to Liao to invite him to his hometown for some important business. On the fifth day, Liao went there and was detained. Then Ye Ju maneuvered his troops and planned to attack Sun’s residence with cannons. On the 16th day, Sun was informed of this and took refuge on a warship.
On the 19th, Sun Yat-sen sent a telegram to the Revolutionary Army at the frontier to come back to Guangdong province. On the 2nd of July, the Revolutionary Army started to assail Chen’s army in Guangdong province, and beat the betraying army. Chen sent a telegram to Wu seeking assistance. Wu sent some troops to Guangdong province. On the 26th of July, the Revolutionary Army was chasing after Chen’s retreating army but met with the reinforcements sent by Wu. Therefore, the Revolutionary Army had to withdraw. When Sun Yat-sen learned this, he had to leave Guangdong province and go to Shanghai. Liao was released and left Canton. When Chen attempted to assassinate him afterwards, he was already gone.
 楼主| 发表于 9/11/2019 07:07:12 | 显示全部楼层
On the 16th of August, 1922, Sun Yat-sen made a statement accusing Chen of betrayal. To annihilate the treacherous army, Sun determined to ally with Duan. In October, he appointed Xu Chongzhi as the commander-in-chief and Chiang Kai-shek as the chief of staff. On one side, the Revolutionary Army together with Duan’s army vanquished Wu’s army. On the other, the armies of Yunnan and Guangxi provinces, who supported Sun, defeated Chen’s army. On the 14th of January, 1923, troops in Guangdong province turned over to Sun and attacked Chen, who escaped to his hometown, Huizhou.
On the 15th of February, Sun Yat-sen returned to Canton. In April, Chen Hongying, a warlord in Guangxi province, accepted the appointment of the Peking government to be the governor of Guangdong province, and came to attack Canton, but was soon subdued. He escaped to Hong Kong.
At the end of 1924, Sun went to Peking to discuss national affairs, but he was fatally ill. In February the Revolutionary Army, now under the full command of Chiang Kai-shek, marched east to wipe out the warlords there. Sun died on the 12th of March, 1925. He famously wrote, in his will, “The revolution is not successful yet; comrades must still make efforts.” That June, Chen Jiongming betrayed the cause again, but he was soon wiped out by Chiang Kai-shek.
 楼主| 发表于 9/13/2019 07:53:44 | 显示全部楼层
Early History of the Communist Party of China (CPC)
The organization of the Communist Party of China
In April 1920, the Communist International sent Grigori Voitinsky to China. In May, he found Chen Duxiu, 42 at the time, and sought to contact some revolutionary young men in other cities to establish the Communist Party of China, the CPC. Chen was the professor who had been arrested in the May 4 student movement in 1919. In August 1920, under instructions of the Soviet Communist Party, the Communist Party of China was established in Shanghai. At that time, it was called Communist Group with Chen Duxiu as the general secretary.
But after the Communisst Party took over the reign of the mainland, public data they issued state that the first meeting of the Communist Party was held about a year later, in Shanghai, on the 1st of July, 1921. Why was the earlier date concealed from the public? There might be two reasons. One was that they wanted to cover up the fact that the Communist International had had a hand in it. The other is that Mao attended the meeting in Shanghai, so by emphasizing that meeting they could say that Mao was one of the founders, enhancing his image. But the meeting was in 1920, not in 1921 in Shanghai.
Fifteen people attended the meeting on the 23rd of July, 1921, at 106 Wangzhi Road (presently 76 Xingye Road) in Shanghai. These included Mao Zedong (1893–1976); Dong Biwu (1886–1975, later the vice chairman of the People’s Republic of China); Zhang Guotao (1897–1979, later commander of the Red 4th Army in the Long March); Chen Gongbo (1890–1946); and Zhou Fohai (1897–1948). The last two later defected to Japanese invaders in Sino–Japanese War (1937—1945). Also present were Malin and Nico Chhabra (representatives from the Communist International).
 楼主| 发表于 9/15/2019 07:31:51 | 显示全部楼层
Soon some suspicious men were found lurking outside the house. The meeting broke up and everyone discretely slipped away. And the next day, they met on a boat on the South Lake in Jiaxing Town, casually playing mahjong while in fact continuing their meeting. Thus the Communist Party of China was established. At that time it had only 50 members.
On the 23rd of December, 1921, accompanied by an interpreter, Malin went to see Sun Yat-sen in Guilin City of Guangxi province. He stayed there for nine days and concluded that Communist Party members could join the National Party while still maintaining their status in the Communist Party. This would help the Communist Party to develop. But his idea was strongly opposed by some party members, especially Chen Duxiu who was then the leader of the party. So on the 23rd of April, 1922, Malin left Shanghai for Holland, by sea, and then, through Berlin, made it to Moscow. He reported his work in China to the Soviet Communist Party, which consented to his idea. On the 27th of July, the Soviet Union sent a representative to China, together with Malin, with instructions. Malin typed the instructions on the shirt he wore. In Shanghai, Malin met Chen Duxiu and gave him his shirt.
Chen Duxiu had to obey the decision of the Communist International because at the second meeting of the Communist Party, held from July 16–23, 1922, at 625 South Chengdu Road in Shanghai, they had decided to join the Communist International. Chen Duxiu and Zhang Guotao attended the meeting with ten other representatives. Then the Communist Party of China got financial aid from the Communist International.
On the 29th and 30th of August, 1922, the Communist Party of China (CPC) held a central meeting on the West Lake in Hangzhou City and decided to found the First United Front, an alliance between the National Party and the Communist Party.
 楼主| 发表于 9/16/2019 06:48:30 | 显示全部楼层
In June 1923, the Communist Party had its third meeting in Canton, and 40 representatives, representing 420 party members, discussed the issue of the First United Front. They elected Chen Duxiu, Li Dazhao (1889–1927), Mao Zedong, and Xiang Ying (1898–1941, who later became commander of the New 4th Army in the Sino–Japanese War), and five others, as members of the Central Committee.
It was said that after the meeting, at the urging of the Communist Party, Sun Yat-sen proposed his three great policies: Alliance with Russia, Co-operation with the Communist Party, and Assistance to Peasants and Workers. But as a matter of fact, Sun never identified with such policies. This was just invented by Mikhail Markovich Borodin, a Russian counselor to the Communist Party of China, to make them look good. Then the Communist Party used this invention as a fact for its own purposes.
Why did Sun agree to the United Front notion? It was because Sun always held to his ideal of Three Principles for the People: the Principle of Nationalism, the Principle of Democracy, and the Principle of People’s Livelihood. Ironically, this party, which was also called Kuomintang by the pronunciations of the Chinese characters “National Party,” evolved into a highly centralized, hierarchical, and authoritarian party. Sun thought that the ideal of communism was closest to his three principles and so he wanted to unite with the Communist Party against their common enemies—warlords who were still taking advantage of the power void left when the imperial order crumbled.
From the 20th to the 30th of January, 1924, the 196 representatives of the National Party held their first conference in Canton (now Guangzhou). Sun was the chairman and the Russian counselor Borodin was in attendance. Some Communist Party members were elected into the executive committee of the National Party. Li Dazhao and a few others were members and Mao Zedong, Zhang Guotao were alternate members.
 楼主| 发表于 9/18/2019 07:37:14 | 显示全部楼层
In the autumn of 1924, General Feng Yuxiang (1882–1948) launched a coup d’état and took control of the Peking government. He invited Sun Yat-sen to Peking to discuss national affairs. In the morning of November 5, Feng sent his troops to surround the Forbidden City and ordered the abdicated emperor to move out. So Henry gathered his precious belongings and moved to Tianjin City with his family. A few faithful old courtiers followed him there.
On November 13, 1924, Sun Yat-sen started from Canton and arrived in Peking on the 31st of December. It was soon found that he was suffering from liver cancer and he died on March 12, 1925. Sun had been in Peking three times. First, in 1894, he went to Peking with the intention of advising the Qing officials on how it might reform the government. But when he saw how serious the corruption was, he realized that no reform could be enough to save China. So he decided to make a revolution. His second visit was in 1912 when the Republic of China was founded. He went to Peking to advise Yuan Shikai that if Yuan could carry on the revolution, he would resign from the temporary presidency. This was his third time.
On the 15th of September, Zhang Zuolin came with his forces from the northeastern provinces towards Peking and allied with Feng Yuxiang. Then a battle broke out between Zhang, Feng and Wu Peifu. Wu’s army was put to rout and Wu escaped south to Hunan and Hubei provinces. Thereafter, Peking fell under the control of Zhang Zuolin, who was always backed by Japan.
 楼主| 发表于 9/20/2019 07:49:39 | 显示全部楼层
Whampoa military academy

The Whampoa Military Academy was founded on the 16th of June, 1924, on the instruction of Sun Yat-sen, to train officers for the Revolutionary Army. It was situated on Changzhou Island in the Whampoa District of Canton. Afterwards, branches were founded in Wuhan, Changsha, Chaoshan, and Nanning cities. In preparation for the establishment of this academy, Sun had sent Chiang Kai-shek to the Soviet Union in September of 1923 to learn from their experience. So the academy was modeled after those in the Soviet Union. And Chiang Kai-shek was appointed President of the academy. Quite a few Communist Party (CPC) members were appointed leaders of departments, such as Ye Jianying (1897–1986), deputy director of the training department, and Zhou Enlai (1898–1976), deputy director of the political department.
In May of 1924, the academy began to take in students. Out of 1200 applicants, 350 students were enrolled and 120 were accepted as alternate students for the first term. In 1927, the academy was relocated in Nanking and renamed the Central Army Officer Academy. Later, in 1949, it moved to Taiwan, for reasons that will become apparent later. From 1924 to 1949, there were 23 terms, and including the terms held in Taiwan, the academy was functioning for 78 terms. The academy graduated 41,386 students, including many famous generals.
 楼主| 发表于 9/22/2019 07:50:37 | 显示全部楼层
The Break-Up of the National Party and the Communist Party
After the death of Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek took the full command of the Revolutionary Army. Unlike Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek had no confidence in the CPC, especially after their fourth conference.
That fourth conference of the Communist Party was held from the 11th to the 22nd of January, 1925, with 20 representatives gathered in Shanghai. Chen Duxiu, Zhang Guotao, Zhou Enlai, and Xiang Ying, and many others attended. Chen was the chairman. During the conference, Chen was elected the general secretary of the central bureau, consisting of five persons. They decided that the Communist Party had to take charge of the revolution, and that laid the ground for major disruptions.
On the 20th of March, 1926, the warship Yat-sen planned an artillery attack on the Whanpoa Military Academy to drive away Chiang Kai-shek. Chiang gave orders to arrest the captain, Li Zhilong, a member of the Communist Party. Then Chiang ordered Zhou Enlai and all their party members to get out of the academy. The students now faced a problem as to which party they would follow. One student quit the National Party and 39 students quit the Communist Party. The others remained in the academy.
Meanwhile within the National Party, Wang Jingwei (1883–1944, who later treacherously went over to the Japanese during the Sino–Japanese War) wanted to take over the leadership of the National Party. He organized another government in Wuhan City, close to Wuchang City, the cradle of the 1911 revolution, and held the third conference of the National Party without the attendance of Chiang. This was called Wuhan government.
At that time Chiang only had command of the Revolution Army and held no position in the government. The Wuhan government wanted Chiang to continue to the north to wipe out the warlords there. But Chiang planned to go east to occupy the eastern provinces first, including Shanghai, because those eastern provinces were also under the control of warlords.
During those years, the land problem was serious. Peasants wanted to have their own land so that they would not be exploited by landowners. When peasants worked land owned by those in the ownership class, they had to give part of the harvest to the landowners, as in any feudal system. As the imperial system had been demolished, they wanted land reforms too. Under instigation by the Communist Party, they began to demand this more and more aggressively.
 楼主| 发表于 9/23/2019 07:53:51 | 显示全部楼层
Stalin, head of the Soviet Union, asked the Communist Party of China in October of 1926 to curb the action of peasants, to reduce the violence. In March of 1927, the Communist Party established legal penalties for landowners. Any landowners who resisted the revolution would be put to death.
On the 2nd of April, 1927, the Central Committee of the National Party held a meeting in Wuhan, inviting two members of the Communist Party, one of whom was Mao Zedong. They were considering a bill about the land problem. The government would confiscate the land of “reactionaries” (those who preferred the old ways as opposed to the revolution) such as property owners, officials who had a stake in the old system, and warlords. The definition of reactionary landowners was to be based on the amount of land they owned, measured by the mu (about 0.165 acres). Anyone who had more than 30 mus, about 5 acres, was dubbed a reactionary. All landowners would be classified into rich peasants, small and middle landowners, and large landowners, according to the amount of terrain they possessed. This standard was still used in the land reform when the Communist Party later established their republic.
On the 22nd of April, when this bill was under discussion, the National Party and the CPC had different opinions. That was one of the reasons for their falling out, because many members of the National Party came from families who owned land. Then on the 26th of April, Chen Duxiu and Zhang Guotao were invited to attend the meeting, and also Borodin, the Russian counselor. On the 6th of May, the bill was at last passed. Only the large landowners would see their land confiscated. The land belonging to small landowners and families of revolutionary officials would remain the same. However, once the peasants had been instigated, it was hard to check their zeal to take possession of the land.
 楼主| 发表于 9/25/2019 08:12:36 | 显示全部楼层
Victory of the Revolutionary Army and the final break between the two parties

In July of 1926, the National Party decided that the Revolutionary Army should head north to annihilate the warlords there. As Chiang was the commander-in-chief, he led the army north, fighting all the way along the route. The plan was for the Revolutionary Army to attack Wu Peifu first, and then Sun Chuanfang, occupying Jiangxi, Fujian, Anhui, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang, five provinces. Finally the Revolutionary Army would attack Zhang Zuolin in Peking.
In August of 1926, the Revolutionary Army assaulted the main force of Wu Peifu and wiped it out; they took over Wuchang city on the 10th of September. In November, the Revolutionary Army annihilated the main force of Sun Chuanfang, another warlord, and occupied Jiujiang and Nanchang cities. At the same time, Feng Yuxiang gained control of the northwestern region of China. A warlord, Yan Xishan (1883–1960), ruled Shanxi province. Observing the rapid advance of the Revolutionary Army, both Feng and Yan joined it. Now only the warlord Zhang from the northeastern provinces remained in Peking.
In October, the Communist Party organized workers in Shanghai to rise to arms against the warlord government 675 miles north in Peking, but they failed. In November, the Revolutionary Army took control of the area of the Yangtze River. So the national Government decided to establish its capital in Wuhan City, but Chiang wanted the capital in Nanchang, which was then under his control. Anyway, on the 9th of December, the national Government moved to Wuhan City.
On the 21st of February, 1927, the Central Committee of the National Party held a meeting of the 80 members, one third belonged to the Communist Party and one third were communist-leaning. Among the leaders of all the departments of the National Party, half of them were members of the Communist Party. This meant that the CPC controlled the national Party. And the Communist Party was organizing its own army.
Chiang Kai-shek decided he had to found another government. He had many supporters, like the brothers Chen Guofu (1892–1951) and Chen Lifu (1900–2001) and others in his army. All were young men.
On the 19th of February, General Bai Chongxi (1893–1966) took over Hangzhou city as he marched east with his detachment of the Revolutionary Army. On the 22nd, the Communist Party fomented a second riot in Shanghai but failed once more. On the 10th of March, the Central Committee of the National Party had another meeting to openly declare their break with Chiang, and he cut off all relations with the Communist Party.
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