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Two Republics in China

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 楼主| 发表于 9/27/2019 07:48:06 | 显示全部楼层
Then Wang Jingwei came back from France, where he attended classes in the University of Lyon and reorganized the National Party by expelling the Russian counselor and members of the Communist Party. He also suggested that the national government and the headquarters of the National Party be moved to Nanking.
On the 22nd of March, the east detachment of the Revolutionary Army under Bai Chongxi entered Shanghai. On the 24th, the middle detachment occupied Nanking. A few members of the Communist Party instigated the soldiers of the Revolutionary Army to rob and kill foreigners in order to incite foreign governments to take action against the national government. But the consuls of England, the United States and Japan had evidence that the Communist Party was responsible for the trouble.
On the fifth of April, the Central Committee of the National Party divided the Revolutionary Army into two military blocs. Chiang was re-appointed the commander-in-chief of the first military bloc and Feng Yuxiang was the commander-in-chief of the second. On the same day, Chiang contacted the heads of certain mafias in Shanghai and asked them to organize a Shanghai business guild to oppose the Shanghai workers’ general union, an armed group which was controlled by the Communist Party.
 楼主| 发表于 9/29/2019 07:46:38 | 显示全部楼层
Meantime, Borodin secretly urged General Guo Songling under the warlord government to fight Zhang Zuolin, who had secret contacts with Chiang. On the 6th of April, Zhang suddenly attacked the embassy of the Soviet Union in Peking to arrest 58 members of the Communist Party hiding there, including Li Dazhao, one of the main founders of the Communist Party. They found secret documents which proved that the Soviet Union instructed the Communist Party to overthrow the Chinese government. On the 12th of April, Chiang sent the national 26th army to the Shanghai workers’ general union to order them to surrender their weapons. But they refused, and many people were killed in the conflict, which became known as the 4/12 event. Then Chiang ordered all the organizations controlled by the Communist Party to disband.
On the 17th of April, Chiang and other members of the Central Committee of the National Party met in Nanking to issue warrant for the arrest of 197 leading members of the Communist Party, including Borodin, Chen Duxiu, Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoqi (1898–1969), Zhang Guotao, Deng Yingchao (1904–1992, wife of Zhou Enlai), and others. On the 28th, Li Dazhao and others were hanged in Peking, accused of plotting to overthrow the government.
On the 20th of April, the Communist Party issued a statement saying that Chiang was the open foe of the revolutionary people and called upon the people to overthrow him. On the 22nd day, Wang Jingwei and other members of the National Party who supported the Communist Party, together with Mao Zedong and some Communist Party members, openly blamed Chiang for the disruption. Chiang founded the national government in Nanking in opposition to the government in Wuhan City.
On the fifth of June when Indian revolutionary M.N. Roy, a representative of the Communist International, asked Wang Jingwei to allow the Communist Party to control the Wuhan government, Wang began to disband the Communist Party. Therefore, on the 1st of August, the Communist Party called for riots in Nanchang. That marked the final rupture between the National Party and the Communist Party.
 楼主| 发表于 9/30/2019 08:13:29 | 显示全部楼层
Chapter 2. The First Civil War Between The National Party and the Communist Party
Communist Party Riots

The Riot in Nanchang City

Wang Jingwei learned that the Soviet Union was planning to help the Communist Party of China to take over power from Wuhan government in July 1927. He expelled all the members of the Communist Party that were in the National Party and the Wuhan government. This led the Central Committee of the Communist Party in Jiujiang City (Jiangxi province) to forment a riot in Nanchang City, where they controlled some of the army. On the 26th of July, Zhou Enlai was sent to organize the riot. Several hours after Zhou left, they got a telegram from the Communist International, instructing them not to start it if there was no chance of winning. So Zhang Guotao was sent after Zhou. When Zhang reached Nanchang, all the preparations were already in place, and besides, most of the representatives refused to take these orders. The 11th army and the 20th army under the command of He Long (1896–1969) had already come to Nanchang from Jiujiang City, and were welcomed by Zhu De (1886–1976), commander of the 9th army and head of the city police.
At two o’clock in the morning of August 1, 1927, the rebels began to attack the National Revolutionary Army guarding the city. After fighting for four hours, they occupied the city. But the national government gathered more troops to surround Nanchang. The rebellious army had to beat a retreat from the city and went south. On the way, Zhou Enlai, He Long and other leaders deserted their troops and escaped to Hong Kong and Shanghai. Only Zhu De led the rest of the army to Guangdong province. They had to adopt the stratagems of guerrilla warfare. In January of 1928, Zhu De started another riot and led his army to Mt. JingGang in Jiangxi province, where he met Mao Zedong. Their troops formed the Red 4th Army.
 楼主| 发表于 10/2/2019 07:59:55 | 显示全部楼层
Mao Zedong resorts to rebellion

As Wang Jingwei expelled the members of the Communist Party from the National Party and the Wuhan government, Mao Zedong went to Changsha City on the 12th of August to arm peasants and mine workers in that area in preparation for a riot. He had an army of 8,000 soldiers. On the 9th of September, they started their rebellion and set out to attack Changsha City. There were many Communist Party members in the city, scheming to let the attackers in by making a sudden assault on the national government army guarding the city. But their plan was leaked by insiders and became known to the national government. The traitors had to escape or they would be arrested and killed. Mao had to change his plan of attack and marched towards Mt JingGang, where his forces united with Zhu De’s army.
On the 4th of June in 1928, Zhang was forced to withdraw from Peking to go back to his original location. As he could not always accomplish what Japan demanded, Japan was not satisfied with him. On the fifth day, when Zhang was on board a train and passed through the railway station at Huanggutun, his train was exploded with gunpowder set there by the Japanese. He was severely injured and died when he reached Shenyang City. His son Zhang Xueliang (1901–2001) succeeded him in his position.
He declared he was joining the Revolutionary Army on the 29th of December, 1928. There were no more warlords, and China was thus united.
 楼主| 发表于 10/4/2019 07:45:27 | 显示全部楼层
Chiang Kai-Shek Besieges The Red Army Five Times

The first siege

Since Chiang Kai-shek had cleared all the warlords from China, he began to deal with the Communist Party and the Red Army in October of 1930. Chiang sent his army, 300,000 strong, against the Red Army (the Chinese Workers and Peasants Red Army), 40,000 soldiers. If Chiang could surround the Red Army, he could easily wipe it out. But Mao’s strategy was wiser than Chiang’s. On November 1, Mao faked some maneuvers so that the Chinese Red Army seemed to be advancing in different directions, leading Chiang’s commander-in-chief to think that the Red Army would escape. Therefore, the National Army split up in order to chase down the enemies in different directions. Then the Red Army gathered together again and annihilated a small national division of 9,000 soldiers that had been cut off from the main force on December 30, 1930. And the other divisions had to fall back. Thus ended the first siege.
 楼主| 发表于 10/6/2019 07:42:59 | 显示全部楼层
The second siege

On the 1st of April, 1931, the second siege began. Considering the failure of the first siege due to the failed tactic of attempting to surround the Red Army, Chiang Kai-shek decided instead to move slowly with all the troops keeping close. On the 13th of May, the 28th division of the fifth army of the national forces left Futian and marched eastward. On the fifth day, Zhu De and Mao directed their 3rd military bloc and the 35th Red Army to form a left wing, and the 3rd Red Army to head up the middle, while the 4th Red Army and 12th Red Army made up the right wing, to surround the fifth national army. The commander of this army committed the same mistake. He should not have marched separately from others. Zhu De and Mao ordered their 7th Red division and 35th Red division to block the advance of the reinforcements from the 19th national army. As a result, on the 16th day, the 28th division of the national army was annihilated by the overwhelming number of enemy forces. On the 19th day, the 12th Red army attacked the 54th national division, which escaped. The 19th national army had no information about what was happening to the other armies and had to retreat. Thus ended the second siege.
 楼主| 发表于 10/7/2019 07:39:43 | 显示全部楼层
The third siege

On the 21st of June, 1931, after the two failed sieges, Chiang Kai-shek formed two military blocs 300,000 strong for the third siege. On the July 10, the Communist Party also made all possible preparations for battle. The National Army had started to march on July 1, but could not ascertain the location of the Red Army. Towards the end of the month, the main forces of the Red Army were found taking a back route to a place called XingGuo. From the enemy’s location, Chiang Kai-shek judged that the Red Army planned to go west to cross the Gan River. He wanted to wipe it out on the east bank of the river. Mao and Zhu’s original plan was to ignore the main forces of the National Army, and use the Red Army to break through the encirclement at Futian to assail the detachment remaining in the rear; but this plan was detected. The 11th and the 14th divisions of the National Army marched faster to occupy Futian to block the Red Army’s escape route. This time, it looked good for Chiang. But Mao changed to a bold plan. He ordered the 35th Red Army to disguise itself as the main force, and to cross the Gan River to distract the National Army. On the 4th of August, his main forces stole through the gap between the two military blocs of the National Army before they closed like a vise. (That gap is said to have been 40 li wide. The li, or “Chinese mile,” creates some difficulties as this traditional unit of distance was only recently standardized. It now means half a kilometer or about a third of a mile.) This strategy was successful and the Red Army arrived at a safe place and annihilated a brigade of the National Army there on August 7. Then the Red Army moved to Huangpo and wiped out four national regiments on the 11th.
Then Chiang Kai-shek found out that what he was pursuing was not the main force of the Red Army. When the national troops turned back to march north, the fatigued army was like an arrow at the end of its flight. On the 18th of September, the 9/18 event happened, so Chiang had to go back to Nanking to take charge of the situation. Thus ended the third siege.
The strategies Mao used in the previous three battles would be seen repeated and repeated. Chiang was defeated three times by the same stratagem. Chiang Kai-shek never learned from his failures and made little improvement. It could be said that he deserved to be driven away from the mainland to Taiwan, after all.
 楼主| 发表于 10/9/2019 08:04:05 | 显示全部楼层
The establishment of the red government in Ruijin

After a few victories, the Communist Party founded their Red government in Ruijin City of Jiangxi province. It was located in a basin with mountains on three sides. Nanchang City, the capital of the province, under the national government, was 300 li (just over 90 miles) away.
On the 7th of November, 1931, they celebrated the founding of the Red government. Mao was the Chairman of the government and Zhu De was the Commander of the army. In the area of the Red government, almost everyone was in an organization of some sort. The organization for six-year-olds and up was called the “children’s league.” That of the youngsters of fifteen-year-old and up was called young pioneers. Young adults joined the “Red Guard Army.” They printed their own paper money and used terrorist methods to control people. Even their own comrades were killed. Li Wenlin, also a leader in the party, was murdered. Peasants in that area did not have to give part of their harvest to any landowners, but they did have to support the Red government in order to support the Red Army.
No one could leave the area without a pass. There were sentinels everywhere, 24 hours a day. Whoever was caught leaving secretly would be executed. War time or not, under such drastic terrorism even the intimate subordinate Yang Yuebin deserted Mao and went to the national government to give away Mao’s location. Airplanes were sent to bombard the place and Mao had to move.
 楼主| 发表于 10/11/2019 07:42:42 | 显示全部楼层
The fourth siege

After the 9/18 and 12/8 events (detailed in Chapter 3) were over, with the signing of the Songhu armistice agreement in May of 1932, Chiang Kai-shek planned for the fourth siege. This time he attacked the district of Hubei, Hunan and Anhui provinces where the Red Army was weak and was soon vanquished. Then in February of 1933, Chiang concentrated his forces to push forwards to where the main forces of the Red Army camped. The leadership of the Red Army had been changed at the meeting in Ningdu Town in October of 1932. Mao Zedong was dismissed from the commanding position. The leader was Bogu, who came from Shanghai on the 7th of January, 1933, but the actual commanders of the Red Army were Zhu De, Zhou Enlai and Peng Dehuai (1898–1974).
They used the same ruse Mao had used. They ordered the 11th Red army to disguise themselves as the main forces to attract and lead off the middle, second and third columns of the National Army to Lichuan area, while their actual main forces rested at Guangchang. Then they laid ambushes by the 1st Red military bloc and 3rd Red military bloc and 21st Red army to attack the 52nd national army, while the 5th Red military bloc and 22nd Red army would attack the 59th national army. On March 1, both national armies were annihilated and the commanders were captured. So the National Army was forced to withdraw. Thus ended the fourth siege.
 楼主| 发表于 10/13/2019 07:42:11 | 显示全部楼层
The fifth siege
In May of 1933, Chiang Kai-shek set up his headquarters in Nanchang City and assumed the responsibility of commander-in-chief himself for the fifth siege of the Red Army. Since the last siege, the Red Army had grown considerably. Chiang Kai-shek therefore gathered an army a million strong, including the 300,000 soldiers of Chen Jitang in Guangdong province. Chen had been a warlord there, and then had subordinated himself to the national government when he saw all the other warlords had been wiped out.
The siege began on September 25, 1933, and ended on October 14, 1934, lasting for 385 days. Chiang Kai-shek used artillery and airplanes. On the 25th day, the National Army attacked Lichuan Town. After three days, they took the town. On the 9th of October, the 24th Red division went to attack Xiaoshi, but the National Army had a strong defense there with fortresses and trenches. For several days, the Red Army could not take the town, and suffered heavy casualties. That was the first stage.
In November, there was a coup d’état in Fujian province against Chiang Kai-shek. The leaders of this coup founded another government, but they had little support. Even the Communist Party declared this new government unlawful. So the coup ended in failure.
On the 11th of December, the National Army in town changed from defense to counterattack. The Red Army fought back under the command of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, regardless of the fact that the National Army was far better equipped. The Red Army was conquered and retreated. That was the second stage.
On April 10, 1934, Chiang Kai-shek sent 11 divisions divided into two columns marching towards Guangchang. The Communist Party used 9 divisions to prevent the National Army from attacking the town. Battles broke out in many other places, too. The Red Army lost in those places and had to withdraw to Guangchang. On the 27th of April, the National Army attacked the town and occupied it in the evening. The Red Army had to escape, leaving 5,500 casualties. That was the third stage.
In June of 1934, the Communist Party made up its mind to resist the National Army assault to the last man. Even so, on August 5, nine divisions of the National Army, with air support, defeated the Red Army. The remnants of the Red Army had to escape and began the famous Long March. That was the final stage of the fifth siege.
The Red Army failed because the commanders changed from the right strategy to a wrong one. During this period Mao Zedong was not in the Red Army. He had been sent somewhere else. The failure drove home the obvious point that strategy is more important than many other factors; strategy can be decisive; and especially in politics and war, strategy is everything.
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