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Two Republics in China

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 楼主| 发表于 10/14/2019 07:05:36 | 显示全部楼层
The Famous Long March
The central Red Army, 86,000 in all, began marching on the 21st of October, 1934. This wound up being a 2,500-li march, that is, some 775 miles. They were headed to the western Hunan province where the 2nd and 6th Red military blocs encamped. Chiang Kai-shek deduced what route they were likely to take and laid four blockade lines to stop them. Zhou Enlai and Zhu De went to have a talk with Chen Jitang, a former warlord, and bribed him to let them go through his blockade line. So there was no fighting at the first three lines, as the Red Army never went there. However, they had to fight the National Army when they attempted to break through the fourth line. They made a heavy sacrifice after the rest of the Red Army fought through the fourth lines. Only 30,000 were left out of the 86,000.
The Long March could be divided in four stages. Firstly, the escaped Red Army wanted to go to a place at the border of Sichuan, Hunan and Guizhou provinces, where the geographic features were easy to defend and hard to attack. In these areas there were still some local small warlords that they could mingle amongst them for safety and the central national government would not easily reach them. In early December, they climbed over some mountains and occupied Liping town in Guizhou province on the 14th of December, 1934.
Secondly, at a meeting in Liping on the 28th of December, Mao Zedong strongly opposed the plan to unite with the 2nd and 6th Red military blocs, and proposed to go to the border of Sichuan and Guizhou provinces to occupy the area round Zunyi town as a new military base. His proposition was accepted by the Central Committee, because from their present location, it was difficult to communicate with the two Red blocs. On the 7th of January, 1935, they took Zunyi town.
Here they held the famous Zunyi meeting, in which Mao was appointed to the command of the Red Army again.
 楼主| 发表于 10/16/2019 07:46:57 | 显示全部楼层
Thirdly, though they wanted to establish a new military base in the vicinity of Zunyi town, the National Army continued to harass them. They had to escape to the northern Sichuan province, where Zhang Guotao, in command of the 4th Red military bloc, already set up a base. But that was far away, and they would have to cross various streams. From January to May of 1935, they ran here and there to avoid being destroyed by the National Army. They failed three times in crossing the Chishui Stream. Once they were forced to go back to Zunyi town. On the fourth try, they stole across the stream, then crossed Jinsha Stream and Dadu Stream. They met Zhang Guotao on the 16th of June. Then Mao suggested that they should march towards the northern Gansu province so that they might escape into the Soviet Union when necessary. But Zhang Guotao had three plans. The first plan was that they should go to create a base in northern Sichuan province, southern Gansu province and Xikang province. The second plan was that they should go to the northern Shaanxi province. The third plan was to go west into Xinjiang province.
 楼主| 发表于 10/18/2019 08:02:14 | 显示全部楼层
Fourthly, the two blocs (the central Red Army, renamed as the 1st red military bloc) went together north from the 12th of June to the 7th of July. Then as both Mao and Zhang were in disagreement as to the future plan, each went his own way. Zhang, after marching through the grasslands, refused to keep going north but went back through the grasslands again to Xikang province and wanted to establish his base there. And Mao Zedong, together with Peng Dehuai, Lin Biao (1907–1971), and Ye Jianying (1897–1986), went to southwestern Gansu province. In October 1935, Mao and his men, only about 3,000 left, surmounted the Liupan Mountain and reached the northern part of Shaanxi province. To their surprise, Liu Zhidan was there with his 7,000 men. So they settled there.
As for Zhang Guotao, who had started with 80,000 men, he wanted to found a new Central Committee of the Communist Party and to be the chairman himself. But most of his men had died through the Long March. He had no hope for his personal ambitions. So he turned himself in to the National Party. The Communist Party called him a traitor.
It happened like this: on April 4, 1938, leaders of both the National Party and the Communist Party were to go to worship at the mausoleum of Emperor Huang, a legendary hero recorded in Chinese history books, supposed to have lived five thousand years ago. Zhang went there as the chairman of the Communist Party and met Jiang Dingwen, a leader of the National Party. After the rites were concluded, Zhang told his attendants to go back first as he had something else to deal with. But he jumped into a car the National Party provided for him. And he was gone. He was no longer a member of the Communist Party. At the end of 1948, he arrived in Taiwan in poverty. He seemed to be a forgotten man. In the winter of 1949, he went to Hong Kong with his wife and three sons. In 1958, he went to Canada where his eldest son lived. In 1976 he had a stroke and was paralyzed on the right side. He died on December 2, 1979, at the age of 82.
An interesting note from recent times: People doubted the actual distance the Red Army covered. Therefore, on November 3, 2003, two young Englishmen started on their way to retrace the route the Red Army had covered. They spent 384 days and covered 13,000 li, not 25,000 li.
 楼主| 发表于 10/20/2019 07:52:39 | 显示全部楼层
The military coup d’état in XiAn City

As Japan invaded northeastern China (details in Chapter 3), the Communist Party seized this opportunity to demand that the Communist Party and the National Party unify against Japan in January, 1936. And as Japan occupied the northeastern China, Zhang Xueliang was driven out. Therefore, Chiang Kai-shek ordered Zhang to besiege the Communist Party in northern Shaanxi province on the 20th of September, 1935. But on the 1st of October, in the battle at Mt. Lao, the Red Army annihilated two regiments of Zhang’s army. On the 29th, in another battle, the 107th division and the 619th regiment of Zhang’s army were wiped out, too. On the 22nd of November, his 109th division went alone towards Wuqi Town and camped on the way at Zhilu Town for the night. The division commander thought that the Red Army was far away and could not attack him, and so he let down his vigilance. However, the Red Army took a quick march all night long and surrounded the division. In the morning, the Red Army put the division to rout.
After these defeats, Zhang Xueliang made secret contact with the Communist Party seeking a truce. On the 9th of April, 1936, Zhang went to YanAn city to talk with Zhou Enlai, the representative of the Communist Party. Zhang Xueliang accepted the Communist Party’s demand to unite against Japan. Zhang Xueliang even put in a request to join the Communist Party. Nevertheless, his request was not granted because his father, Zhang Zuolin, a warlord in the northeastern China, had killed some Communist Party members. Anyway, when Deng Xiaoping (1904–1997), an important leader of the Communist Party, was dangerously ill, Zhang procured medication for him and saved his life.
Chiang Kai-shek heard about the situation and was upset with Zhang Xueliang. But at the time, an event happened in Canton, on the 1st of June, 1936, called the 6/1 event. Chen Jitang in Guangdong province and Li Zongren (1891–1969) in Guangxi province wanted to be independent from the central national government, and on that day they sent a telegram from Canton to the central government asking permission to go north to fight Japan. But their real aim was to overthrow the central government.
 楼主| 发表于 10/21/2019 07:48:30 | 显示全部楼层
Chiang Kai-shek sent his army to conquer Chen in Guangdong province and simultaneously brought over Chen’s subordinates. In July, the commander of Chen’s air force betrayed him and turned over to Chiang Kai-shek by flying 70 airplanes under his command to Nanking. Then the commander of his 1st army declared his loyalty to Chiang Kai-shek. So on the 18th of July, Chen Jitang escaped to Hong Kong. Then Li Zongren in Guangxi province had to announce his obedience to the central government.
On the 22nd of October, Chiang Kai-shek flew from Nanking to XiAn city to urge Zhang to continue the attack of the Red Army, but Zhang raised objections. They had a quarrel and Chiang went to Luoyang City. On the 29th day, Zhang went to Luoyang for the celebration of Chiang Kai-shek’s birthday. He wanted to persuade Chiang to unite with the Communist Party against Japan, but Chiang refused. On the 27th of November, Zhang asked to go and fight Japan, but was rejected by Chiang. On the 2nd of December, Zhang flew to Luoyang to inform Chiang that his army might riot and asked Chiang to go to XiAn to talk to his soldiers. This was really a trick to lure Chiang there for a certain purpose. Chiang Kai-shek, unwise as ever, agreed and flew to XiAn with Zhang on the 4th of December. He lodged at Huaqing Pool on Lishan Mountain. Huaqing Pool was a resort built around a bathing pool with hot spring water. Actually the bathing pool was also inside a room. It was built in Tang Dynasty (AD 618–907) for the famous Yang, imperial concubine of Emperor Xuanzong (AD 685–762).
On December 9, the Communist Party organized a demonstration with crowds. A boy was said to be injured by the police, which incited the wrath of the mob. Zhang went to see Chiang Kai-shek, who wanted Zhang to stop the demonstration, but Zhang did not follow Chiang’s instruction. On December 11, at night, Zhang summoned his generals and asked them to make preparations for a military coup the next day. Accordingly, in the morning of December 12, Zhang went to see Chiang Kai-shek with soldiers and took him into custody.
 楼主| 发表于 10/23/2019 08:01:40 | 显示全部楼层
That evening, Mailing Soong, Chiang Kai-shek’s wife, was told of the event and immediately thought of Donald William Henry (1875–1946, died in Shanghai), an Australian reporter, who was a friend of both Chiang and Zhang. Soong and Henry immediately took the train to Nanking. At 8 o’clock in the morning on December 13, Soong sent Zhang a telegram and Henry did, too, saying that they would be flying to XiAn City. On December 16, the national government ordered Zhang to release Chiang at once, but Zhang declined. So the government gathered, intending to attack XiAn, and prepared to send bombers. The Communist Party suggested killing Chiang. But on the 17th, Stalin wrote to the Communist Party saying that he was opposed to killing Chiang, who, in his opinion, would be a qualified leader in resisting Japan. He demanded that Chiang Kai-shek be released. So the Communist Party agreed.
When Soong and Henry arrived in XiAn, they went to see Chiang Kai-shek at once. Soong persuaded Chiang to go along with the plan, saying that it would be better to act against Japan than to be killed by the Communist Party. As a player in the anti-Japan resistance, he would be a hero. Killed by the Communist Party, he would be nothing. So Chiang Kai-shek accepted the agreement on the 24th day about the unity with the Communist Party to fight Japan, etc. But he did not sign on the agreement. Some of Zhang’s subordinates were not satisfied. Zhang said that if Chiang wanted to go back from the agreement once he was released, he would do that even if he signed the agreement. If Chiang kept his promise, what did it matter that he signed it or not.
Chiang Kai-shek was let go in the afternoon of December 25, and Zhang accompanied him back to Nanking. He was kept in secret confinement till Chiang Kai-shek died on April 5, 1975. Then he was restored to freedom and died on October 15, 2001, in Hawaii. This event ended the war between the Communist Party and the National Party and began the Sino–Japanese war all over China.
 楼主| 发表于 10/25/2019 07:51:52 | 显示全部楼层
Chapter 3. The Japanese Invasion of China
Events Leading Up to the Sino–Japanese War in 1937

The 9/18 event
The Japanese army had begun entering China even during the latter stages of the Qing Dynasty. Around the beginning of the 20th century. Russia had built a railroad in northeastern China. In 1905, Russia and Japan had had a war there, on the territory of China, and Japan took control of the part of the railroad from Changchun City south, called the South Manchuria Railway.
A legend about the origin of the Japanese says that 2,000 years ago, when the first emperor of the Qin Dynasty was on the throne, his next ambition was to live eternally. He sent a man by name of Xu Fu to go east in ships together with 100 boys and 100 girls. It was said that there were islands in the eastern seas on which dwelt immortals. The errand of Xu Fu was to find these immortals and ask for an elixir. Once he got it, he was to bring it back to the emperor. Xu Fu reached the Japanese islands and lived there with boys and girls, never returning to China. Those were said to be the earliest inhabitants and the earliest ancestors of the Japanese.
About 10:22PM on September 18, 1931, some Japanese soldiers laid gunpowder under the rails of the South Manchuria railway for blew it up. This part of the line went by the Liutiao Lake, a bit north of Shenyang City. Then they left three Chinese corpses in the uniform of Chinese soldiers as evidence that it was Chinese soldiers who had blown up the rails. On this excuse, the Japanese army attacked the Chinese army in Shenyang City. The Chinese army was ordered not to cause trouble with the Japanese army; so two of the three Chinese regiments guarding the city withdrew. But the third 620th regiment did not receive the order, and of course, resisted the attack. The next afternoon, Japanese reinforcements came and the Japanese army entered the city. They encountered resistance and fought street by street till all the regiment fled the city. This was called the Liutiao Lake Incident (or Mukden Incident, by foreigners), and was the beginning of the whole 9/18 event. But this was not really counted as the beginning of the Sino-Japanese War as the Chinese central government did not declare war against Japan yet.
On September 19, Japanese army attacked and conquered 18 towns along the South Manchuria Railway. The defensive Chinese army in Changchun City also counterattacked the Japanese army, but on the next day, the city fell into Japanese hands. On September 21, Xie, chief-of-staff of the headquarters of the Chinese army in Jilin province, changed sides and went over to Japan. So the Japanese army took Jilin. On October 1, Zhang Haipeng, guarding Tiaoliao Town, changed sides, and under instruction from the Japanese sent three regiments of his army to assault Qiqihar City, but on October 16, they were defeated by the Chinese defenders. By the 26th of October, the Japanese army had occupied the chief towns along the Sitiao Railroad. From November 4 to 18, the Chinese army in Heilongjiang province fought the Japanese army. Then they had to retreat from Qiqihar after leaving heavy casualties, and the next day, the Japanese army entered it.
At the start of the 9/18 event, Zhang Xueliang, who was responsible for all the northeastern provinces, left Shenyang for Jinzhou. On the 8th of October, the Japanese army sent 12 bombers to raid Jinzhou. On the 15th of December, after occupying the important towns of Heilongjiang province, the Japanese army began to attack Jinzhou. On the 17th, reinforcement came directly from Japan. On December 28, the 2nd division of the Japanese army crossed Liao River to attack Jinzhou. On January 3, 1932, the Japanese army took Jinzhou. On February 5, the Japanese army occupied Harbin City. These battles were still not written in Chinese history as the outbreak of Sino-Japanese War.
The army in the northeastern provinces under the command of Zhang Xueliang had 18 brigades of foot soldiers, five independent brigades of cavalry, and four regiments and a battalion of artillery, plus 262 airplanes and fleets. They could have fought off the Japanese invaders, but they simply abandoned the northeastern provinces. A shameful strategy.
 楼主| 发表于 10/27/2019 08:04:55 | 显示全部楼层
The 1/28 event
After Japan occupied northeastern China, it took aim at southeastern China.
Shanghai was an ideal place for Japan. At 4 o’clock in the afternoon on January 18, 1932, five Japanese monks were instructed by the traitor Kawashima Yoshiko, formerly the Last Princess of Manchuria and now a Japanese spy using a Japanese name, to throw stones at workers at a Chinese factory. This caused a fight to break out. But some thugs were sent by the Japanese, and they beat one of the five monks to death and severely injured another. Then 50 Japanese young men went to the factory at midnight on January 19 and burned the factory down and murdered three policemen.
On January 20, around a thousand overseas Japanese in Shanghai held a demonstration to demand the Japanese consulate and the Japanese Mariner headquarters take revenge on the Chinese. But on the way there, they began to riot and smashed Chinese shops.
On January 21, the Japanese general consul demanded the Mayor of Shanghai to apologize, punish the murderers, make compensation for the losses, and disband all the anti-Japanese organizations. Although the mayor accepted all of these demands, the consul further ordered that the Chinese army back away from Zhabei district on the pretext that they posed a threat to the overseas Japanese. He added that if Chinese army did not leave before 6:00PM on January 28, they would attack. On January 24, more Japanese mariners came to Shanghai. At 11:30 at night on January 28, Japanese mariners attacked the Zhabei district in Shanghai, which was in the control of the 19th army of the national government. The 19th army fearlessly resisted the Japanese attack with the support of the people of Shanghai, which forced the Japanese to accept the mediation of England and America for a truce. But on February 3, the fight started anew. On the 23rd, a fierce battle took place and 3,000 Japanese mariners and 2,000 Chinese soldiers were killed. On February 24, two more divisions from Japan arrived in Shanghai as reinforcements. Only the 5th army of the national government came to the aid. On March 3, with the mediation of England and America, the Songhu armistice was signed. The Chinese army were to be stationed in the region from Shanghai to Suzhou City. But Japan could still have their army in Shanghai.
One episode during all this took place on April 29 when Japan held a military parade in Hongkou Park to celebrate the birthday of the Japanese emperor, or “Sumera mikoto,” and their victory. A Korean hero, disguised as a Japanese man, entered the park with a grenade in the shape of a water flask. When the Japanese were singing their anthem, he flung the grenade onto the platform, where it exploded. The chairman of the committee for the Japanese in Shanghai died on the spot. The commander of the Japanese army in Shanghai for the event was severely injured and died in the hospital. A regiment commander and the Japanese envoy for China each broke a leg. And one eye of the commander of the 3rd fleet was blinded. The Korean hero was caught and sentenced to death; he was sent to Japan and executed at a Japanese army base. After World War II, his remains were taken back to Korea and a monument was erected in his honor in Hongkou Park in Shanghai.
 楼主| 发表于 10/28/2019 07:55:26 | 显示全部楼层
The establishment of Manchukuo

        Afraid of international interference, Japan desired to establish a puppet government in northeastern China, and they thought of the abdicated emperor Henry. He was 18 years old when he was driven out of the Forbidden City on November 5, 1924; he escaped to the Japanese embassy and traveled to Tianjin City, and lived under the protection of Japan ever since. So he was their first choice for the puppet government.
                Therefore, Henry was escorted from Tianjin City on the 10th of November, 1931, to Changchun City, where Manchukuo (meaning the state of Manchuria) was established on March 1, 1932, with Changchun as its capital and Henry as the head of Manchukuo.

On the 15th of September, 1932, the Japan–Manchukuo Protocol was signed, in which Manchukuo asked that Japan station its army on its territory. On September 23, 1932, the Soviet Union consented to allow Manchukuo to set up consulates in Moscow and New Siberia. But the League of Nations reproved Japan for this and disavowed Manchukuo as an illegal entity. On February 24, 1933, the League of Nations declared that Manchuria belonged to the Republic of China, as the establishment of Manchukuo had not been decided by popular vote but by the government of Japan. The League of Nations adopted the “Stimson Doctrine” specifying that new states created by force of arms would not gain international recognition. Japan protested and withdrew from the League. Of course, the national government in Nanking also refused to recognize it.
On March 1, 1934, the designation Manchukuo was changed to Manchu Empire, and Henry got to be Emperor once again. On May 24, 1934, El Salvador recognized the Manchu Empire. On April 6, 1935, Emperor Henry visited Tokyo, Japan, for the first time and the Sumera mikoto came to welcome him at the railway station. On November 28, 1936, Italy signed a protocol with Japan recognizing the Manchu Empire. On February 20, 1937, Germany recognized it and signed a treaty in Berlin on the 12th of May. In August of 1940, Denmark recognized the Manchu Empire. A handful of other nations also recognized it.
 楼主| 发表于 10/30/2019 07:37:00 | 显示全部楼层
Changchun City, as the capital of this empire, had expanded to cover an area of 30 square miles by 1944 and its population reached 1,217,000, larger than the population of Tokyo at the time. The population was composed of Manchus, Han, Mongolians, Koreans, Russians, and of course, two million Japanese (as Japanese citizens, not subjects of the Manchu Empire). The total population was divided into different classes according to their different tribes. Among the regulations that reflected this stratification was one prohibiting non-Japanese residents from eating rice and white flour. Any non-Japanese resident, if found to have rice or white flour, was taken in as an “economical criminal.” Three languages were used officially: Chinese (Han), Mandarin (the language of Manchu officials) and Japanese. As the population was mostly of the Han tribe, Chinese was the chief official language.
                However, on February 24, 1942, Poland abolished its recognition of the so-called empire and in August, 1945, the empire came to an end when Japan surrendered and the Soviet Army occupied its territory. Henry abdicated once again on August 17 and was captured by the Soviet army as a prisoner of war.
                He was handed over to the Communist Party of China. He was released on December 4, 1959, and died of uremia on October 17, 1967.
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