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楼主: 海外逸士

Two Republics in China

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 楼主| 发表于 11/18/2019 08:34:55 | 显示全部楼层
After taking Madang, the Japanese army continued west. On the 29th of June, they took Pengze. Under orders from Wuhan headquarters, the 64th Chinese army came in hopes of taking back the town, but it was defeated and chased to Hukou, which was soon taken by the Japanese army on the 4th of July. The 64th Chinese army then went to Jiujiang, which was situated by the Poyang Lake. On July 22, the Japanese army attacked the city. At dawn on July 23, the Japanese army stole into the lake in the rain and set foot on the shore at noon. The Chinese defensive army did not see them coming. They spotted the enemy and reported to headquarters only at 4 o’clock. By then, the Japanese army had surrounded the city. The Chinese army inside had to fight through the circle and escape. The city fell into the hands of the Japanese army on July 24.
The next goal of the Japanese army was Tianjia Town. The hilly ground was easy to defend and hard to attack. The river was only 500 meters wide. The Chinese army set up a strong defense here with artillery. On the 21st of August, the Japanese army attacked Matou Town, about 10 miles downstream from Tianjia Town, and took it after more than 20 days of struggle. On the 26th, the Japanese army sailed in warships upstream towards the town. There were more barriers in the water, so the Japanese army advanced very slowly. On August 29, another Japanese detachment went to attack Guangji. If they could take this town, they could go on to attack Tainjia from behind. Tianjia Town was about 25 miles northeast of Guangji Town. The attack began on August 30 and lasted until September 6. Between Guangji Town and Tianjia Town there was only a narrow road between two small lakes. The Japanese army followed that road on September 15. There were some defensive outposts set along this road. Coming to a roadblock, they used poisonous gas again. Some Chinese soldiers were injured and the Chinese army had to retreat.
 楼主| 发表于 11/20/2019 08:29:55 | 显示全部楼层
The Japanese mariners went to Wuxue, some distance from Tianjia. Wuxue was defended only by a company of Chinese soldiers. In the evening of September 15, the mariners began the offensive. The defensive soldiers fought the invaders alley by alley till only a few soldiers left, and they slipped away. But before they left, they destroyed the dike at the river bank and the water flooded Wuxue area, which hindered the advance of the mariners.
A Japanese brigade that was surrounded by the Chinese army was running short of rations and ammunition. A Japanese commander learned about this and called for an air lift to re-supply them. So Japanese airplanes dropped the necessities and ammunition to the brigade. But as the fighting continued, their ammunition was soon used up. The Japanese soldiers were reduced to throwing stones at the Chinese attackers and sometimes threw back the grenades the Chinese soldiers cast at them. The Chinese army figured out that the enemy was in a tight spot and marched forth in a downpour of rain to wipe them out. However, more Japanese troops came to the rescue and assailed the Chinese army from behind, so they had to withdraw. Few men in the Japanese brigade were left alive.
On September 23, some of the wounded Japanese soldiers were shipped away, but the first field hospital was still full. Because of the lack of helping hands, those who were lightly wounded and who could still walk, went to the field hospital by themselves. Sometimes they had to crawl in the rain and in the mud. By the time they reached the hospital, they were almost dying. Some died on the way owing to the loss of blood. The hospital had little food to spare and could only give them what they had. War is cruel to all participants.
After the sunset on the 26th, the 4th Japanese battalion attacked Xinwo. Their soldiers all put on gas masks and cleared out the Chinese company there, except about ten of them who had already escaped. The Japanese soldiers then went in and used bayonets to kill any Chinese soldiers that had not died yet.
 楼主| 发表于 11/22/2019 08:57:11 | 显示全部楼层
The 4th battalion went towards Lujia Mountain without leaving any soldiers to guard Xinwo. It was dark and the mountain contours were complicated. The 4th battalion lost its way in the mountains. The 339th Chinese regiment was taking shelter on this mountain. But after a few battles, only one battalion was left. As Xinwo was lost, the regiment commander chose some hundred soldiers to form an expendable squad to make one last try at Xinwo. When they reached there, they found no Japanese soldiers guarding the place. But by coincidence the 2nd Japanese battalion came into their firing zone. The Japanese troops thought that their 4th battalion had already wiped out by the Chinese soldiers defending the city, but now they encountered the Chinese squad by surprise. So 61 soldiers of the 2nd Japanese battalion were killed and 17 escaped. At daybreak, the 4th battalion found that they were at the foot of Lujia Mountain and they climbed up to attack the Chinese soldiers on the top, who were just ready for breakfast. When they detected Japanese soldiers creeping up the mountainside, they disappeared.
In the early morning of September 28, the cannons from the warships on the river and from land poured heavy fire upon Tianjia and all the defensive structures and weaponry were destroyed. It looked like a sea of flames. At the same time, all the outer defensive spots were lost. The Chinese army in Tianjia was ordered to withdraw. At 10 o’clock on September 29, when the Japanese army entered the town, the Chinese defenders were nowhere to be seen.
 楼主| 发表于 11/24/2019 08:01:03 | 显示全部楼层
At the same time, the 106th Japanese military bloc had been marching south along Nanxun railroad to Nanchang. On the August 20, this bloc, aided by the 101th Japanese bloc, broke through the Chinese defensive line at Xingzi. But the Chinese army had a second defensive line. The two Japanese blocs could not go further this time. In September 1938, a Japanese reconnaissance airplane found that there was a gap in the defensive line after the fight had been going on for a month. So the 106th Japanese bloc was sent to go stealthily through that gap and come upon the Chinese defensive army to attack them from behind. On September 25, the 106th bloc began to steal through the gap, but lost their way in the mountains. They were soon discovered and surrounded by Chinese soldiers. On October 7, the Chinese army attacked and the fight went on for three days. The bloc had no reinforcements and ran out of ammunition. On September 10, 3,000 Japanese soldiers died. The rest escaped.
On the August 27, the 2nd Japanese army attacked Dabie Mountain area and took LiuAn and Huoshan. They split into two detachments. The first went through the Dabie Mountain area to approach Wuhan directly. The second detachment went to Lushan through a circuitous route to Wuhan. But Mt. Fujin was right on their way to Wuhan. They had to occupy Mt. Fujin first. A severe battle commenced. They failed to take the mountain by September 6. On September 11, the 16th Japanese bloc came for reinforcement. The Chinese defensive army in the mountains had to withdraw. As the Japanese army approached Wuhan, there was no more Chinese army seen. The Chinese army already retreated from Wuhan, leaving the city to the Japanese army.
Although the Japanese army took control of many cities and towns, they really did not annihilate the Chinese army, which still had enough strength to fight back when needed. On the contrary, the Japanese army suffered great losses and had no more strength to wage battles on a large scale. As China is such a huge country, even with all the Japanese armies thrown into the territory of China, they could not cover the whole area of the nation. Besides, when they took a city, they took on an additional burden. As they acquired more and more burdens, they had less and less strength to fight. That has to be factored into any military strategy.
 楼主| 发表于 11/25/2019 08:30:27 | 显示全部楼层
The Japanese army takes Canton in the south

The top brass of the Japanese army had a meeting on September 7 and decided to overrun southern China as they had already occupied the northern and middle China. Their final goal was to occupy the whole of China and then occupy all the countries in East Asia to establish what they called Great East Asia Coprosperity Sphere.
However, historians question why they attacked Pearl Harbor, since Hawaii was not in East Asia. This ill-advised action, or ill-advised stratagem, made them pay heavily when America declared war against them. of course, even if they hadn’t attacked Pearl Harbor, the United States would finally have joined the war in East Asia after Germany was conquered, because Japan was one of the axis countries, just as the Soviet Union entered northeastern China to fight the Japanese army.
Anyway, Chiang Kai-shek misjudged the situation, thinking that since Japan was still fighting in the Yangtze River area, they could not go south to Canton. So he maneuvered four divisions from the Canton area to support those battling in Wuhan. In other words, he weakened the defensive forces in Canton. But Canton was a harbor city, an outlet to the sea, a place of strategic importance.
On October 12, 1938, the Japanese 18th and 104th blocs set out for Canton by sea and air from the Pescadores Islands (located between the mainland and Taiwan, which was known at the time by the name Formosa, given by the Portuguese) with the aid of four aircraft carriers. They entered Daya Bay in the Guangdong province. The next day, they dropped bombs on Huiyang Town and after three days, they took it. On October 19, they suddenly attacked Zengcheng and put the Chinese defenders to rout. On October 21, the Chinese army withdrew from Canton and the Japanese army took it. Another burden. On October 22, 110 Japanese airplanes and the 5th fleet pounced upon Humen, a very important strategic spot. Within ten days, they occupied Canton and Human.
 楼主| 发表于 11/27/2019 09:05:26 | 显示全部楼层
The Japanese army attacks Changsha City three times
Although the Japanese army occupied Nanking and Wuhan, two big, important cities, there were other important cities in between that had not taken yet. Changsha was one of them. On the 14th of September, 1939, they gathered 100,000 soldiers and marched towards Changsha. But they had to fight through one Chinese defensive line after another.
The 101th Japanese bloc attacked GaoAn on September 18. On the 19th, the Chinese gave up the town after a severe fight and receded to Shiguling. Then, the Chinese 32nd army counterattacked in GaoAn on September 21. On September 22, the Chinese army took back GaoAn. The Japanese 106th bloc took Ganfang on September 24. The next day, the Chinese counterattacked in Ganfang. On the 6th of October, two Chinese blocs surrounded the Japanese army, who fled back to where they had come from. The Chinese army chased them and took back a few towns that had been captured by the Japanese army. On October 13, Chinese army stopped its pursuit. Thus ended the Changhsha battle for the first time, and the people there had a moment to recover.
In early September of 1941, Japan gathered 120,000 men, with artillery and air support, and marched on Changhai once more. On September 7, the Japanese 6th bloc attacked Dayun Mountain as a decoy to screen the gathering of their 3rd, 4th, and 40th blocs on the right bank of the Xinqiang River. The 4th Chinese army gave up the front line on the mountain. On September 10, the Chinese 58th army came as reinforcements and took back the mountain position. At the daybreak on September 18, the Japanese 3rd, 6th, and 40th blocs crossed the Xinqiang River and the next day they reached the north bank of the Miluo River. The Chinese 37th and 99th armies were stationed on the south bank of the river and they prevented the Japanese army from crossing. Meantime, the Chinese 20th, 58th , and 4th armies went to attack the wing side of the Japanese army. But a telegram from headquarters to the armies at the front was intercepted and deciphered by the Japanese, who changed their original plan and went to assail the Chinese army coming from their wing side. On September 24, the Japanese army crossed the Miluo River. On the 26th, the Japanese 4th bloc crossed Laodao river and the next day crossed Liuyang River and approached Changsha. On the afternoon of September 27, they entered the city from the southeast side and shortly occupied the whole city.
 楼主| 发表于 11/29/2019 09:12:53 | 显示全部楼层
But Chinese armies came from all sides and surrounded the city. The Japanese supply lines were cut and provisions inside the city ran short. On October 1, they had to escape north. So the Chinese army pursued them. On October 5, they caught up with the runaways on the south side of the Miluo River and fought there. The Japanese army had to cross the river to the north side. On October 6, the Chinese army crossed the river, too, keeping up the chase, and they crossed the Xinqiang River on October 8. On October 11, the Chinese army restored all the positions taken by the foe. The second battle for Changsha was over.
After the 7th of December, 1941, when Japan made their semi-secret bombardment of Pearl Harbor, Japan was scheming to attack the Chinese army in Changsha area again lest they should go south to assist the Britain in the defense of Hong Kong.
On December 23, the Japanese army crossed the Xinqiang River once again to pounce upon the Chinese army in Changsha, who put up a firm resistance. Other Chinese armies around the area came to surround the Japanese army, who gradually ran low on ammunition and their supply line was cut off. On January 15, 1942, the Japanese army had to break through the encirclement and escape. They lost 50,000 soldiers.
The victory in these battles made a deep international impression just when the situation appeared unfavorable to the Allies in East Asia. On January 1, 1942, twenty-six nations held an assembly in Washington D.C., and made a joint declaration. The United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and China, the four greatest powers in the world, signed the declaration. And Xue Yue, the commander of the Chinese army in the Changsha defensive war, was conferred a Medal of Honor by American government.
 楼主| 发表于 12/1/2019 08:35:33 | 显示全部楼层
The battles in Nanning City

On the 1st of September, 1939, Germany invaded Poland. World War II broke out in Europe. Japan thought that it would be best to speed up the process of conquering China. Considering that China got all its supplies from international support through its southwestern border, Japan understood it had to cut off this supply line and China would soon surrender. Japan sent army and navy forces to occupy Nanning City in Guangxi province and took control of the railroads there. And the Chinese defensive forces were not so strong there as around Changsha.
On the 9th of November, 1939, the Japanese attackers gathered at Shanya Bay, ready for action. On the 13th, a Japanese fleet started out from Shanya Bay and arrived at Beihai on the 14th. As the Chinese army there was not ready to fight, Beihai soon fell to Japan. On November 17, the Japanese army took Qinzhou and continued north. Guided by bandits through the mountains in that area, the Japanese army accelerated its advance. On November 22, they reached the south bank of the Yong River in the vicinity of Nanning City. But at the time, Chinese armies had already arrived in the city and its outskirts.
On November 23, the Japanese army crossed the Yong River with air cover. At dawn on November 24, the attack on the city began. The Japanese army saw strong resistance, but took the city at last in the afternoon. The Chinese army retreated to Gaofeng Pass. On November 26, the Japanese army attacked the pass, and they captured it by December 1. Three days later they had Kunlun Pass as well. Then, both sides held their respective positions for a while. No fighting went on.
 楼主| 发表于 12/2/2019 08:58:31 | 显示全部楼层
On December 7, the Chinese army began to attack the invaders. On December 16, the Chinese army surrounded Kunlun Pass. The newly organized Chinese 22nd division went round the pass from its right side to block Japanese reinforcements from Nanning. Two regiments went round from its left side to block the Japanese army’s escape route. At daybreak on December 18, the Chinese army commenced the assault and took Kunlun Pass. At the noon the next day, the Japanese army came back and took the Pass again. It changed hands several times. On December 18th, the Chinese 170th division attacked the Gaofeng Pass defended by the Japanese army and took a hilltop nearby, but that same night, the Japanese army gave a surprise attack and occupied the hilltop again. On December 20, the Japanese army at Kunlun Pass could not hold out anymore. And the reinforcements were blocked. In the afternoon of December 26, both Japanese forces escaped and safely arrived in Nanning.
At night on December 28, the Chinese army attacked Jieshou Highland, the gate to the Kunlun Pass. The following morning, the Chinese army took the highlands, and on the 30th of December, the Chinese army took Kunlun Pass. On December 31, they wiped out all enemies in the area of Kunlun Pass. If the Chinese army could have advanced in the pursuit of their enemies at the time, the situation might have been different.
On January 1, 1940, Japan sent reinforcements, and the warfare continued. On the 7th, Chiang Kai-shek flew to Huilin City and on January 10, went to the headquarters at Qian River to hold a meeting with all the frontier commanders. At that time, Japan had not gathered all the forces it needed. So at the request of some of the commanders, Chiang decided to launch an attack, but next day, when he returned to Liuzhou, he changed his mind and missed the chance to annihilate the remaining foe in that area, which proved that Chiang was not a good military leader.
On January 14, 3,000 Japanese soldiers landed in Qinzhou, and two days later, they began to assail the Chinese army. On the 27th, the Japanese army resumed their assault. The Chinese commanders did not have enough information about the maneuvers of the Japanese army and made a terrible mistake. They did not have enough time to make proper arrangements.
 楼主| 发表于 12/4/2019 08:53:47 | 显示全部楼层
On February 1, the Japanese army made their all-out attack. But Chiang changed the commander-in-chief at the front, which really runs counter to the fundamental rules of the art of war. In the afternoon on February 2, the Japanese army entered Binyang Town. On February 3, they took Kunlun Pass and other spots. The Battles for Nanning City ended in failure for the Chinese.
It was actually Chiang Kai-shek’s fault, as he often changed orders, confusing his subordinates. Chiang Kai-shek was not really a good commander himself, though he had graduated from a famous military academy in Japan. He should have been able to beat Mao, who had no such advantage but only learned his tactics from Chinese history books. This leads to the inevitable conclusion that Mao was more intelligent than Chiang Kai-shek. Every Chinese person knows that Chiang Kai-shek’s rulership was bad, but many found that the rule of the Communist Party under Mao was worse. Part of this is due to personal characteristics of the leaders, part of it is due to the fact that under Mao China remained on a more-or-less war footing under constant menace from the West, and some of it depends on the position of the people talking. Obviously, when the Communists started expropriating private property, those who had something to lose were never going to forgive them. Some historians said that if Chiang could have beaten Mao, the Chinese people wouldn’t have suffered so much during all the cruel political movements under Mao, some of which were quite poorly thought-out and highly destructive. Even so, no one can claim that the regime in Taiwan, after Chiang Kai-shek’s eventual defeat, was either democratic or open.
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