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Two Republics in China

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 楼主| 发表于 12/23/2019 09:53:29 | 显示全部楼层
Mao’s marriage history and his other women
Mao had four formal marriages. His first wife was Ms. Luo (no given name known), whom Mao married in accordance with arrangements made by his parents. She was then 20 years old while Mao was only 16. The Mao family and Luo family were relatives. Though she was a pleasant woman, Mao did not like her. They married in 1907. But in February of 1910, she died of some disease. Using this as a pretext, Mao left his family and went to Peking.
His second wife was Yang Kaihui (1901–1930), whose father, Yang Changji, was a graduate returned from England who became a professor of ethics at Peking University. At that time Mao worked in the library and studied as a guest student. He and Yang Kaihui were classmates. In 1919, Mao began to court Yang Kaihui, and in 1920, they lived together without legally marrying. At that time Mao was 26 years old and Yang was only 18. She bore three sons for Mao. In 1921, Yang joined the Communist Party, but afterwards she was arrested by the national government and was executed on the 14th of November, 1930. Her first son, Mao Anying (1922–1950), died in the Korean War. Her second son, Mao Anqing (1923–2007), was escorted by Kang Sheng to Moscow. He joined the Communist Party in 1947. In July of 1949, he was given the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, but he was engaged in research work in the Academy of Military Sciences, not combat. He died of heart disease. Yang’s third son, Mao Anlong, was a riddle. It was said that he went missing as a child and no one knew what became of him even now. And no one ever appeared claiming that he was Mao’s third son.
 楼主| 发表于 12/25/2019 08:51:05 | 显示全部楼层
Mao’s third wife was He Zizhen (1910–1984), sister of marshal He Long. In 1927 when Mao went to Jinggang Mountain after the riot, he met He Zizhen there. That year, Mao was 35 years old while she was only 17. In June of 1928, they got married while his second wife Yang Kaihui was in prison. It has never been said that Mao had endeavored to rescue her from the prison. When He Zizhen grew up, she became the secretary of the frontier committee of the Red Army and director of the women’s league in the southwestern Jiangxi province. In the Long March, while protecting the wounded soldiers from air raids, she was wounded herself. In January of 1938, she went to study in Moscow and returned to China in the summer of 1947. Then she took up offices like director of the women’s league in Hangzhou City. He Zizhen had her first child with Mao in 1929, and when they had to escape, He Zizhen left her daughter with a local family. The child was called Mao Jinhua. In April, 1932, when He Zizhen wanted to find the child, she was told that the child had died. In fact, the child did not die. At that time some agents of the National Party had come to inquire about the child and so the adoptive family lied, saying the child had died, lest they kill it. The child grew up and was named Yang Yuehua. In 1973, an old Red Army man came to the place and learned something about Yang Yuehua and he notified He Zizhen’s brother, who informed his sister of the truth. However, it was during the Cultural Revolution when Jiang Qing was in power, so the mother and the daughter could not see each other. The daughter is alive now in retirement. He Zizhen had another daughter called Mao Jiaojiao. But afterwards when Mao Zedong changed his name to Li Desheng to avoid being arrested by the national government, this daughter changed her name to Li Min, which is used now. He Zizhen died in Shanghai at the age 75.
 楼主| 发表于 12/27/2019 09:02:47 | 显示全部楼层
His fourth wife was Jiang Qing (see above). But he had many other women outside of marriage. The first one we know about was Tao Siyong, from a rich family. She was known as a woman of talent and a beauty, too. From 1919 to 1920, she and Mao opened a bookstore in Changsha. Mao wrote many love letters to her. Five of them were found later. In 1921, she went to study in Jinling College in Nanking. As her father did not like Mao, she did not marry him. She died in 1931 at the age of 36 without marrying anyone. The next one was Ding Ling, a so-called red writer. She was born on the 12th of October, 1904. She was a classmate of Yang Kaihui in high school. She joined the Communist Party in 1932 and was arrested too, but in September of 1936, with the assistance of the Communist Party, escaped from prison in Nanking and went to YanAn. Mao loved her at first sight. She was the chief editor of Journal of Literature and Arts, and then the party secretary of the Chinese Writers Association, and the chief editor of People’s Literature, etc. But in the anti-rightist movement in 1957, she was declared a rightist and was exiled to a cold region in northeastern China. She died on March 4, 1986.
Another was Wu Lili, born in 1912. She went to America for further studies after graduation from the Normal University in Peking. When she learned of the outbreak of the Anti-Japanese War, she came back to China, to YanAn, to fight Japan. She became Mao’s interpreter and they fell in love. But when He Zizhen heard about this, she went there and caught them together. She wanted to kill them both. This became such a big scandal that the Central Committee of the Communist Party had to intervene. Wu Lili was sent away. Afterwards, she married an officer of the National Party and went to live in Taiwan.
 楼主| 发表于 12/29/2019 09:13:46 | 显示全部楼层
Sun Weishi was also one, whose father was a fellow fighter of Premier Zhou. When he died in 1927, Sun Weishi was only 5. So Premier Zhou took care of her and looked upon her as his adopted daughter, but openly known as his niece. Then she went with Zhou Enlai to YanAn. She was called the red princess. In 1939, she went with Zhou Enlai to Moscow to study drama. In December 1949, Mao went to the Soviet Union with Zhou; Sun Weishi was their interpreter and also taught Mao some Russian. Mao had a carriage of his own in the train. One night Mao raped her in his carriage. Sun told Zhou about it, but Zhou did not dare to say anything. In the Cultural Revolution, her brother was tragically beaten to death and Sun wrote to Jiang Qing to ask for an investigation. She also wrote to Zhou. Both without result. In December 1967, her husband was put in prison on spying charges. Her home was searched and some letters to Mao were found. Jiang Qing took these letters to see Zhou Enlai and blamed him for it. Jiang even slapped Zhou’s face in wrath. Zhou could not do anything to her. Before long Sun Weishi was put in a secret prison on the orders of Jiang Qing and was tortured to death. A long nail was driven into her head. Jiang Qing wanted Zhou Enlai to sign an order to execute Sun Weishi; Zhou did not dare to refuse and signed it. No comment needed here. Everyone can see what a man Zhou was.
Feng Fengming was a returned overseas Chinese and was talented in drama. When she arrived in YanAn, she was enrolled in the Lu Xun Arts College and then became an actress. One day after a performance, Mao invited her to his place to discuss acting. Then and there, he violated her. She was so infuriated that she left YanAn. No one knew where she went.
In 1962, Mao went to Shanghai. The mayor Ke Qingshi at the time made arrangements for Mao to meet the famous movie star Shangguan Yunzhu. A friend of hers had witnessed a note Mao had written to Shangguan. Mao wrote that “A hero loved a beauty since the olden days. I am the hero. You are the beauty.” The next year, Mao came to Shanghai again and met her again. Every time, they would stay together for several days. In 1965, she was brought to Zhongnanhai (literally, central south sea) in Beijing, where Mao lived. They openly lived together. Not long later, Mao took her back to Shanghai and she never saw him again. In 1966, she was arrested under orders of Jiang Qing and she died in jail.
In Mao’s late years, Zhang Yufeng worked as Mao’s secretary and looked after him day and night. Zhang was born in 1944 to a poor family in northeastern China. In 1958, Zhang worked as a train attendant. Then she was transferred to the special train for Mao in 1962. In 1967, she was married to a man working in the railway department. But in July 1970, Mao took a liking to her and she was sent to work in Zhongnanhai. She looked after Mao’s health and daily life. She lived with Mao till his death. Then she moved out of Zhongnanhai. Now she’s enjoying a quiet retired life.
 楼主| 发表于 12/30/2019 09:04:43 | 显示全部楼层
The Puppet Governments in China Under Japan
The assassination of Wang Jingwei
Japan knew that for such a big country as China, they would need to set up some puppet governments as they could not rule all China by themselves. Manchukuo in the northeastern China was the first puppet government Japan established. As Japan expanded into other provinces, they founded other local puppet governments. From December 1937 to March 1938, puppet governments were set up in Peking and in Nanking.
Japan always wanted to induce Chiang Kai-shek and the national government to surrender to Japan and became the central puppet government, but never succeeded. In November, 1938, Japan sent someone to talk to Wang Jingwei (1883—1944) and his clique. His two important followers were Chen Gongbo (1892—1946) and Zhou Fohai (1897—1948). Both were originally members of the Communist Party. It was said that most of the members of any party were mainly opportunists. They would go where personal benefits beckoned to them.
Wang always wanted to be the head of a government, but he was no rival to Chiang Kai-shek who controlled the army. Now Japan offered him a chance to be one, though only the head of a puppet government. Better than nothing. So the representatives of both sides had a secret talk in Shanghai and signed an agreement stating that the new government recognized Manchukuo, and that Japan had priority over any natural resources in China, etc. On the 18th of December, 1938, Wang Jingwei, Chen Gongbo and Zhou Fohai stealthily left Chongqing, the temporary war-time capital, and went to Kunming, where they took a plane to Hanoi in Vietnam.
On December 29, 1938, Wang sent out a public telegram stating three points as his principles for negotiating with Japan: firstly, be friendly to the adjacent countries; secondly, to cooperate with Japan against the Communist Party; thirdly, to get financial assistance from Japan. The national government and the Communist Party both saw Wang’s statement as a betrayal of China and a capitulation to Japan. So Wang and his followers were defined as traitors.
Therefore, on New Year’s Day of 1939, Chiang Kai-shek had a meeting to announce that Wang was expelled from the National Party and dismiss from all his offices. Next he planned to get rid of Wang physically. Some special agents were sent to assassinate him in Hanoi.
 楼主| 发表于 1/1/2020 08:52:45 | 显示全部楼层
Wang and his wife, Chen Bijun, and another follower, hid in a house and seldom went out. The special agents were composed of 18 experienced assassins, called “18 Arhans,” which came from the Buddhist culture, but meant “strong men” in Chinese culture. They arrived in Hanoi and got all the information they needed about Wang, and where he lived. They were waiting for the final order from Chiang Kai-shek. Chiang still harbored a hope that Wang would turn back to the national government. He sent an emissary to Hanoi to have a talk with Wang, but Wang refused the request to go back. Wang and his wife knew that they were now in danger of being killed.
On the 19th of March, Chiang Kai-shek gave the final order to rid of Wang. So the 18 Arhans got ready for action. At 9 o’clock on the 20th day, when the agents had a meeting to arrange for the action, they heard that Wang and his men were getting ready to leave the house. So the agents came to chase them, riding in two cars. When Wang and his men found that they were being followed, they succeeded in shaking the agents off in the heavy traffic at an intersection.
At 4 o’clock the next day, Wang’s new location was disclosed. So six agents went there. They had to act fast because they were in a foreign country. Vietnam at that time was under French rule. Wang’s guards could not carry guns. But the agents secretly had guns carried in. So when the agents attacked, the guards were defenseless. One agent went to the room where Want was supposed to be. The agent used an ax to make a hole in the door and saw a man and a woman inside. He shot at the man three times. He witnessed the bullets hit home and left as fast as he could. Three of the agents escaped and three of them were arrested by the police in Hanoi. Afterwards, while they were happy thinking that they had finished off Wang, information arrived that Wang was still alive. Only one of his followers was killed. Some of the agents left and some remained behind for further action. But they never killed Wang.
 楼主| 发表于 1/3/2020 09:03:29 | 显示全部楼层
The establishment of the puppet government in Nanking

On March 27, Wang published an article revealing the minutes of a national government meeting where the conditions of peace proposed by Japan were discussed. And Chiang Kai-shek basically agreed to the conditions. Wang wanted to show to Chinese people and the world that Chiang Kai-shek was the first to negotiate with Japan, not he. But he did not know the difference there. Chiang Kai-shek only wanted to negotiate with Japan for a truce while Wang himself was ready to surrender to Japan.
On March 22, the Japanese general consulate reported to the Japanese government about the assassination attempt on Wang. On March 25, Wang and his men went on board a French ship under the protection of Japan and then were transferred to a Japanese ship. He arrived in Shanghai on the 6th of May. Then Wang went to Tokyo to have a talk with the prime minister about the establishment of a central puppet government in China. On the 30th of March, 1940, the puppet government was founded in Nanking, with Wang at its head.
Japan called it the Nanking national government, but Chiang Kai-shek refused to recognize it. But Germany, Italy, Hungary, Romania, Denmark, Spain, Croatia, Slovakia, and Bulgaria recognized it. The puppet government imitated the national government in organization and had its own puppet army, which was thus called by people. But the puppet army took orders from the Japanese army, not directly from the Wang and his men. The puppet government did everything under the supervision and command of Japan, just like the Manchurian puppet emperor in northeastern China.
 楼主| 发表于 1/5/2020 09:01:53 | 显示全部楼层
In March of 1944, Wang was very ill and went to Japan for treatment. On the 10th of November, he died in the hospital there. Then Chen Gongbo, one of the founders of the CPC, became the head of the puppet government. When Japan surrendered in 1945, Chen Gongbo and his wife flew to Japan but were extradited to China on October 3. He and Chen Bijun, the wife of Wang, were put in prison in February of 1946 in Suzhou. On the 4th of June, Chen Gongbo was executed. Chen Bijun was sentenced to life and died in prison on the 17th of June, 1959. She pleaded for herself, saying that she had wanted to save the nation in an indirect way. “Trying to save the nation in an indirect way” was a common term of ridicule thereafter.
As for Zhou Fohai, another founding member of the CPC, when he sensed that Japan would soon perish, he secretly made contact with Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalists. After the victory, Chiang Kai-shek appointed him as commander-in-chief to maintain law and order in Nanking and Shanghai till the national government army came. But on the September 30, 1945, he was apprehended and sent to Chongqing, then brought back to Nanking. On October 21, his case was tried in court, and on November 7, he was sentenced to death. But in March of 1947, Chiang Kai-shek issued an order of amnesty for him, and the sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. He died of heart disease in the jail on February 28, 1948.
 楼主| 发表于 1/6/2020 08:38:40 | 显示全部楼层
The rectification campaign of the Communist Party in YanAn

Besides the 8th Route Army, the new 4th army was also under the control of the Communist Party. The new 4th army had their position in the southern Anhui province. So the Communist Party had two armies of their own, one in the northwest and the other in the southeast. Mao always hated Chiang Kai-shek and had once planned to attack Chiang Kai-shek from behind with 150,000 men. But the plan was aborted when the Communist International objected to it. In 1941, an incident flared up between the new 4th army and the 32nd military bloc of the national government.
On the night January 4, 1941, 9,000 of the new 4th army under the command of Xiang Yin maneuvered from the southern Anhui province to the north side of the Yangtze River through the southern Jiangsu province, without notifying the national government. The National 32nd bloc thought that the new 4th army was trying to attack their 40th division, and on January 6, they surrounded it and assailed it. Several times, Xiang Yin telegrammed YanAn, but Mao never answered or gave any instruction what to do. On January 10, the new 4th army telegrammed Mao again. On January 12, Mao asked Zhou Enlai to protest to the national government and request the withdrawal of their army. So the next day, Zhou protested to the national government. The fight had already been going on for seven days. Of the 9,000 soldiers in the new 4th army, only 2,000 escaped.
After the incident, Mao decided that the Communist Party of China should not follow the guidance of the Communist International any more. They should make decisions on their own. Therefore, the Communist Party launched a rectification campaign, which is considered to have begun in May 1941 when Mao made a speech, “Reform Our Studies.” In June, the propaganda department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party issued a document, “Instruction concerning how to wage the campaign of studies and rectification within the whole party.” But the campaign actually started in February, 1942, when Mao made another speech, “Rectify Our Style of Work,” and it ended when a bill was passed in a session of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, “The resolution of some historical problems,” in April 1945.
 楼主| 发表于 1/8/2020 08:43:45 | 显示全部楼层
However, what really happened in the rectification campaign was that everyone had to make some kind of confession about their inner thoughts to show loyalty to the party. Many people who had come to YanAn from the regions under the national government were suspected of being spies of the National Party. Many of those were forced to confess that they were indeed spies sent by the National Party. If they wanted to be punished less severely, they had to expose others who were also spies. Mao hinted that to achieve this purpose, some harsh measures would be necessary. The most common method was not to let the one being cross-examined get any sleep. It was called fatigue-torture. In  American it’s called sleep deprivation. Another method was to let those suspects watch someone being shot; just a little psychological pressure.
In April 1943 alone, several thousand people were put under custody. Some were locked up in caves. Some were just confined to their work places—“equivalent prisons,” they called them. There were not enough jailers to watch over the prisoners, so their colleagues assumed the task. This was a clever invention of Mao. To show their loyalty to the party, the colleagues had to do their duties faithfully and keep watch over the prisoners. No one could escape their vigilance. About a thousand people died. Some committed suicide. To them this was not a political movement, but terrorism. Many people who had come to YanAn in hopes of fighting Japan died at the hands of their own comrades.
On August 15, 1943, Mao said that in such campaigns, some errors were unavoidable (like a bit of torture). The errors should not be corrected too early, or there would be no targets and that would hinder the development of the campaign. If the errors were corrected too late, people would be very upset and it would cause too much loss. So the principle was to watch the campaign closely, calculating accurately, and stop it at the right time.
As it became more apparent that Japan was likely to lose the war, Mao liberated those prisoners who luckily had survived and who, in Mao’s calculation, could be sent to fight Chiang Kai-shek after the victory. To assuage their enmity, Mao apologized several times, saying that the aim of the rectification campaign was to let them have a political bath to wash off the dust they carried from the regions under Chiang’s government, but too much potassium permanganate (which can cause caustic burns) was used, which had hurt the tender skin of the new comers. He added that if a son was beaten by the father, he should not hate his father.
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