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楼主: 郭国汀

[群策中国] 台湾自由宪政民主之路

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 楼主| 发表于 12/29/2012 19:58:41 | 显示全部楼层
1964年台湾独立运动领袖彭明敏提出台湾民族主义十项主张,彭原为大学教授后成为台独运动的精神领袖。

1,台湾各海岛有四百年的发展史;
2,有自已的领土和自已独特的种族,由来自中国大陆的汉族男人与本土女人结合产生的混血后裔(台湾人口由福建人75%;客家人13%;大陆各省人10%;台湾土著居民2%组成);
3,台湾人口主要由有台湾背景的人混血而成;
4,应当推翻由中国大陆民国政府建立的外来殖民统治;
5,应建立一个独立的台湾主权国家;
6,台湾共和国的领土应受互不侵犯的国际法原则保护,因为主权是绝对的;
7,独立取得一种不妥协的客观的价值;
8,当独立革命爆发时,民族自决权将付诸行使;
9,台湾有权行使外部的自决权;
10,台湾应有人民自决权。

台湾人民的独立追求主要是由于长期受外来政权的奴役和蹂躏,加之国民党当局在抗战胜利后以接受大员的傲慢姿态欺凌台湾人,特别是二二八大屠杀及随后长达三年多的白色恐怖镇压,严重伤害了部分台湾人民的人格尊严所致。其中共产党的故意破坏作用不容低估。二二八事件确实有中共背影,而白色恐怖期间也确实破获了大量中共台湾地下党及随国民党撤退至台湾而埋藏的大量共党特务。蒋介石当局当时采取的严厉镇压举措不当,特别是未能严格尊法治精神导致部分错杀肯定是事实,但是在当年共匪席卷天下的紧急状态下,多少情由可原。此外,国民党当局未能及明安抚台湾人民,真诚道歉妥善赔偿受害者精神与物质赔偿亦是重要原因。据称马英九先生已代表国民党向当年的受害者亲人道歉,这是良好的开端。从长远观点看,台独对大陆和台湾民众均不利,台湾与大陆同文同种在传统文化及精神情感地理环境临近决定了分则两害,合则两利双赢。因此在中共极权专制暴政垮台解体前,不宜解决台湾独立问题,此问题应当容后大陆中国实现自由宪政民主化后再论。
 楼主| 发表于 12/29/2012 20:29:33 | 显示全部楼层
台湾民族主义

1, 台湾由共同经验联合,这些共享之经验包括汉人越海,中国飞弹威胁,赢得经济繁荣及台北奇迹;
2,台湾民族主义是建立在所有的种族群体共同利益之上,其不仅仅是福建人多数的情感诉求,而且包括客家人,大陆人和土著;
3,台湾事实上独立;
4,台湾民族主义持续参与推进台湾民主化的运动;
5,台湾民族主义寻求扩展国际生存空间,通过支持李登辉总统的台湾化和民主化政策及改革国民党的举措;
6,台湾民族主义与国民党竞争;
7,台湾民族主义强调自决权的价值,作为公民台湾民族主义的手段;
8,台湾寻求创立和发展一个稳定的民主政府程序即内部的自决权;
9,台湾民族主义承认,它不能依赖它自已,须依国际法原则主张权力;

1988年第二届民进党代会上提出决议:1, 台湾主权是独立的,不属于中华人民共和国;2,任何改变台湾之国际地位,须由全体台湾人民通过公投决定;陈水扁提出但书:若国民党单方与中共谈判,若国民党出卖台湾人民的利益;若中共吞并台湾;若国民党不实行真正的宪政民主;那么民进党将主张台湾独立。(172)

1990年初,谢长延在第四届民进党代表大会上提出修正:台湾是事实主权,不包括中国大陆和外蒙,我国未来宪政民主,国内政治和对外政策将建立在该事实主权范围内。(173)

施明德提出,现在台湾的局势已经是个独立。李登辉称“中华民国生存在台湾”。

1991年10月在民进党第五届代表大会上提出公投决定台湾独立,公开声明其主要目标是台湾独立。
1999年5月民进党大会修正其中国政策并提出:
1,台湾是一个主权和独立的国家,任何改变其现状须由全体台湾居民通过公投决定;
2,台湾不是中华人民共和国的组成部分,中国单方的一个中国原则及一国两制模式对台湾根本不适合;
3,台湾应拓展其在国际社会的作用,寻求国际承认,积极努力加入联合国和其他国际组织;
4,台湾应谴责”一个中国“的立场以避免国际混淆是听,并防止中国利用该立场作为其武力吞并的措口;
5,台湾应建立健全全民公投制度法律,以便实现人民的权利当需要时,能用于建立共识以便人民表达其意志;
6,台湾政府和反对派力量必须建立对外政策的两党共识,合并有限的资源,以便更好地面对中国的侵略和野心;
7,台湾和中国应加强深入全面对话,寻求相互理解和经济合作;双边应建立一种框架为长期稳定与和平。

台湾人持续地使用变换的政治术语不断扩展其政治空间:例如陈水扁之但书,谢长延之”事实主权“;施明德之”没有宣告独立之必要,因为已经事实独立”;许信良之”一个新兴的国家“;李登辉之”中华民国生存在台湾“;福磨莎派之”中华民国是台湾“;林义雄之”台湾现在已经独立“。
 楼主| 发表于 1/1/2013 16:58:07 | 显示全部楼层
大陆国人包括众多民运志士实际上对台湾民主进程所知甚微,有许多甚至严重误解;多年前我曾主张大陆自由宪政民主之路应当以台湾为蓝本,然而我本人同样对台湾民主的真实状况几乎一无所知。兹编译日本专家的专论供每位志在救国救民救自已的自由民主同道参考与学习。
 楼主| 发表于 1/2/2013 20:16:57 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 郭国汀 于 1/2/2013 20:17 编辑

“读史使人明智”,吾友培根如是说,吾深以为然。

早在1934年,台湾年满年 25岁以上的男性且纳税五元以上地方税者即有选举权,据此当年台湾共有22万选民,其中台湾本土居民共有18万人,日本人4万人。(53)1935年4月日本殖民当局颁布台湾自治条例,同年11年第一个地方民选议会诞生在村和镇议会中,共有1610位台湾人当选议员,同时仅有131日本人获得席位。在台湾九个城市议会选举中,共有66位台湾人胜选,66位日本人入选。(54)台湾入选议员者主要为律师,医生,牙医,另有一名地主,和一名记者当选。迄今中共党国极权暴政的所谓有中国特色的民主是指重点发展基层民主,亦即村民和居民委员会选举!而满清政府的管辖事实上仅及于县级,县以下完全是乡绅自治!质言之,中共暴政连日本殖民政府和极度腐败无能的晚清政府都相差十万八千里!如此下流无耻的极权暴政,如果中国人还继续容忍其存续,那么此种国人与“猪”有何不同?!
 楼主| 发表于 1/2/2013 20:27:09 | 显示全部楼层
台湾自由宪政民主之路,既是台湾人民英勇奋斗的结果,更重要的是:中华民国宪法精神货真价实,蒋介石”专制独裁“政权的性质属右派专制,与列宁式党国极权专制体制根本不能同日而语。

民主性质的中华民国宪法从未废除,因此地方政府选举,包括省议会代表及各县市长选举自1950年始直至1990年实现总统直选,一直真实存在于台湾,台湾人用尽各种方法充分利用地方选举,用尽一切机会参加省县市长及议员选举。1950年至1970年首任竞选台湾人高玉树当选台北市长,余登发胜选高雄县长,皆是台湾政治家成功竞选的实例,他们主要依个人能力而非依赖组织的力量胜选。(82)通过选举产生了一种新政治文化,党外侯选人往往得极大支持,台湾人原创了通过选举策略形成党外运动。因为示威和抗议运动皆被诫严法严厉禁止。竞选高音喇叭,缓行车队,街头演说,支持者群集,形成了台湾独特的社会运动,展示了台湾人抗议党国体制的意志。(83)台湾人通过竞选活动创造了社会运动。“废除临时条例”,“回归民主宪政体制”,“举行国大代表选举”,“修改宪法”皆成为竞选期间公开的口号。 1964年彭明敏公开发表《台湾自救宣言》,1967年林水泉胜选台北市参议。但国民党利用撑控工作机会,经济机会等社会资源及巨额资金收卖地方知名人士,用大量金钱收买选票获取县市参议席位,导致在中央和地方县级选举中党外人士胜选率非常低,往往不超过10人。
 楼主| 发表于 1/6/2013 00:34:32 | 显示全部楼层
Taiwan's Long Road to Democracy Bitter Taste of Freedom by Katutugn Yoshida (Professor, University of Hyogo Japan) translated by TOshie Habu, Peter Hayes. Edward Elgar Publishing Limited UK & USA 2009

After Paying a tremendous price in the sociology-engineering experiment of communism, humanity has established a valuable consensus, which is that to talk about equality and fairness without freedom and democracy is to create a skeleton without flesh and a body without a good. (1)

"To preach human rights to China is a duty for the civilized world" Taiwan legislator Parris Chang said. it is surprisingly arrogant opinion commented Yoshida. (2) However, I think Mr. Chang is right and Mr. Yoshida is wrong, for Mr.Chang's opinion is warmly welcome by mainland Chinese, Taiwanese freedom and democracy is much advanced than the CCP regime which is still a typical Leninist party-state totalitarian regime.
 楼主| 发表于 1/6/2013 00:45:22 | 显示全部楼层
The UN commission on Human Rights expressed the universality of democracy in resolution 2002/ 46 entitled further measures to promote and considerate democracy:

the essential elements of democracy include respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, freedom of association, freedom of expression and opinion, access to power and its exercise in accordance with the rule of law, the holding of periodic free and fair elections by universal suffrage and by secret ballot as the expression of the will of the people, a pluralistic system of political parties and organizations, the separation of powers the independence of the judiciary, transparency and accountability in public administration and free, independent and pluralistic media.

unrestricted popular power, unless supported by a civil society which consists of numerous civil organizations, is in the end merely self-destructive evidence. in the middle of dangerous violence the people will become crowds or mobs who will be easily led by a rising damaged(Plato 1966 12)

Sun's justification is based on what he claims is his original contribution to the idea of democracy. he distinguishes abilities and power and argues that a government based on ability provides a third way that can avoid minority dictatorship, avoid the ochlocracy that is the end point of direct democracy, and avoid class rule. (13)
 楼主| 发表于 1/6/2013 01:00:53 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 郭国汀 于 1/6/2013 01:01 编辑

why constitutionalists politicians and academics in the world have abandoned the theory of three people-ism and five power constitutions?

the conception of individual, which is the origin of modern society's establishment and development, does not exist. it is no concept of an individual who is given basic human rights such as the right of life, liberty and property in the nature state.

the origin of the belief in freedom lies in the human spirit in five continents, as human beings are created to have such a passion, the origin of basic human rights is the idea of dignifying life itself. this idea of dignifying life exists everywhere on earth over time and across culture. (17)

a society in which right are not guaranteed , and in which there is no separation of powers, has no constitution.

the draft of constitution of China of May 5, 1936, stipulated that to respect the historical base of the revolution, means nothing more than 'to stabilize the rule of the KMT.

from the end of the war in 1945 until part way through 1946, the allies maintained cooperation with each other. the US and the Soviet Union put joint pressure on the KMT and CCP to avoid civil war... the militarist believed that to solve the confrontation with the communists, armed force was needed, while Mao believed that government is born from gun. Democratization of politics, renationalisation of armies and a political solution. the hardlines in KMT and CCP(mainly is Mao Zedong himself) did not accept the Political negociation committee compromise in the bottom of their heart. (32)
 楼主| 发表于 1/6/2013 01:15:31 | 显示全部楼层
freedom of speech , writing publication, freedom of privacy of correspondence, freedom of religion belief; freedom of assembly and association, article 17 people have four powers, election, recall, initiative, and referendum.

Republic of China published her constitution of 1947 on January 1, which retain much of the consensus that has been reached at he political negotiation committee, this consensus has been achieved after concession and compromise between KMT and CCP and pacifists and liberal third forces including democratic socialist party and youth party and democratic association,  during difficult times after eight years of invasion by the Japanese army and its atrocities. (40)

the constitution is a summary of certain political conflicts at certain time; it is essentially a product of compromise so that its contradictions and distortions are quite normal and are to be expected.(41)

the priority order of the US during a crisis is always hegemony and its national interests, while freedom and democracy get only lip service. the corrupt autocratic regime of Jiang Jieshi.(41)

in feb 1947 more than 2000 people, including academics, teachers, publishers, doctors, and students, were arrested in connection with a statement demanding respect for human rights released by a professor. in early march, a declaration of human rights was issued under name of 192 academics of various universities. in May, north journalist association in Beijing hold a meeting declare free media and freedom of politics. (41)
 楼主| 发表于 1/6/2013 01:34:28 | 显示全部楼层
the absolute concentration of power, and extreme corruption, stealing even lamp oil and offerings boxes. under KMT government, there was excessive greed and tyranny, poverty as the result of heavy taxes, high inflation and a corrupt army, pave the way to its own defeat. (42)

absolutism and left-wing parties rely on each other and together create a vicious circle. (49)

the art of a responsible politician is to find a way to lead a camel through the eye of a needle. no doubt that dark forces of violence and privilege would attempt to block the way ahead. democracy allow you to see such opponents as human beings rather than emeny who you have to overthrow. it also make it possible to solve serious conflicts not through classes of hatred and violence, but by discussion with mutual respect. (52)

to ask those in position of power whether they are willing to do something they do not want to do is acturally to respect them as respective human beings.(53)

Lincoln describes democracy as regularly putting politicians into the bath of public opinion which hashes off the scum of a politicians arrogance. (53)

asking for independence is a logical as asking a tiger for its skin, Ong Iok-tek, philosopher of Taiwan Independent moment, Independence could not be reached by legal political struggle but only achieved by extraordinary means including violence and revolution. (56)
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