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楼主: 曾节明

新自由主义对民族和国家的巨大危害性

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发表于 6/16/2013 13:50:06 | 显示全部楼层
什么是自由主义?新自由主义?改革自由主义?
Thomas G.Guo
最近曾节明发表了数篇抨击新自由主义及批判自由的价值的评论。吾以为曾先生似乎混淆了新自由主义及改革自由主义,而且节明对自由主义的主要内容和基本原则有不切实的评论。Hayek and Nozick等人提出的是改革自由主义而非新自由主义,而且当代世界各主要自由宪政民主国家皆奉行改革自由主义。英国前首相萨切尔和美国前总统里根皆非奉行新自由主义,而是主张改革自由主义。
自由主义最初形成于十七世纪的英国。自由主义作为术语是由十九世纪的威廉哥拉斯通首创。自由主义的价值有更远久的历史,自由主义源于资本主义政治经济的堀起,由霍布斯和洛克为捍卫私有财产和个人自由首创的政治哲学。自由主义是当代西方各自由宪政民主国家的主流意识形态。自由主义经历了从古典自由主义至新自由主义和改革自由主义的演变和发展;古典自由主义将亚当斯密的经济理论结合斯滨赛的社会学理论,强调国家的作用应当限于确保国内外安全,并保障私有财产安全,主张消极自由,排除外部干预;其政治哲学依据则是霍布斯和洛克的社会契约,强调个人主义,保护个人权利对抗社会和国家,否认国家干预个人生活任何领域的权利。极端自由主义是无政府主义者倡导的。十九世纪末由于原始资本主义带来的普遍贫困,社会主义问世,因而自由主义与社会民主主义结合则产生了新自由主义,强调国家干预的积极自由,消除自由的障碍;1970年代Hayek andNozick等人又提出了改革自由主义.当代世界各自由宪政国家主要是改革自由主义占主导地位。其主要特征是强调自由、宽容、权利、特殊类型的平等(强调机会平等)、基本良善、个人主义、尽可能的自我发展及自由市场、法治、限制权力的政府;从强调消极自由到积极自由,从强调政府不干预经济到相对加强政府干预;从绝对权力到有限政府相对限制的权力;个人主义始终居于主导核心,政府的天职是保护公民的生命,自由和财产的安全。加拿大的自由主义特征主要体现为四个特征:议会制政府、联邦分权、由权利与自由法案保障的政治自由、五个主要政党皆信奉改革自由主义。
自由主义的理论与实践博大精深,并非口号式的公式能够解决。任何人未作深入细致研究学习,不宜作任何结论式评论。限于时间关系,仅提供吾归纳之自由主义(英文)主要论点供各位参考。
Abrief history of the liberalism
Liberalism first emerged as an ideology in 17century Britain. The historical development of liberalism. As a term liberalismemerge in 19 century a party led by WilliamGladstone, the value has a much longer history. The origins ofliberalism traced to the rise of capitalist political economy, as defense ofprivate property and the individualistic political philosophy of Thomas Hobbes and JohnLocke. The diverse character of liberalism has been used to describedparties of the right (Australia) left (Canada), free market, in US it denotesstate intervention. Labour party in Britain and manysocial democratic parties in Europe, has really been liberal incharacter.The liberalism associated with the socialdemocratic left, is a new or social liberalism;the classical liberalism drowning on the economic theory of Adam Smith and the social theory of Herbert Spencer emphasizes that state’s roleshould be limited to ensure internal and external security and to ensure thatprivate property rights are enforced. The market is the most effective means ofmeeting human needs, its moral dimension is a limited state maximizes freedom andrewards those who work hardest.  At theend of 19 century it be questioned for extent poverty and socialist ideasemerged. A new liberalism emerged, saw morepositive role of state, create greater opportunities for individuals to achievetheir goals.  Through a range of socialreform measures, liberal government dominant political landscape for much 20century. 1970s a revised version of classicalliberalism emerged to challenge the new liberalism, right winggovernment, political thinker Hayek and Nozick.
Meaningof liberalism
The core meaning of liberalism can be found in the concepts of liberty, tolerance, individualism, and aparticular kind of equality, right, intrinsic good, possibility forself-development it products.
Classical liberalismemphasizes the negative liberty, removeexternal constraints; new liberalismemphasizes positive liberty, removeobstacles of freedom. Liberal focus on individual, by social contract of Hobbesand Locke, the individual is prior to society, protect individual right againstsociety and state. Individualism denies the state’s right to intervene anyaspect of the life of individuals, extremeliberalism is Anarchist thought. It believes that human are rational andable to determine their own best interests, in economic realm, individuals arebest left to their own devices as consumers and producers. The hidden hand ofthe market will ensure economic utility is achieved. The community is merely anaggregate of individuals with competing interests and values. Liberals regardindividuals as of equal value; not equality of outcome, but equality ofopportunity, whereby fairness is ensured, become individuals stating from thesame position, are rewarded for their efforts. Freemarket dose not genuine equality of opportunity, for individual notstart from the same position. Classical liberalism has four main principles:the first idea is limited political powers:absolute extensive and arbitrary is problematical since it prevents individualsfrom fully using their intelligence and creative capabilities to better theirown life and the future of society. Absolutepolitical power tends to be corrupted, self-serving and unpredictable.Locke argued that government needed the consent ofthe governed. Governed has the right and responsibility to withdrawtheir consent and to repudiate a government that  stoppedacting in their best interest. Hobbes suggested that state was the product of asocial contract that individuals agreed to delegate authority to a sovereignfor the purpose of maintaining law and order, to avoid violent conflict.  Locke argued that state had role of protecting private property, ‘small’ state,because individuals need to be free of constraints to fully develop theirpotential, individuals not government know best what to do with financialresource, ask for weak economic regulation and low levels taxes. Human nature make human beings are rational and self-interested they look afterthemselves first and have the capabilities to do so better than anyone else. Theyhave the power to choose and therefore responsible for their action.
Liberals stress the rationality,autonomy, creativity and imagination of individuals, advocated thesecularization of society, separation of religion and politics, small, limitedand accountable government, and secular, as a first principle. Second principle is freedom, allows individuals tofully use their intelligence capacities and creativity. If individuals arefree, society’s wealth, prosperity, and good life will follow. ‘absence ofobstacles’ as negative freedom, in politics freedom from state interference;The protection of fundamental liberties (thought, religion, association,speech) habeas corpus which protects against arbitrary, searches and seizures’.The third principle is equality of rights.In battle absolutism church power and privileges, argued for equality beforethe law, the political leaders be legally treated no differently from privatecitizen, that is rule of law, emphasis on equality of rights. The fourth principle is free-market economy.Capitalism in economic sphere make competition generates wealth and prosperitymarket itself, not the state, is the most efficient instrument of economicregulation. Adam Smith argued that individuals, which selfishly pursuing theirown interests, are actually working toward the common good. There is an headedhand that guild participant in a free market to promotecommon good.
Developmentfeatures of liberalism
Reform liberalismin four ways to refashion the liberalism idea: first,add the idea of positive freedom, is freedomto, it entails the capacity and power to do something. Second,boosted conception of equality. Add the equality of opportunity. Third, more favourstate intervention. Market alone would not provide individuals withpositive freedom and the equality of opportunity, using mechanisms ofredistribution such as progressive taxation and welfare/ unemployment policies,advocated welfare state conceptualised by John Maynard Keynes. Fourth, advocated universalsuffrage.
Early liberals were not democrats, liberal politicalsystem are not necessarily democratic. Liberalism in contemporary politics hassome characters.  Liberalism is the dominant ideology in Western society. Canada usesseveral mechanisms to control and limited political powers: responsible government, whereby the execrativeneeds to explain, justify and defend its action to a legislative assembly; federalism, which in formally dividing powerbetween federal and provincial governments. Fragments power and provide a checkon the power of both; the charter of rights andfreedom, which offer a judicial check on political power, assures therule of law  and guarantees liberalrights and freedoms. Five major federal parties allagree with the main principles of liberalism.  The central ideological in Canada is betweenclassical and reform liberalism. Classical speak of lowering taxes,eliminating deficit, reducing the debt, controlling public spending,privatizing Crown Corporation, creating a good business environment. Reformliberals put more emphasis on social spending and rely on the state toredistribute wealth and correct the deficiencies of the market, speak of socialjustice and equality. American political parties, Republican and Democratic,are very similar, close to classical liberalism. Liberalism is not as dominantin Western Europe as it is in North America. Neoliberalism is classicalliberalism with the added element of international free trade.
发表于 6/16/2013 18:12:29 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 张国堂 于 6/17/2013 08:08 编辑

回复 曾节明 的帖子

  我只说中国不可能回头再搞社会主义,我并未说你主张复辟毛共社会主义。
  中国搞计划生育,是中了马尔萨斯的“人口论”的毒。也由于马寅初“新人口论”谬误。但中国推行计划生育,是由于邓小平的决策和强制推行。如果没有毛泽东缔造的中共极权主义专制政体,邓小平也无法推行计划生育。对于计划生育导致的个人不幸,怨恨邓小平也没有意义。作为基督徒,我希望基督徒们组织起来反对、阻止中共政府的强制堕胎。
  《圣经》说上帝要人管理地球和地上的万物。因此,基督徒要致力于中国环境的保护。基督徒要组织起来,要成立绿色环保组织,推动中国的环保立法和执法,同时通过宣传增强国人的环保意识。对于中国严重的环境污染,我宁愿责备中国基督徒们没有尽心尽力遵行上帝的旨意。我不因中国环境的严重污染而指责经济学家的经济学理论。
  政府的能力是有限的,不是全能的。因此,不能把环境污染、毒食品、假冒伪劣产品等等的责任都归责于政府,更不能归罪于政府的市场化改革。国人大多不信耶稣基督,以及中国基督徒没有尽心尽力遵行上帝的旨意,更是环境污染、毒食品、假冒伪劣产品泛滥的原因。

 楼主| 发表于 6/16/2013 22:45:35 | 显示全部楼层
回复 郭国汀 的帖子

谢谢国汀兄引经据典,穆勒定义的(社会)自由是最为准确的,但这不是原始自由,原始的自由就是邪恶的,人贪欲,驱动人追寻原始自由,这就是为什么总有制造噪音、损人利己、不顾社会公德的事情发生。
发表于 6/18/2013 22:21:13 | 显示全部楼层
visual 发表于 6/18/2013 03:43
在中共国根本没有自由,有的只是奴役和放荡。因为自由是建立在理性(法律)之上的,不是法治国家枉论自由。 ...

说的好!如此理解自由主义荒谬致极,真可谓无知者无畏啊!
发表于 6/20/2013 17:03:17 | 显示全部楼层
回复 visual 的帖子

说得很好, 自由是公认的最高价值观之一,“自由,平等,博爱”是法国大革命的口号,“生命,自由,追求人生幸福的权利“是美国独立宣言归纳的原则,自由有其公认的特定含义,中共暴政下党用文人滥用”新自由主义“给暴政脸上贴金而已。
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