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恐怖主义和国家恐怖主义研究

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发表于 11/9/2013 16:11:38 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 郭国汀 于 11/11/2013 22:22 编辑

Terrorism has become one of the hottest topic in both academic and practice sphere, since 911 atrocity. Between 1968 to 2003 there weremore than 6100 transnational terrorist attacks, causing more than 36000 deathsand injuries.[1]In 2001, the year of the 9/11 atrocity, there were 1,732 recorded incidents worldwide;five years later ... the annual figure had risen to 6,659 (English 2010, 77)[2].anew book on terrorism appears nearly every six hours, and Richard Jackson notesthat, during this period, peer-reviewed papers have increased by approximately300% (Guardian Weekly, 21 September 2007, 44).



[1]Kristopher K.Robison, Edward M.Crenshaw, J.Craig Jenkins, Ideologies ofViolence: The Social Origins of Islanist and leftist Transnational Terrorism2006, p.1.

[2]Matt Haunstrup Qvortrup, Terrorism and Political Science, BJPIR: 2012 VOL 14, p.503



the earliest actsof terrorism to have started in ancient Palestine during the first century CE,when Jewish citizens sought freedom from Roman occupation by engaging inassassinations of Romans and suspected Jewish collaborators. One group wascalled the Sicari because of their favored use of the sica orshort dagger to murder Jewish collaborators. Another group, led by Simon BenKoseba, exhibited intense fanaticism by killing mainly Romans and Greeks, oftenin open displays of violence similar to those seen today. This group was calledthe Zealots, and it is from them that we derive the present meaning ofthe word for individuals who are fanatics (CDI, 2003).[1]By the early middle ages, a radical Muslim group in the Middle East began tokill those who failed to follow fundamentalist versions of Islam. It wasrumored that these killers used hashish prior to their killings and it is fromthe term “hashish” that the modern word “assassin” is derived (CDI, 2003).Another group in India that functioned between the 7th and the 19th centuries,the Thugees (it is from them that we derive the word “thug”), strangledtheir victims as an offering to the Hindu goddess of terror and violence (CDI,2003).


[1]Anthony J. Marsella PhD, DHC& Fathali M. Moghaddam (2004)The Origins and Nature of Terrorism, Journalof Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma,9:1-2, 19-31, DOI: 10.1300/J146v09n01_02To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J146v09n01_02


 楼主| 发表于 11/9/2013 16:18:54 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 郭国汀 于 11/11/2013 17:44 编辑

Osama Bin Laden, Al Queda and 911 terrorists attacks

The 1993 attack onthe World Trade Center (WTC) led by Ramzi Ahmed Yousef, in which six peoplewere killed and hundreds injured. In 2001, September 11 attacks, as well as theothers around the globe, were part of a larger master plan guided by aninternational terrorist group known as Al Qaeda, a well organized andrichly-funded Muslim fundamentalist group headed by an educated and wealthySaudi Arabian citizen, Osama Bin Laden. In the words of Osama Bin Laden, he andAl Qaeda [translation: The Source or Base] were seeking revenge for whatthey viewed as America’s many economic, political, and cultural exploitationsof Islamic people and cultural traditions.[1]

. . . The people ofIslam had suffered from aggression, iniquity, and injustice imposed on them bythe Zionist-Crusaders’ alliance . . . the latest of these aggressions incurredby the Muslims since the death of the Prophet is the occupation of the land ofthe two Holy Places . . . by the armies of the American Crusaders and theirallies. . . . For over seven years the United States has been occupying the landsof Islam in the holiest of places, the Arabian Peninsula, plundering its riches,dictating to its rulers, humiliating its people, terrorizing its neighbors, andturning its bases in the Peninsula into a spearhead through which to fight theneighboring Muslim people. (Osama Bin Laden, 1998; Source: Strategic StudiesInstitute, www.army.mil.usassi)

Osama Bin Ladencommented on the attack of September 11,2001: What America is tasting now issomething insignificant compared to what we have tasted for scores of years.Our nation [the Islamic World] has been tasting this humiliation and thisdegradation for more than 80 years, its sons are killed, its blood is shed, itssanctuaries are attacked, and no one hears and no one heeds. (Osama Bin Laden,October 8, 2001; Source: Associated Press)

America was to bepunished for its many offenses against the Muslim people and Islam. Revengewould be had and it would be meted out in destructive scenarios designed tobring the Al Qaeda cause to people around the world. Osama Bin Ladenknew very well that his destructive acts would bring cheers from many whoshared his views of America’s perceived role as “Satan,” and not all among themwould be Muslims. Others who perceive America to be the source of theirproblems would use this opportunity to condemn America’s foreign and economicpolicies. For example, Arundhati Roy, a popular English journalist with the ManchesterGuardian, likened Osama Bin Laden to America itself. He wrote:

What is Osama binLaden? He’s America’s family secret. He is the American President’s dark“doppelganger.” The savage twin of all that purports to be beautiful andcivilized. He has been sculpted from the spare rib of a world laid to waste byAmerica’s foreign policy: its gunboat diplomacy, its nuclear arsenal, itsvulgarly stated policy of “full-spectrum dominance,” its chilling disregard fornon-American lives, its barbarous military interventions, its support fordespotic and dictatorial regimes, its merciless economic agenda that hasmunched through the economies of poor countries like a cloud of locusts. Itsmarauding multinationals who are taking over the air we breathe, the ground westand on, the water we drink. The thoughts we think. Now the family secret hasbeen spilled, the twins are blurring into one another and gradually becominginterchangeable. (Roy, 2001, p. 1)

the actions of AlQaeda on September 11, 2001 constitute a crime of mass murder anddestruction and demand punishment and retribution. The acts meet the criterianeeded to define terrorism and as such are subject to international legalaction. Murder of innocent civilians to promote political, economic, or socialaims is a horrendous crime, and cannot be justified by cries of oppression orabuse. Efforts to alter political, economic, or social conditions bysub-national groups are not crimes in themselves, but the efforts must beconducted within the constraints of law and morality as codified in local,national, and international systems.[2]


[1] KristopherK.Robison, Edward M.Crenshaw, J.Craig Jenkins, Ideologies of Violence: TheSocial Origins of Islanist and leftist Transnational Terrorism 2006, p.3

[2] KristopherK.Robison, Edward M.Crenshaw, J.Craig Jenkins, Ideologies of Violence: TheSocial Origins of Islanist and leftist Transnational Terrorism 2006, p.12


 楼主| 发表于 11/9/2013 17:02:50 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 郭国汀 于 11/11/2013 17:46 编辑

The definition of terrorism

There are manydefinitions of terrorism (see Burgess, 2003; Hallett, 2003; Moghaddam &Marsella, 2003),many legal and scholarly experts accept the definition used bythe United States Department of State in Title 22 of the United States Code,Section 2656f(d): “ . . . premeditated, politically-motivated violenceperpetrated against non-combatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestineagents, usually intended to influence an audience”. The essential elements ofterrorism are thus: (a) The use of force or violence; (b) by individuals orgroups; (c) directed toward innocent civilians; (d) intended to influence orcoerce changes in political or social decisions and policies; (e) by instillingfear and terror. broader definition, which would include state-sponsoredterrorism and state terrorism.

 楼主| 发表于 11/9/2013 17:04:25 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 郭国汀 于 11/11/2013 17:49 编辑

Dose any reasons justify political violence?

There are numerousother struggles between governments and disaffected minority groups who seekindependence. Consider the situations between the Israelis and thePalestinians, Spain and the Basques, England and the IRA in Northern Ireland,China and the Tibetans, and, of course, the Shiite and Kurdish efforts againstthe former government of Saddam Hussein in Iraq. But what is it that justifiesthe use of violence and the label guerilla, insurgent, or freedom fighterrather than terrorist? Many unresolved issues remain surrounding the nature,definition, meaning, and legal implications of terrorist acts (e.g., Burgess,2003).

Do any of thefollowing conditions warrant consideration in reaching legal and/or moraldefinitions of terrorism:
1. If thegovernment is oppressive and not duly constituted by the vote of all the people(e.g., Saddam Hussein’s former government in Iraq, Chinese occupation ofTibet)?
2. If the act isdirected beyond military targets and personnel and involves the intentionalmurder and harming of innocent civilians (e.g., the events of September 11,2001 in New York, Washington, DC, and the airline crash in Shanksville, PA)
3. If thegovernment is corrupt and exploits the people it is intended to represent, asoften occurs in Sub-Saharan nations in Africa (e.g., Sierra Leone, Liberia,Rwanda, Zimbabwe)?
4. If thegovernment is dominated by foreign interests to the exclusion of the perceivedinterests of its people (e.g., Cuba under Fulgencio Batista prior to hisoverthrow by Castro; the Russian presence in Afghanistan between the 1970s and1990s)?
5. If a subgroup ofethnic and cultural minorities desire and wish for separation because of theirdesire to pursue cultural identification and preservation and/or economicwell-being (e.g., Chechnya and Russia)?
6.If the governmentis a colonial power (e.g., Great Britain in Palestine/ Israel, Kenya, or India;France in Tahiti; China in Tibet)?
7. Can religion beused as a source of peace rather than the source of war and conflict? Considerthe fact that in the majority of conflicts in the world today, intolerance forreligious variation constitutes a major reason for anger and hatred (e.g.,Philippines, Bosnia, Sri Lanka, Northern Ireland, Russia,Indonesia, East Timor, Israel/Palestine).
 楼主| 发表于 11/9/2013 17:05:28 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 郭国汀 于 11/11/2013 18:06 编辑

Frenchrevolution Robespierre and political terrorism

Always value-laden,terrorism was viewed as legitimate and positive by the revolutionaries becauseit was deemed vital for the revolutionary government to gain power over theroyalty and survive the forces seeking to destroy it in its infancy. As MaximilienRobespierre proclaimed in 1794, “Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt,severe, inflexible; it is therefore an emanation of virtue; it is not so much aspecial principle as it is a consequence of the general principle of democracyapplied to our country’s most urgent needs” ( CDI, 2003, p. 8).

Robespierre was not the firstEuropean politician to view political terror as a means of intimidating potentialenemies. Two hundred and sixty years earlier Italian philosopher and politicaladviser Nicollo Machiavelli (1469–1527) had recommended in The Prince (IlPrincipe)39 that what he called ‘a prestige of cruelty’ be used to maintain lawand order and to terrorize potential political enemies.40 Machiavelli writes,for instance that: ‘The answer of course is that it would be best to be bothloved and feared. But since the two rarely come together, anyone compelled tochoose, will find greater security in being feared than in being loved.’[1]Machiavelli’s role model was Florence’s ruler Cesare Borgia, who deceived theCondottierri that rebelled against him by affecting appeasement and thenslaughtering them in Sinigaglia. Examples of ‘a prestige of cruelty’ were alsonot lacking in the behaviour of the Assyrian kings, or in King Herod’s revengeagainst the murderers of his brother Joseph in the Roman province of Judea,with the massacre of Antigonus’ army and the beheading of his general, Papos.

Robespierre stands apart,however, as the first modern politician to organize and mobilize the vastresources of a modern nation state for the systematic eradication of hisopponents. It was the newly born nation state which, among other policies, usedorganized terror rather than terror per se that became the latest actor inworld politics. Blain is nonetheless correct in pointing out that modernconcepts such as the ‘reign of terror’, ‘terrorist’ and ‘terrorism’ all emergedfrom the French Revolution. Firstly it was organized, deliberate andsystematic; Secondly, its major political goal (as so many terroristorganizations claim today) was the creation of a new and better society toreplace its corrupt and undemocratic predecessor. in a speech delivered to theConvention on February 1794, entitled ‘Report on the Principles of PublicMorality’, Robespierre declaimed: In times of peace, virtue is the source fromwhich government of the people is power. During the revolution, the sources ofthis power are virtue and terror; virtue without which terror will be adisaster; and terror, without which virtue is powerless. It was only when theywere adopted by Russian radicals such as Mikhail Bakunin and Sergey Nechaev andlater translated into action by Nikolai Morozov and Romanenko that what manyscholars see as the first modern terrorist organization was established.[2]The Narodnaya Volla (People’s Will) was especially active in Russia between theyears 1878 and 1881. Notwithstanding their brief lifespan, their objectives includeda broad top-down revolution, and they engaged in targeted assassination of highranking Russian officials including, on 1 March 1881, Tsar Alexander IIhimself. Between the years 1901 and 1911 the Narodnaya Volla was succeeded inRussia by the notorious SRP (Social Revolutionary Party).



[1]N.Machiavelli, The Prince, Chapter 17, in PoliticalWritings, translated by E. Shmueli (Tel Aviv:Schoken Publishing, 1961), p.23.

[2]JonathanFine (2010) Political and Philological Origins of the Term ‘Terrorism’ from theAncient Near East to Our Times, Middle Eastern Studies, 46:2, p.279


 楼主| 发表于 11/9/2013 17:07:21 | 显示全部楼层
Arundhati Roy, apopular English journalist with the Manchester Guardian, likened OsamaBin Laden to America itself. He wrote:
What is Osama binLaden? He’s America’s family secret. He is the American President’s dark“doppelganger.” The savage twin of all that purports to be beautiful andcivilized. He has been sculpted from the spare rib of a world laid to waste byAmerica’s foreign policy: its gunboat diplomacy, its nuclear arsenal, itsvulgarly stated policy of “full-spectrum dominance,” its chilling disregard fornon-American lives, its barbarous military interventions, its support fordespotic and dictatorial regimes, its merciless economic agenda that hasmunched through the economies of poor countries like a cloud of locusts. Itsmarauding multinationals who are taking over the air we breathe, the ground westand on, the water we drink. The thoughts we think. Now the family secret hasbeen spilled, the twins are blurring into one another and gradually becominginterchangeable. (Roy, 2001, p. 1)
 楼主| 发表于 11/9/2013 17:09:46 | 显示全部楼层
There are numerousother struggles between governments and disaffected minority groups who seekindependence. Consider the situations between the Israelis and thePalestinians, Spain and the Basques, England and the IRA in Northern Ireland,China and the Tibetans, and, of course, the Shiite and Kurdish efforts againstthe former government of Saddam Hussein in Iraq. But what is it that justifiesthe use of violence and the label guerilla, insurgent, or freedom fighterrather than terrorist? Many unresolved issues remain surrounding the nature,definition, meaning, and legal implications of terrorist acts (e.g., Burgess,2003).

 楼主| 发表于 11/9/2013 17:12:45 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 郭国汀 于 11/11/2013 18:08 编辑

Terror andIdeology

A radical ideology is indisputablyan essential ingredient in producing terrorism. To statethe obvious, aterrorist without ideological (or religious, or religio-ideological) motivationwould, by most definitions, be either an ordinary criminal or mentally ill.And an ideologythat was not radical could hardly justify terrorism.[1]Arab terrorists today are Islamists rather than Marxists is unsurprising giventhat Islamism long ago replaced Marxism as the leading radical ideology in theArab world. All radical ideologies, anyhow, have something in common, at leastin their earlier stages. All radical programs may be divided into three stages.One stage condemns the current system as illegitimate. Another stage designs autopia to replace the current system. An intermediate stage seeks to overthrowthe current system so that utopia may be built on its ruins.[2]


[1] MARK SEDGWICK, Inspiration andthe Origins of Global Waves of Terrorism,2007,p.99

[2] MARK SEDGWICK, Inspiration andthe Origins of Global Waves of Terrorism,2007,p.100




 楼主| 发表于 11/9/2013 17:24:37 | 显示全部楼层
Penetration of industry facilitated by theentrepreneur ‘‘core’’ countries into these developing countries, wheresufficient legal systems for protecting poor workers from exploitative workingconditions have not been established, creates discontent among the workerstowards the political regime. For example, in China, millions of children workalmost twenty hours a day, seven days a week, without any social securitybenefits, for a bed and enough food for their survival (Peled, 2005).
 楼主| 发表于 11/10/2013 15:54:21 | 显示全部楼层
Shortlyafter the 1973 coup in Chile, the military closed the legislature and bannedpolitical parties. Nearly a decade later, in mid-May 1983, opposition partiesand unions organized the first widespread national protests against thePinochet regime. Still technically illegal, parties mobilized opposition rallies,lobbied reformers in the military, and coordinated meetings of variousopposition groups. While the military regime responded with continuedintimidation and repression, opposition party activity proceeded apace. Thus,by the mid- 1980s there were active opposition parties even though thelegislature remained closed. In the next two years parties and union groupsstaged monthly protests. Moreover, numerous antigovernment terrorist groups emergedin the wake of the protests. Between 1984 and 1986 there were five activeterrorist groups in Chile, both left- and right-wing. One of these groups, the ManuelRodriguez Patriotic Front (FPMR), attempted to assassinate Pinochet in 1986 andwas estimated to have between 500 and 1,000 members at its height. Chileexperienced 563 attacks in 1984, among the highest total in any authoritarianregime since 1970.[1]


[1]DenizAksoy ,David B. Carter, and Joseph Wright, Terrorism In Dictatorships, TheJournal of Politics, Vol. 74, No. 3, July 2012, P. 810.


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