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发表于 1/25/2014 15:02:58 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 郭国汀 于 1/21/2015 03:04 编辑

Ann Paludan, Chronicle of The Chinese emperors, Thames & Hudson 2008

There are emperors of China since 221 BC, whose virtues, vices and eccentricities were exaggerated by their position of supreme power. Two were born commoners, rising from poverty, to become the son of Heaven ( Han's first emperor Liu Bei and Ming's first emperor Zhu Yuanzhang). Others are brilliant military strategists and administrators. some were recluses, one repeatedly escaped from court life into a Buddhist monastery, and others were painters, many corrupted by palance life, were indolent debauches, Ming Wanli, become too fat to stand unaided and left ministers and Foreign ambassadors to report at dawn to an empty throne. Wu Zetian, the only women emperor; More commonly mothers and wifes exerted power either through their relatives or by ruling for young or weak emperros from behind the curtain (7). If things went badly, the emperor had clearly lost heavens trust and revolution was justified.

The Chinese empire was the product of two conflicting ideas: that unity and order depend on the sword, but in the long run, government could only survive if it benefited and accepted by the people. (9) a kingdom can be won but not ruled from horse back. Great wall, great canal and great irrigation system of Sichuan was built two thousand years ago and still used today!

Emperors had many names: family name, reign titles, temple name, and honorary titles. for example, Ming's first emperor family name is Zhu Yuanzhang, honorry tiles is Hong Wu, and temple name is Tai Zu.

consolidation, expension, and exhaustion, and peasants risings leading to a breakdown of administratkion. factional rivalty between officials,consort family, eunuchs and warlords. only five western Han Dynasty and three eastern Han's emperors are adault succession, rest all are baby emperors, which have to controlled by emperee or eunuchs. government had a moral duty to promote harmony and prosperity(15).

Legalist belief that man is inherently evil and can only be controlled by fear, Li Si, an ardent legalist, who suggested the first burn books of others states history and confucious schools.



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 楼主| 发表于 1/26/2014 06:42:32 | 显示全部楼层
据我所知东欧各前共产党国家反对派同样四分五裂,但最终都形成了同盟;人性是共同的,中国人与西方人并无两样。中国不可能例外,我坚信时机到来之际,中国反对派一定会也必然会形成同盟。那种认为中国反对派绝对不可能形成同盟的主张肯定是错误的。时机成熟时,真正的反对派必定会暂时放弃各自成见,协 作共同对敌,战胜暴政后,大家再公平竞争。中国古代的历史现象,并不当然绝对重复出现在今天的中国,因为时代环境条件皆不相同。人类文明不断进化,中国人 不可能例外。
 楼主| 发表于 1/26/2014 06:42:36 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 郭国汀 于 1/21/2015 03:24 编辑

In order to test loyalty, Zhao Gao forced Qin's officials to affrim that a stag was a horse. Li Si, forge an deict ordering the liberal crown prince, Fusu, to commit suicide, after the first emperor died on the way home. Zhao Gao swiftly purged possible opponents including Li Si, ministers, princes, officers, and all theri family were killed.  Zhao occupied the palance with his own troops and forced the emperor to commit suicide, then installed Ziying, as King of Qin.

Xiang Yu, had the Kong and all members of the Qin imperial family beheaded, sacking the capital in a fire that bruned for three months. Under Liu Bang, bought peace by offering a priness marry, Xiongnu ruler and send them tribute. Merchants, blanced for speculation and profiteering, were tazed heavily and subject to New restrictions, forbidden to wear silk, ride in carts or hold office(29). Under Wudi, Chang An was the largest city in the world, with wide 25 km time long 16 km.   During the reign of Guang Wudi ( AD 25-57) Luo Yang,with 500000 population marks it the most populus city in the world.

Academy, where 30000 students were trained for the official examinatins. Qin legalism was replaced by Confucian theories, base on the belief that in the long run, good governement depend on consent, not force (31). Liu Bang, a brilliant strategist, brave and generous, his strangth lay in his ability to judge men and to accept advice. Liu's wife Lu Hou, have murdered four of sons, mutilatng and killing one cancuband, entire Lu clan was eliminated as the result after she lost power(31).

"If any  of the princes or governmers discovers a man of talent and virtue under his jurisdiction he should personally invite him to serve the government. an official who known a virtures man within his jurisdiction and choose not report it shall lose his position. "  -Decree by Han Gao Di 196 BC.-



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 楼主| 发表于 1/25/2014 15:03:21 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 郭国汀 于 1/21/2015 04:26 编辑

" I have heard that Heaven installs rulers to govern the people it creates and that it coil warn a ruler with nature disasters if he has lost virtue or if his rule has become unjust."  - Decree by Han Wen Di 178 BC-

In reign of Han Wen Di and Han Jing Di, government were houses were filled with grain for relief in times of flood or famine (33). The burdens on merchants were reduced. in 165 BC, Wen Di introduced recruitment to the civil service through examinations, base on knowledge of Confusian texts (33).

in 150 BC, Jing Di ( praised by histrians for his fraugality) build a tomb five times more than Qin first emperor, there were 40000 clay figure bury with him under ground, a picture of a prosperous society based on agriculture( 34)

" the prince duty of all ministers is to formulate policies, unify the people, universalize our culture good customs. the five emperors brought peace and prospority to the country because they emphasized love and righteousness as the moral foundation of the nation. I never cease to hope that I can attain this goal. -Decree of Han Wudi 128 BC-

Wudi espoused confucianism and founded an imperial Academy to train future official in the classics. imposed state monopolies of minting iron, salt and later alcohol and attempted to control prices. repaired the yellow river dykes, build a canal 825 km long, deubled the size of her empire(37). In 104, 102 BC, and 42 BC, Chinese armies crossed the Pamirs, reaching the formel Greek Kindom, where they defeated a force of Xiongnu and Captive Roman soldiers (39). Wudi's troops reached places over 3000 km from their capital, thus surpassing the achievements of even the Roman legions(39) Traffic alone the Silk Roads, flourished and the Han Capital was flooded with western travelers and luxuries. Wudi's wife, the empress Wei, in 91 BC attacked by powerful Li family. In five days battle Wei family were exterminated and the empress commite suicide (39).

" The imposition of punishment adversely affected hte life of the punished. its purpose should be not more than the provention of violence and the forestalling of wrongdoings, to punish one person, so that all others can live in peace and security. An officials is considered just and equitable if the punishment he choose does not cause the living to complain and the spirit of the dead to resent.  -Decree of Xuan Di 72 BC-

Xuan Di's first wife Xu, poiseoned by concubine Huo, who become as empress (41).

Guang Wudi (25- 57 AD), re-established at state monopolies of rion, salt and liquor, reduced the tax on peasants and stabilized prices by buying surpluses for relief in times of hardship. A professed donfusian, promoted deucation, establishing over 100 state institutes for training administrative cadidates, in classics at government expense, the majority of lower rank provincial officials were appointed by examination. Keep real power in his own hand. He increased the probelm of consort interference in politics.  Ying Lihua, become the focus for political intrigue, form AD 88 the empire was governed by consort family (48).  General Hou Qibin died in 117 BC, General Bangchao death in 102 AD.  Wudi sent Chang Qian in 139 BC to western country with a purpose to find Roman ( Da Qin).

Hedi reign was plagned by natural disasters, locusts, droughts, floods, between 92 and 100 AD, to avoid wide spread dispossession, the government intervened actively to help peasents farmers by remitting taxes, giving grain relief and allow the poor to hunt and fish on state land (50).  Hedi enlisting eunuches to rid dowagers empress domination, which led politics a three way struggle.

Andi (106- 125) at 12, left politics to his wife's family, his reign was beset by continunig natural disasters and frontier problems; Shandi (106 AD), reign from May to December 125, was ousted and killed by a eunuch couop. In reign of Hengdi and Lingdi, natural disasters one after another, a devastating earthquake in 151, followed by a plague of locusts in 153, led to wide spread famine, low moral, corruption, had totally undermined the relief system. left power to eunuchs. good men now refused officials posts (51).蔡伦于公元109年发明造纸技术.  Cai Lun invant the technique of making paper in 109 AD, he died in 121 AD, but pure rag paper found in 2 BC, four treature of scholar's studying room are paper, brush, inkstone and Ink. in seven century to Korea and Japan, in 12 century through Arabs central Adia to Europe(53)。

Lingdi started and ended with attempts to masssacre the eunuchs. Tax revenues falling corrupt officials openly sale of posts and titles in palance(54). Ignoriing the distinction between the public and private purse, without funds the contral relief system no longer functionalal and each nowe drought or flood. In 184 AD, rebellion of yellow uprist, which fuelled from disasteous yellow rivers floods.

In AD 122 jugglers from Da Qin ( Roman) arrived form the south and were followed in 166 AD by a group of merchants claiming to be ambassadors from Roman Emperor, Antun ( Marcus Aurelus Antonius) Rome silk imports led to such a drain of gold and Silver eastwards that harmed the Roman economy ( 56).

汉文帝(180-157BC)和汉景帝(157-141BC)时确立儒学为国家统治哲学。张迁(139BC)奉汉武帝命出使西域;班超奉派为使节寻找大秦(罗马)。至王莽公元23年死时,国库已有五百万央斯(约14万公斤)黄金,比中世纪全欧洲所有的黄金总和还多。 窦宪与窦太后在和帝九岁临朝时独掌朝政。西汉后宫宫女约2000人,到九世纪唐朝末年宫女已达6000人。汉灵帝时期(168-189年) 窦宪联合官僚阶层拟清除宦官,因走漏风声反而被其强迫自杀,结果导致宦官20年专权。朝庭大臣高官或被杀或被贬,子弟皆被禁止为官。由于中央政府失控,导致地方军阀拥兵自重;灵帝死后,其15岁长子继位,随即董卓干政,董率军清除宦官权力,占领和洗劫络阳后,下令屠尽2000余宦官太监,毁焚之古书远比秦始皇焚书更严重。曹操利用吕布杀掉董卓,曹操死后其子自命为皇帝改号魏;刘备则在四川称帝号汉,222年孙权建吴亦称帝于南方。Ann Paludan, Chromicle of The Chinese Emperors, Thames & Hudson 1998 and 2008.


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 楼主| 发表于 1/25/2014 15:03:40 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 郭国汀 于 1/21/2015 04:35 编辑

western Jin Wudi collected an imperial library of over 30000 volumes, Peixiu, hte first cartographer, to use a grid-system, drowing maps (67).

Wang Xishi (306-365) developed the beautiful flowing grass script, raising calligraphy to the lightest of all arts, energing landscape painting and Gu Kaizhi laid the formation of Chinese figure painting (69). at this time, Buddism arrived in China in 1st AD, become the official religion of the northern emperors. Continual fighting (northern ) increased the power of the generals at the expense of the emperor.  Son Wudi, usurped the throne, legistimacy of the throne was once again open game.



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 楼主| 发表于 1/25/2014 15:04:00 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 郭国汀 于 1/21/2015 04:37 编辑

南北朝时的宋文帝(424-453)是个儒者,开创了三十年繁荣,恢复了汉代文官基于学者的理想传统。他试图吸引学者入仕,限制扩张宗教权力,鼓励传统经典教育;因为和尚道士享受免税劳役,拥有大量土地,这些特权使得富人往往将财产置于寺院名下,鼓励农民出家;五世纪初,富有的寺院俨然国中之国,于是435年皇帝下令调查,佛道寺院和尚尼姑未严格尊守清规诫律者一律驱逐出寺院道观,所有没有官方许可的寺院一律禁止。 然而十年后,宋明帝(465-472)虽赞助佛教,修建巨大的佛寺院,却毒杀妻子,妻弟,和三个亲兄弟及28年侄儿。齐高帝(479-481)是个虔诚狂热的佛教徒,导致他的宫中尽和尚。齐明帝(479-481)通过谋杀两个侄儿登基,其子东昏侯被杀,为他15岁的同父异母兄弟让位。齐和帝(501年)因痛恨读书学习,居然杀了其帝师和六个亲兄弟,最后杀了他的帝王师--辅政萧演之兄,引来萧演报仇,袭击京城,困死都城后杀了八万人,萧演干脆夺了帝位,改号梁朝。


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 楼主| 发表于 1/25/2014 15:04:26 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 郭国汀 于 1/21/2015 04:38 编辑

梁武帝(502-549)熔合儒释价值和品德于一体,建立起五个新学院,强制所有的贵族和帝国官僚子弟入学经典。梁武帝是第一流的学者,善作曲写诗,资助艺术,他的王宫成为全国文化艺术中心。他的生涯表明中国人熔合不同的哲学和宗教的能力相当突出。他集儒道释于一体,重精神远胜于物质,真诚接受佛教慈悲的价值观,不到万一得已不杀生,禁止用动物作牺牲供品;527年,529年和547年他先后三次离开王宫入东以寺当和尚,仅在他的大臣们支付了一笔巨额赎金后才回王宫。 Ann Paludan, Chromicle of The Chinese Emperors, Thames & Hudson 1998 and 2008.p.73


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 楼主| 发表于 1/25/2014 15:05:03 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 郭国汀 于 1/21/2015 04:42 编辑


by obeying the sacred rules: not to kill, steal, commit adultery, tell lies or drink, renoncing all world pleasures including family life. translators of Buddist scriptures modified doctrine to suit local prejudices and Husband supports wife, and wife comports husband. confucian precepts " Husband controls wife, wife reverse husbands.


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 楼主| 发表于 1/25/2014 15:05:27 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 郭国汀 于 1/21/2015 05:13 编辑


Sui Dynasty there were three emperors Wendi (581- 604), Yangdi (604-617) and Gongdi (617-618). In Sui Dynasty, indroduced the elements needed for genuine imperial rule: a strongly military (centralized) and civil administration with a sound financial base. created canal system(longest one in the world about 2000 km), revived confucianism as a source of good government administration and legitimacy (82). build in 605 to 616, Anyi bridge long direction of 37.4 m in its spence, was compose a thousand stone, each heavy of a tons, is the earliest such kind of stone bridge in the world( 84). Wendi removing the private armies and reorganized mperial army under strict contral control; appointed excellent ministers and reformed the adminstration, with an imparial system of selection giving southerners due; carried a major redistribution of land; doubling taxable population from 4 million house holds in 589 to 9 million in 606; insisted on the strict and uniform application of law, refusing to exempt one of his sons who had stolen money form treasure from punishment.  Wendi suspicious of possible rivals, including his sons, violent rages, even beating an official to death; he was faithful and generous to old friends, his wife murdered te girls he love, " I may be honoured as the sons of Heaven but I have no freedom"! he lement. although he accepted confucianism officially, he never sympathised with confucian scholasr. Buddism with its offer of salvation to all regardless of nationality and rank, was a powerful force for reunification. During post-Zhou Dynasty, in 574 destory Buddism and 4000 Buddism temple were eliminated.

Sui Yangdi (604-617), a devout Buddhist, he absorbed Daoism and art, a poet and scholar, he support confucian studies, collecting vast imperial liberaries, at Changan and Lou Yang. Love of luxury, rebuilding second capital, used 200 million labours on it palaces, huge artificial lakes, the pleasure park covered 155 squire km.  More brandes were decked with Silk flowers and leaves. 5 million people construction of a persoanl luxurious "Pragon Fleet". He resumed the task of subdue Korea with disasterous results, three major campaigns failed to defeat the Koreans. Heavy tax burdens yellow rivers flooded, caused peasants uprisings(87).

When Li yuan occued Chang An in 617, the Grand son of Yangdi was appointed as emperor and Li Yuan as control power in essence, then Li Yuan occued Lou Yang in 618, he rid of Gongdi and set up Tang Dynasty, put himself as the emperor.


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 楼主| 发表于 1/25/2014 15:06:04 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 郭国汀 于 1/21/2015 05:30 编辑

Tang Dynasty, Taizhong said that " the ruler depends on the state, and the state depends on its people. oppressing the people to make them serve the ruler is like someone cuting off his own flesh to fill his stomach. the stomach is filled but the body is injured: the ruler is wealthy but the state is destroyed". -Tang Taizong(626-649)-

Taizong is one of the greatest Chinese emperors, a keen rational intelligence, an excellent scholar and callligrapher, attracted able ministers, accepted ariticism and lived frugally, ideal confucian rule. solicitous for subjects welfare, he limited public works with their burden of taxs and labour. (91) He used Daoism and Buddhism to supplement confucianism whenever it was useful, he sponsored state academies with scholarships, improved the examinations system. China regained her positions as a great world power. only Korea remined recalcitrant. A disasteros defeat for the campaign in 645, was followed by an indecisive campaign two years later; he died while preparing the third. In early seven century, Chang An was the largest and most cosmopolitan city in the world(92). Taizong later period was tarnished with the usual effects of unlimited power, become arrogant and extravagant. his Tartar ancestry and adopted Turkic habits. riding was a preserve of nobility at court, forbidden to artisems and merchants by an edict of 667 (94). Between 660 and 668, China finally defeated Korea.

赠土地以避税;鼓励三万和尚和尼姑还俗;西藏违反和约被唐军击败后,边境大部分维持了和平稳定,边区置于军督管治(105)。He was a man of many parts. poet, good at calligrapher, talented musician and patron of the arts. He founded the Imperial Academy of letters. 玄宗多才多艺,兼具诗人,书法家,精通音乐,并资助艺术,他建起帝国研究学院,比欧洲任何国家的研究院早一千年。皇家采纳儒家理性主义和道家个人主义及对新观念开放,吸引学者,画家,诗人和音乐家。玄宗是个热情,真情爱的人,关怀其兄弟及家庭,与艺术家们和大臣关系良好。由于深知宫庭阴谋的后果,玄宗令太监和外戚家不得干政;宫女们享受相当大的自由度,通过她们的家庭,太监及佛道士与外界联系相当宽松;但玄宗不让其妻家族为官,禁止公子及外戚在宫中任侍卫官,而是外派各省任短期官员。禁止在宫中戴珠宝玉佩,禁止锦段丝物,关闭皇家锦段厂。他有59个子女,30男29女;其第六子有58个子女。50岁后玄宗开始讨厌政治生涯,皇宫于735年从洛阳迁回长安,新相为李林辅,玄宗日益变得沉迷于道家和佛家秘宗,唐家王朝历来声称老子是其祖先,此时皇家扶道抑佛,置道教高于佛教。 740年初玄宗爱上了他儿子的一个妻子杨贵菲,而她离开其夫以一个道观居士身份入皇宫中;杨贵菲能歌善午,聪明玲珑,令60岁的玄宗为之神魂颠倒。雇佣700名织工为杨贵菲编织锦段,752年始杨家主导了政治舞台,其兄被封为杨国公四川都督,强大得有能力迎战李林辅;在宫中,杨贵菲与安璐山过从甚密,并认安为干儿子。安路山堀起源于中唐时军力严重退化,因强大的金国和云南王进扰边区引起。740年代,唐朝当局相当成功地控制着金国和云南王及传统的敌人:西藏和维吾尔族。但伊斯兰的兴起打破了权力平衡;750年唐朝军队在边境打了败战,次年在中亚TALAS唐朝军队又被一支阿拉伯劲旅击败。中国通往印度和西方的陆路通道从此永远被切断。穆斯林取代中国控制了丝绸之路和塔里木盆地。这些事件使边区军督长官的权力大增,日益独立于中央。755年安碌山反叛,自封为大燕王朝皇帝,安率军横扫南进,群屠开封,洗劫洛阳,最后下长安所向披靡。玄宗带贵菲及其家人日夜兼程亡命四川,当亡命之路被西藏军队封堵时,随从反叛,杀了杨国忠,并要求玄宗处死杨贵菲,无助的皇帝含着眼泪命令太监用一条丝带在一个村庄的宝塔里勒死贵菲后继续西遁;肃宗继位,一年后玄宗回到长安,死于宫中。

Famous poet Li Bai (701-762) Du fu (713-768) and Bai Jiyi( 772-846).


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 楼主| 发表于 1/25/2014 15:06:27 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 郭国汀 于 1/21/2015 05:33 编辑

长安是当时世界上最大的城市,呈柜型长九公里,宽八公里,面积八十平方公里;人口一百万居城内,另一百万人居城外。九条大道连接十二个城门,每面三个城门,中央大道宽152米,有四千户来自中亚和西亚波斯和美索达米亚各国的商人定居都城。815年,一个阿拉伯旅行家IBN WAHHAB写道:长安东西区严格分离,城市巨大,非常繁荣,城市被一条又长又宽的大道区分两大块。唐朝帝国支持佛教基于实务之需多于信仰,Indian Fuddhist are male graduadely in China evoluted to be female Fuddhist. 佛教与道教享受免税和其他特权,佛寺支持皇室。


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 楼主| 发表于 1/25/2014 15:06:47 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 郭国汀 于 1/20/2015 23:14 编辑

肃宗(756-762)与代宗(762-779)皆对叛乱取宽容政策,予地方军督实权使得军督实力坐大,安史之乱持续至763年,内乱导致唐朝人口从754年的5300万降至764年的1700万。757年唐朝军队收复长安,洛阳收复后又丢失,西藏军趁乱袭击洗劫唐都长安;虽然代宗于764年还京,西藏军驻扎不远反复袭击京都直到777年后才终止。 Ann Paludan, Chromicle of The Chinese Emperors, Thames & Hudson 1998 and 2008.p.112


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