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楼主: 郭国汀

中国皇帝简史

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 楼主| 发表于 1/26/2014 07:16:40 | 显示全部楼层
毛好色可以理解,因为好色是人的天性,古人云:食色性也!古今中外很多政客几乎都是色情狂。西方政要主有是流行情人制,基于两相情愿,很少利用权力强暴女性,更不会利用政权强行干预普通民众的正当情欲。共产党和老毛最下流无耻的表现在于:只许他们自已胡搞滥交强奸无数民女,同时却唱道德高调,滥用恐怖暴力禁止全体国民享有正当爱情和情欲。事实上,直至1983年邓小平搞得严打,全国数以万计的受害者仅仅是由于寻求性解放的青少年,被强行当作流氓犯枪毙或判重刑流放。
 楼主| 发表于 1/26/2014 07:53:00 | 显示全部楼层
刘少奇死无葬身之地的直接原因。1962年7月日一个炎夏之下午,毛被刘紧急召回北京后正泡在泳池里,刘赶来对毛解释为何急召毛回京,刘说他同意陈云和田家英(两位皆强烈反对大跃进)建议分田到户,以解危机;毛立即狂怒咆哮;刘不示弱“这么多人已经饿死”!然而不假思索脱口而出“大饥荒饿死人甚至吃人,你我都要被历史审判载入史书!”毛怒不可扼“三面红旗业已被打倒,现在土地还要再分田,你为抵制这些做了些什么?我死后会发生什么?”不过,刘毛很快冷静下来。毛同意刘继续执行经济调整政策。但毛此时确信刘即中国的赫鲁晓夫,将来定会揭露毛的全部罪恶。从此毛开始处心积虑谋划如何搞掉刘少奇及所有反对大跃进的高级干部。四年后“无产阶级文化大革命”爆发。[1]

[1] FrankDikotter, Mao’s Great Famine The History of China most Devastating Catastrophe,1958-1962 Walker & Co. NY 2010.p337
 楼主| 发表于 1/20/2015 23:02:12 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 郭国汀 于 1/20/2015 23:33 编辑

2014 in fact is one of my darkest year in my life, I almost failed my study and have to deferral five papers! the repeatedly failure almost destroy my confidance which led me almost give up my program. however, finally thanks to my friends encourage, I stand up again now, and decide go on to finish my degree, no matter how hard it will be.

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 楼主| 发表于 1/20/2015 23:44:05 | 显示全部楼层
Chinese ships become the most advanced in the world. compass inverted by Chinese (119). soon surpassed Arabs in cartography and seamanship. (139). the great four story ships with 6 masts, 12 large sails, and about 1000 men were power by sail and oar.  the use of capstans, canvas and rigid matting sails enabled them to sail close to the wind. use iron nails, water-proofed with special oil (Tong oil) had water-tight holds and buoyancy chambers, floating anchors and scoops for taking samples from the seabed capacity 200-600 tons (139-140). China turned to the sea, inaugurating the first great era of oceanic commerce in the world history. Tang Dansty Xian Zong in 754 set up state confucian institution.

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 楼主| 发表于 1/20/2015 23:59:18 | 显示全部楼层
Yuan Dansty Khubilai never succeeded in winning over the Chinese scholar genetry who were excluded from high office, and Chinese remained underclass. the Chinese were keep in their place by a legal system under which the population divided into four classes, Mongols, Non-Chinese, Northen Chinese, and the bottern, southern Chinese. a person astronomer, Jamal -al Din was summoned to court in 1267, bring a new more accurate calendar and globes. (151)


Ayurbarwada (1311-1320) In Chinese called "Ren Zong", restoring the examination system for civil service recruit, entry was restricted to the lower ranks and never accounted for more than 4% of all officials( 156).  


Ying Zong (1321-1323 introduced anti-coruption policy and was assassinated by Nonguls princes whose annual grants had been cut.


Sun Di (1333-1368) widely believed to be the son of the captured Song emperor Gongzong by a Muslim mother whom Khoshila had adopted, reimposed strict  segregation, forbade Chinese to learn Mongalian; confiscated their weapons, horses and iron tools and banned Chinese opera and storytelling, suggesting the extermination of all Chinese with the five most popular names, some 90% of the population(157).


Because of floods and devastating epidemics complete the general breakdown of administration and face with revolts arose the whole China.

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 楼主| 发表于 1/21/2015 00:17:47 | 显示全部楼层
Ming Dansty Hong Wu Zhu Yuanzhang( 1368-1398) with envoys requesting acceptance of tributary status sent to korea, Japan, Annam, Champa ( North Vienam) Tibet, Borneo, Java, Swmatra Coromanded, foreign students studies in Chinese univeristy. (161)

Intelligence, farsightedness, ability to choose good officials, excellent administrator, decisive, forbid his troop plander and kill, self-conscious, conducting massive purges cold trial of fomer supponts, possiblle rivals, who were tortured, killed and disgraced; established the imparial secrect service against senior officials. The song system of checks, balance, and free discussion has replaced by an autocratic, highly contralized system in which all power was in Emperors hand.(162)  He restored the examination system for civil service recruitant, but treated his officials in Mongol fashion with unpredictable public beating.


Yong Le emperor(1403-1424) was a born ruler, vigorous highly intelligence, ruthlessly exterminated his oppornents, their family and associates including neighbones, teachers, students. servants and friends. his reign is one of the most brilliant in China history(163).


Hong Xi emperor( 1425) order open official grain storage to release grain to rescue people when natural disaster attracted. " forth with issue it (grain) in relief. what would loans accomplish! relieving peoples poverty ought to be handled as though one were rescuing them from fire or saving them form drowning. one cannot hesitate". (167)




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 楼主| 发表于 1/21/2015 01:00:35 | 显示全部楼层
Zhen He seven times shipping to south and west. in 1405, 63 ships carrying 27870 men set sail for the west, under Zhen He. Since 11 century Chinese ships and chants had surpassed all others. They led the world in maritime exploration. Yong Le personally led five remarkable campaigns against the Mongols. It is Zhengtong Emperor stopped the maritime expeditions.


Ming Dynasty emperors when they died always bury alive their wifes. Zhu Yuanzhang bury with his 38 wifes, Yong Le with 16 and Hong Xi with 10, Xian De Emperor also with 10, who rule during 1426- 1435, with ability administers with genuine sense of responsiblity for people. uprising under a reformer, genuinely tried to check injustice, opposing death sentence, and imprison of the poor for debt. But he also extand ennuch power, despite Zhu Yuanzhang order " Eunuchs must have nothing to do with politics". He order stop the custom of bury wifes when emperors die.


Zhengtong (1436-49) when become emperor he is only 8 years old, and twice under captivy by the Mongolian in his 22 and 30, he died at 40. his reign is an important turning point in Ming Dynasty, trun their back on the outside world, withdraw physically and mentally within their borders. (170)


Chen Hua emperor (1465-1487), an indecisive personallity, weak, kind, permissive, plagned by problem with woman. Imperial greed and lack of control brought a collapse of public morality, Buddnist, Daoist and tibetan monks specialting in porrographing and aphrodisiacs were ennoble.


Hong Zhi emperor (1488-1505) bananished the most currupt enuchues including Lian Feng and demosted over 3000 who had bought officials post.


Zhen De emperor (1506-1521) reacting against his father's confucious was uninterested in state affair, impatient with ritual and dislike his orthedox officials, prefer the flattery of eunuch, fascinatedly by Tibetan culture, embarked on a life of leiture, riding, archaery, hunting music, officials tried but failed in 1506 to remove the leading eunuch advisers, government passed under eunuch control.  1400 officials were flogged, many to death.


Jia Jing emperor (1522-1567) had rid the court of worst eunuchs, seize 70 boxes gold, 2200 box silvers, although his absorption in Daoism let him to neglect state affairs,he appoint able ministers to governance.


1542 the Mongol army within one month macaccas 200000 Chinese, robbed a million horses and cows, burn down hundred thousand hourses. In the east-south, Japanese pirats controled coasts of China, 1555 a group about 70 Japanse pirats, robbed all the way to Nangjing, two and half month later, they robbed back Nangjing, as if it is non population area. in 1660, 6000 Japanese pirats robbed Fujian.

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 楼主| 发表于 1/21/2015 01:10:29 | 显示全部楼层
Tian Qi emperor (1621-1627) illiterary but good at carpenter, authorized his nerses and closed friend Wei Zhongxian (1568-1627) who is his mother's hourse manager, and a ganster of the first order, who tyrantannrize the court and administration with his secret service, appoint officias on the basis of their loyalty to him and ability to exact taxes.  In 1624, an attempt by reformers campaigning for a moral revival of pure Confucianism failed the leaders, the Six Heroes, were tortured and beaten to death, 700 purged, for the remaned of the reign Wei operated a rule of terror, finally persuaded people that Ming lost the Mentle of Heaven, no longer fit to rule.

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 楼主| 发表于 1/21/2015 01:53:26 | 显示全部楼层
Nurhachi and his son Aberhai, he Manchus occupied Liaoning established a Chinese style state. Enlishing CHinese support, make Korea and Mongolia vassal states. When Ming collapsed in 1644, profited from Chinese rebel, appointed the grand-son of Nurhachi who was only six years old as the emperor of China, named him as Sun Zhi (1644-1661). Manchus population has never over pass 2 % of Chinese population. Rule depended on creating a highly authoritarian and contralized Sino-Manchus, Ming administration system formationed under Manchu supervision. Chinese veneration for throne, neo confucian moral orthodoxy stressing the virtures of obedience, system ossified.


Kang Xi emperor (1661-1722) when eight years old become emperor, 14 personal in charge government. in 1673 a serious rebel lead by Wu Shanggui, he personally handle the crise, which took eight years to calm down. then he adopt new policy to treat Chinese, for the old policy were : "drive all Chinese out of Manchuria, seize chinese lands, treat Chinese peasants as slavy, seperate of Han people and Manchus, fobbidden intermarriage between Han and Manchus, force Chinese retain long tail hair. In Beijing, all Chinese were drived out of North parts of city to South".  Kang Xi softer these policy, he forbbid further seize Chinese lands, reduce tax of lands, as the result, persperity of agrilculture, stable tax income. rise salery of officials, control and reduce corruption, win the gentry cooperation, He is geniue love Chinese culture, literature, history, including the history of Ming Dynasty, he order edited dictionary and employed thousand Chinese scholars.


Yong Zhen emperor( 1723-1735) acted swiftly to eliminate possible rivals killing or imprisoning brothers or uncles who posed a threat. throughout his reign, he used spies to crush opponents and ruthlessly edited the official history conscientious.



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 楼主| 发表于 1/21/2015 02:05:46 | 显示全部楼层
Qian Long emperor( 1736-1795), the reign was a watershed in Qing Dynasty. China expended to its greatest extent as ever, by 1775, was easily the most wealthy and populaus nation in the world (196). He is an Intelligent, combining military skills with the virtures of a Confucian scholar. Tibet was brought under Chinese control by a display of military strength in 1751, accompanied by favour for the Lama religious authority (198). Between 1756- 57 Chinese army swept through centre Asia, bring the entire area from Dunhuang to Pamir Mountain under control and incorporating New Territories into the empire. by 1759 the empire covered 12 million squire KM, including out Mongolia. Parts of Russia, while Korea, Nepal, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam and Philippines recognized Chinese dominee. (198) He is a henuine lover of Chinese classics, he order 15000 scholars to edited and published 3450 classic works called "four completed all classics ".


Father Benoit, painting him in 1773, remarkable posture and vitality; he rose at 6 am ate at 8 am, and 2 pm, each mean only last 15 minutes. He is open-mind, truthful and responsible, a good family man, devote to his first wife, Xiao Xian; Xiao yi suddenly tonsured hair to become a num while on tour in Shangdong. Years round harvests with increased prosperty the population rocked. Official figures show a rise from 143 million in 1741, to 200 million in 1762, 360 million in 1812, reaching 432 million by 1851. ( 201)


Pressure for land led to colornization of minority regions, provoking tribal rebeligions against Chinese exploitation. Land shortage caused hunger and porverty in China, leading to serious peasents unrest with and anti-Manchus bias. In the late 18 century, hte British started to redress the imbalance by importing opium form India into China, by 1830s the flow of silver had already been revered and was a serious drain on Chinese resources. (201) In 1780, Qian Long judgment failed Hesheng, a charming and intelligent, won emperors confidence, rapidly promoted and dominated the last 15 years of Qian Long's reign. Completely unscruputous, installed his family in high posts, married his daughter into the imperial family, through a network of corrupt, henchment, on his death, his private wealth worth US$ more than 150 million.


In suppressing a peasent revolt in 1782 in Shangdong, Hesheng's minions ruthlessly bled the already starving peasantry, now they embezzled army allocations. At the peak of her exponts, income from commercial taxes never exceeded 5-4% of state revenues.

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