天易网

 找回密码
 注册
楼主: 郭国汀

中国皇帝简史

[复制链接]
 楼主| 发表于 1/21/2015 02:18:49 | 显示全部楼层
Jia Qing emperor ( 1796-1820) was intelligent, conscientious, rising early and working hard, He forced Hesheng, who still controlled the government, to commit suicide, sharing his fabulous fortune with his brothers. (2014) Hesheng's depredation fatally weaked the empire. the treasury was empty, sheer hunger was causing wides pread rebellion he had to riase money by selling official posts.


Daoguang emperor ( 1821- 1850) was a good friend and supported his officials, but lacked imagination and courage, by wearing old patched clothes, further cuting salaries was a pathotic failure, a time of internal disorder and external aggression.


Xian Fong emperor ( 1851-1861) during his reign, because yellow river changed its line, caused millions peasants lost their hourse and harvests, seriously corrupted administrated government did nothing to rescued victims, led many survive become baditers in mountain area. When a westerner carry a flag of truce was murdered, western troops destroyed the Summer Palance, burning all they could not loot. Xian Fong weaked by debauchery, drags and palsy died at 30(208).

本帖子中包含更多资源

您需要 登录 才可以下载或查看,没有帐号?注册

x
 楼主| 发表于 1/21/2015 02:28:14 | 显示全部楼层
Heaven Kingdom of great peace pro-European, but the Western powers, fearing the rebel's strength, preferred to support the weak imperial government. The Qing only survived this anti-Manchus onslaught because supported by Chinese scholar gentry who preferred Manchus rule to the destruction of theri established way of life and beliefs (208).


Righteous and Harmony boxed, the rebels chanting " burn, burn, burn, Kill, Kill, Kill! support the Qing, destory the foreigner"

本帖子中包含更多资源

您需要 登录 才可以下载或查看,没有帐号?注册

x
 楼主| 发表于 1/21/2015 02:41:43 | 显示全部楼层
Cixi who ruled China from behind the curtain for 50 years during Tong Zhi ( 1862-1874) and Guang Xu ( 1975-1908), a foreign staffed arm of the Chinese government run by an Englishman, Robert Hart after 1873. Tong Zhi emperor was a Cipher. Reacting against Cixi domination, he turn to eunuchs, who pampered his natural instincts for dissipation, debauchey. Cixi was an astute manipulator, playing her ministers against each other, in order to retain power, her favourite eunuch is An Dehai and Li Lianying. " I always thought I am the most intelligent woman in human history. No body can compare with me. although I also read a number of books on Queen Victoria, and read Chinese translated version of her autobiorgraphy, I still do not think her life has a half prosperous and rich as mine; behind her there is a parliament composed by a number of highly ability and capability men, she has almost no say on state policy, look at me, I have 400 million people rely on my judgment..." -Cited De ling's In the two years of life in the forbbien city-

本帖子中包含更多资源

您需要 登录 才可以下载或查看,没有帐号?注册

x
 楼主| 发表于 1/30/2015 16:03:47 | 显示全部楼层
Qin dynasty the emporer declared that he is the first China emporer, in essence he is wrong, because he is not the first emporer in China at all. In fact, China emporer at least appear in Western Zhou dynasty, if not earlier. Since during the Zhou dynasty, the son of the Heaven is the head of state, which divide into more than 70 states through reward territory to his sons and other officers who make great contribution to the whole country. Every states under the Zhou dynasty must obey Zhou the son of the Heaven, therefore, Zhou the son of the Heaven is the first emporer of China. Since during the Spring and Auturn and the Time of War State, the authority of Zhou loose and become weaker, it is Qin's King Yinzhen who reunited all states together and conqued the last seven states, finally rebuit China as a univeral imperior great state, only in this sense, we can define Qin is the first emporer of rebuilt of China.

Second characters of China emporer is that majority of them are not so called tyranny or despot dictators, In Chinese nearly five thousand years long history, only a number of emporer were tyranny and despotical dictotors, such as the end of Xia Jie, the end of Shang Zou, the first emporer of Qin, the second emporer of Sui dynasty, and a few emporers of Ming and Qing, while almost all these tyanny and despotical dictotors were quite talent and make great achievement to extend the territory, the main reason is that Chinese culture in essense are divined, they believe that there is the hightest authority in Heaven who control everything, even emporer can not against the will of the Heaven, otherwise the Heaven will withdraw his empower and appointed another new emporer instead of the tyanny and despotical dictator.


From history of the world, We learn that every country from western to easten to south or african, all believe their state power and sovereignty come from some kind of divine, the distinguish is that some believe only one God, others believe multiple gods, rest even believe all are control by spirits. Democratic principles of power and sovereignty idea, is the modern western political thinker's products. In fact, one of the earliest Chinese emporer Yao said that: " the Country ( Tian-Xia) is not one man's country, it is belong to all people". If we stand in fairness and justice position, we have to recognize that traditional Chinese civilization and culture is one of the greatest one in the world, and restore it should be helpful for China rebuilt her glorious in the near future.

本帖子中包含更多资源

您需要 登录 才可以下载或查看,没有帐号?注册

x
 楼主| 发表于 3/1/2015 14:20:20 | 显示全部楼层
sovereignty belong to one or few or many and people? it depend on its theory basis. When everything come from the God, the emporor usually were hold on sovereignty, for he is representative of the God on earth. On democractic state, sovereignty come from people, through their representative, period elected lagislative. In this sense, democracy is much better than any other regime. According to Aristotle, domocratic state is "bad" government rule by many, while the "good" government is ruled by few elites. However, democratic state is better amoung the bad government.

本帖子中包含更多资源

您需要 登录 才可以下载或查看,没有帐号?注册

x
 楼主| 发表于 3/17/2015 12:35:51 | 显示全部楼层
惟皇上帝,降衷于下民,若有恒性,。。。夏王灭德作威,以敷虐于尔万方百姓,尔等羅其凶害,弗忍荼毒,泣告无辜于上下神氏,天道福善祸淫降灾于夏,以彰阙罪。肆台小子,将天命明威,不敢赦,敢用玄牡,敢昭告于上天神后,请罪有夏,求元圣,与之戮力,以与尔有众请命。上天孚佑下民,罪人黜伏,天命弗儹。。。慄慄危惧若将陨于深渊。8。尔有善,朕弗敢蔽,罪当朕躬,弗敢自赦,惟简在上帝之心,其尔万方有罪,在予一人,予一人有罪,无以尔万方。(尚书:汤诰)
the great God has conferred even on the inferior people a moral sense,compliance with which would show their nature invariably right...the King Xia extinguished his virtue and played the tyrant, extending his oppression over you, the people of the myriad regions. suffering from his cruel injuries, and unable to endure the wormwood and poison, you protested with one accord your innocence to the spirits of heaven and earth. the way of Heaven is to bless the good and to punish the bad. it sent down calamities on Xia’s family, to make manifest its crimes. therefore, I charged with the decree of Heaven and its bright terrors, did not dare to forgive the criminal. I presumed to use a dark coloured victim, and making clear announcement to the spiritual Sovereign of the high heavens, requested leave to deal with the ruler of Xia as a criminal. Then, I sought for the great sage, with whom I might unite my strngth, to request the favour of Heaven on behalf of you, my multitudes. High Heaven truly showed its favour to the inferior people, and the criminal has been degraded and subjected. Heaven’s appointment is without error; brilliantly now like the blossoming of flowers and trees, the millions of the people show a true reviving. ...I am fearful and trembling, as if I should fall into a deep abyss….the good of you, I will not dare to conceal; and for the evil in me, I will not dare to forgive myself; I will examine these things in harmony with the mind of God. when guilt is found anywhere in you who occupy the myriad regions, it must rest on me. when guilt is found in me, the one man, it will not attach to you who occupy the myriad regions.p.184-89


 楼主| 发表于 3/17/2015 12:36:23 | 显示全部楼层
有夏多罪,天命殛之。(尚书:商书:汤誓)
many crimes of the sovereign of Xia, Heaven has given the charge to destroy him. p.173.
予畏上帝,不敢不正。
as I fear God, I dare not but punish him.
朕不食言,尔不从誓言,予则孥戮汝罔有攸赦。(尚书:商书:汤誓)
I will not eat my words. if you do not obey the words which I have spoken to you, I will put your children with you to death, you will find no forgiveness.p. 175.


 楼主| 发表于 3/17/2015 12:36:56 | 显示全部楼层
惟天生民有欲,无主乃乱,惟天生聪明时,有夏昏德,民坠涂炭 ... 奉若天命。(尚书:仲馗之诰)
Heaven gives birth to the people with such desires, that without a ruler they must fall into all disorders; and Heaven again gives birth to the man of intelligence whose business it is to regulate them. ...honouring and obeying the appointment of Heaven. p. 179
惟王不迩声色,不殖货利,德懋懋官,功懋懋赏,用人惟己,改过不吝,克宽克仁,彰信兆民。有夏多罪,天命殛之。惟天生民有欲,无主乃乱,惟天生聪明时,有夏昏德,民坠涂炭 ... 奉若天命。(尚书:仲馗之诰)


Heaven gives birth to the people with such desires, that without a ruler they must fall into all disorders; and Heaven again gives birth to the man of intelligence whose business it is to regulate them. ...honouring and obeying the appointment of Heaven. p. 179
惟王不迩声色,不殖货利,德懋懋官,功懋懋赏,用人惟己,改过不吝,克宽克仁,彰信兆民。(尚书:仲馗之诰)
our king did not approach to dissolute music and women; he did not seek to accumulate property and money. to great virtue he gave great offices ; to great merit he gave great rewards. he employed others as if their abilities were his own; he ws not slow to change his errors. rightly indulgent and rightly benevolent, from the display of such virtue comfidence was reposed in him by the millions of the people. p.180
佑贤辅德,显忠遂良,兼弱攻昧,取乱侮亡,推亡固存,邦乃其昌...德日新,万邦惟怀,志自满,九族乃离,王懋昭大德,建中于民,以义制事,以礼制心。吾闻能自得师者王,谓人莫己若者亡。好问则裕,自用则小。慎阙终,惟其始,殖有礼,覆昏暴,钦崇天道。(尚书:仲馗之诰)
7. IV. show favour to the able and right principled among the princes , and  aid the virtuous; distinguish the loyal, and let the good have free course. absor the weak, and punish the wilfully blind; take their States from the disorderly, and deal summarily with those going to ruin. thus overthrowing the perishing and strengthening what is being preserved, how will the States all flourish!...8. when a sovereign’s virtue is daily being renewed, he is cherished throughout the myriad States; when he is full of his own will, he is abandoned by the nine classes of his kindred. Oh King to make your great virtue illustrious, and set up the pattern of the Mean before the people. order your affairs by righteousness; order your heart by propriety: so shall you transmit a grand example to posterity. I have heard the saying: He who finds instructors for himself, comes to the supreme dominion; he who says that others are not equal to himself, comes to ruin. he who likes to ask becomes enlarged; he who uses only himself becomes small. 9. He who would take care for his end must be attentive to his beginning. there is establishment for the observers of propriety, and overthrow for the blinded and wantonly indifferent. to revere and honour the way of Heavan is the way ever to preserve the favouing regard of Heaven.p.181-83。


 楼主| 发表于 3/17/2015 12:37:23 | 显示全部楼层
皇祖有训:民可近,不可下, 民惟邦本,本固邦宁。...予临兆民,懔乎若朽索之驭六马。(尚书:五子之歌)
4.5 II. the lesson of our great ancestor: the people should be cherished; they should not be down trodden: the people are the root of a country; the root firm, the country is tranquil. ...in my relation to the millions of the people, I should feel as much anxiety as if I were driving six horses with rotten reins.p.158.
杀无赦(尚书:五子之歌)
put to death without merch.
玉石俱焚(尚书:五子之歌)
gems and stones are burned together;


 楼主| 发表于 3/17/2015 12:37:57 | 显示全部楼层
知人则哲,能官人,安民则惠,黎民怀之,能哲而惠,何忧乎,何迁乎有苗,何谓乎巧言令色。(尚书:臯陶谟)
knows men is wise, and can put men into their proper offices. when he givesrepose to the people, he is kind, and the black haired people cherish him in their hearts. when a sovereign can be thus wise and kind, what occasion will he have for anxiety about a Guang-dou?what to be removing a prince of You-Miao? waht to fear any one of fair words, insinuating appearance, and great artfulness?p.70.
臯陶云:宽而栗,柔而立,愿而恭,乱而敬,扰而毅,直而温,简而廉,刚而塞,疆而毅,彰阙有常,吉哉。(尚书:臯陶谟)
affability combined with dignity; mildness combined with firmness; bluntness combined with respectfulness; aptness for government combined with reverence; docility combined with boldness; straightforwardness combined with gentleness; esasiness combined with discrimination; vigour combined with sincerity; and valour combined with righteousness. when these qualities are displayed, and that permanently, have we not the good officer?p. 71.
帝云:臣作朕股肱耳目,予欲左右有民,汝冀予欲宣力四方。(尚书:臯陶谟)
emperor said:my ministers constitute my legs and arms, my ears and eyes. I wish to help and support my people; you give effect to my wishes. p.80


殷既错天命(尚书:序)
Yin having cast away the sovereignty conferred on it by Heaven.


您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 注册

本版积分规则


站内文章仅为网友提供更多信息,不代表本网站同意其说法或描述,也不构成任何建议。本网站仅为网友提供交流平台,对网友自由上传的文字和图片等,本网站
不为其版权和内容等负责。站内部分内容转载自其它社区、论坛或各种媒体,有些原作者未知。如您认为站内的某些内容属侵权,请及时与我们联络并进行处理。
关于我们|隐私政策|免责条款|版权声明|网站导航|帮助中心
道至大 道天成

小黑屋|手机版|Archiver|联系我们|天易综合网 (Twitter@wolfaxcom)

GMT-5, 12/14/2019 15:56 , Processed in 0.120700 second(s), 11 queries , Gzip On.

Copyright 天易网 network. All Rights Reserved.

© 2009-2015 .

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表