楼主: 郭国汀


 楼主| 发表于 1/21/2015 02:18:49 | 显示全部楼层
Jia Qing emperor ( 1796-1820) was intelligent, conscientious, rising early and working hard, He forced Hesheng, who still controlled the government, to commit suicide, sharing his fabulous fortune with his brothers. (2014) Hesheng's depredation fatally weaked the empire. the treasury was empty, sheer hunger was causing wides pread rebellion he had to riase money by selling official posts.

Daoguang emperor ( 1821- 1850) was a good friend and supported his officials, but lacked imagination and courage, by wearing old patched clothes, further cuting salaries was a pathotic failure, a time of internal disorder and external aggression.

Xian Fong emperor ( 1851-1861) during his reign, because yellow river changed its line, caused millions peasants lost their hourse and harvests, seriously corrupted administrated government did nothing to rescued victims, led many survive become baditers in mountain area. When a westerner carry a flag of truce was murdered, western troops destroyed the Summer Palance, burning all they could not loot. Xian Fong weaked by debauchery, drags and palsy died at 30(208).


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 楼主| 发表于 1/21/2015 02:28:14 | 显示全部楼层
Heaven Kingdom of great peace pro-European, but the Western powers, fearing the rebel's strength, preferred to support the weak imperial government. The Qing only survived this anti-Manchus onslaught because supported by Chinese scholar gentry who preferred Manchus rule to the destruction of theri established way of life and beliefs (208).

Righteous and Harmony boxed, the rebels chanting " burn, burn, burn, Kill, Kill, Kill! support the Qing, destory the foreigner"


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 楼主| 发表于 1/21/2015 02:41:43 | 显示全部楼层
Cixi who ruled China from behind the curtain for 50 years during Tong Zhi ( 1862-1874) and Guang Xu ( 1975-1908), a foreign staffed arm of the Chinese government run by an Englishman, Robert Hart after 1873. Tong Zhi emperor was a Cipher. Reacting against Cixi domination, he turn to eunuchs, who pampered his natural instincts for dissipation, debauchey. Cixi was an astute manipulator, playing her ministers against each other, in order to retain power, her favourite eunuch is An Dehai and Li Lianying. " I always thought I am the most intelligent woman in human history. No body can compare with me. although I also read a number of books on Queen Victoria, and read Chinese translated version of her autobiorgraphy, I still do not think her life has a half prosperous and rich as mine; behind her there is a parliament composed by a number of highly ability and capability men, she has almost no say on state policy, look at me, I have 400 million people rely on my judgment..." -Cited De ling's In the two years of life in the forbbien city-


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 楼主| 发表于 1/30/2015 16:03:47 | 显示全部楼层
Qin dynasty the emporer declared that he is the first China emporer, in essence he is wrong, because he is not the first emporer in China at all. In fact, China emporer at least appear in Western Zhou dynasty, if not earlier. Since during the Zhou dynasty, the son of the Heaven is the head of state, which divide into more than 70 states through reward territory to his sons and other officers who make great contribution to the whole country. Every states under the Zhou dynasty must obey Zhou the son of the Heaven, therefore, Zhou the son of the Heaven is the first emporer of China. Since during the Spring and Auturn and the Time of War State, the authority of Zhou loose and become weaker, it is Qin's King Yinzhen who reunited all states together and conqued the last seven states, finally rebuit China as a univeral imperior great state, only in this sense, we can define Qin is the first emporer of rebuilt of China.

Second characters of China emporer is that majority of them are not so called tyranny or despot dictators, In Chinese nearly five thousand years long history, only a number of emporer were tyranny and despotical dictotors, such as the end of Xia Jie, the end of Shang Zou, the first emporer of Qin, the second emporer of Sui dynasty, and a few emporers of Ming and Qing, while almost all these tyanny and despotical dictotors were quite talent and make great achievement to extend the territory, the main reason is that Chinese culture in essense are divined, they believe that there is the hightest authority in Heaven who control everything, even emporer can not against the will of the Heaven, otherwise the Heaven will withdraw his empower and appointed another new emporer instead of the tyanny and despotical dictator.

From history of the world, We learn that every country from western to easten to south or african, all believe their state power and sovereignty come from some kind of divine, the distinguish is that some believe only one God, others believe multiple gods, rest even believe all are control by spirits. Democratic principles of power and sovereignty idea, is the modern western political thinker's products. In fact, one of the earliest Chinese emporer Yao said that: " the Country ( Tian-Xia) is not one man's country, it is belong to all people". If we stand in fairness and justice position, we have to recognize that traditional Chinese civilization and culture is one of the greatest one in the world, and restore it should be helpful for China rebuilt her glorious in the near future.


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 楼主| 发表于 3/1/2015 14:20:20 | 显示全部楼层
sovereignty belong to one or few or many and people? it depend on its theory basis. When everything come from the God, the emporor usually were hold on sovereignty, for he is representative of the God on earth. On democractic state, sovereignty come from people, through their representative, period elected lagislative. In this sense, democracy is much better than any other regime. According to Aristotle, domocratic state is "bad" government rule by many, while the "good" government is ruled by few elites. However, democratic state is better amoung the bad government.


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 楼主| 发表于 3/17/2015 12:35:51 | 显示全部楼层
the great God has conferred even on the inferior people a moral sense,compliance with which would show their nature invariably right...the King Xia extinguished his virtue and played the tyrant, extending his oppression over you, the people of the myriad regions. suffering from his cruel injuries, and unable to endure the wormwood and poison, you protested with one accord your innocence to the spirits of heaven and earth. the way of Heaven is to bless the good and to punish the bad. it sent down calamities on Xia’s family, to make manifest its crimes. therefore, I charged with the decree of Heaven and its bright terrors, did not dare to forgive the criminal. I presumed to use a dark coloured victim, and making clear announcement to the spiritual Sovereign of the high heavens, requested leave to deal with the ruler of Xia as a criminal. Then, I sought for the great sage, with whom I might unite my strngth, to request the favour of Heaven on behalf of you, my multitudes. High Heaven truly showed its favour to the inferior people, and the criminal has been degraded and subjected. Heaven’s appointment is without error; brilliantly now like the blossoming of flowers and trees, the millions of the people show a true reviving. ...I am fearful and trembling, as if I should fall into a deep abyss….the good of you, I will not dare to conceal; and for the evil in me, I will not dare to forgive myself; I will examine these things in harmony with the mind of God. when guilt is found anywhere in you who occupy the myriad regions, it must rest on me. when guilt is found in me, the one man, it will not attach to you who occupy the myriad regions.p.184-89

 楼主| 发表于 3/17/2015 12:36:23 | 显示全部楼层
many crimes of the sovereign of Xia, Heaven has given the charge to destroy him. p.173.
as I fear God, I dare not but punish him.
I will not eat my words. if you do not obey the words which I have spoken to you, I will put your children with you to death, you will find no forgiveness.p. 175.

 楼主| 发表于 3/17/2015 12:36:56 | 显示全部楼层
惟天生民有欲,无主乃乱,惟天生聪明时,有夏昏德,民坠涂炭 ... 奉若天命。(尚书:仲馗之诰)
Heaven gives birth to the people with such desires, that without a ruler they must fall into all disorders; and Heaven again gives birth to the man of intelligence whose business it is to regulate them. ...honouring and obeying the appointment of Heaven. p. 179
惟王不迩声色,不殖货利,德懋懋官,功懋懋赏,用人惟己,改过不吝,克宽克仁,彰信兆民。有夏多罪,天命殛之。惟天生民有欲,无主乃乱,惟天生聪明时,有夏昏德,民坠涂炭 ... 奉若天命。(尚书:仲馗之诰)

Heaven gives birth to the people with such desires, that without a ruler they must fall into all disorders; and Heaven again gives birth to the man of intelligence whose business it is to regulate them. ...honouring and obeying the appointment of Heaven. p. 179
our king did not approach to dissolute music and women; he did not seek to accumulate property and money. to great virtue he gave great offices ; to great merit he gave great rewards. he employed others as if their abilities were his own; he ws not slow to change his errors. rightly indulgent and rightly benevolent, from the display of such virtue comfidence was reposed in him by the millions of the people. p.180
7. IV. show favour to the able and right principled among the princes , and  aid the virtuous; distinguish the loyal, and let the good have free course. absor the weak, and punish the wilfully blind; take their States from the disorderly, and deal summarily with those going to ruin. thus overthrowing the perishing and strengthening what is being preserved, how will the States all flourish!...8. when a sovereign’s virtue is daily being renewed, he is cherished throughout the myriad States; when he is full of his own will, he is abandoned by the nine classes of his kindred. Oh King to make your great virtue illustrious, and set up the pattern of the Mean before the people. order your affairs by righteousness; order your heart by propriety: so shall you transmit a grand example to posterity. I have heard the saying: He who finds instructors for himself, comes to the supreme dominion; he who says that others are not equal to himself, comes to ruin. he who likes to ask becomes enlarged; he who uses only himself becomes small. 9. He who would take care for his end must be attentive to his beginning. there is establishment for the observers of propriety, and overthrow for the blinded and wantonly indifferent. to revere and honour the way of Heavan is the way ever to preserve the favouing regard of Heaven.p.181-83。

 楼主| 发表于 3/17/2015 12:37:23 | 显示全部楼层
皇祖有训:民可近,不可下, 民惟邦本,本固邦宁。...予临兆民,懔乎若朽索之驭六马。(尚书:五子之歌)
4.5 II. the lesson of our great ancestor: the people should be cherished; they should not be down trodden: the people are the root of a country; the root firm, the country is tranquil. ...in my relation to the millions of the people, I should feel as much anxiety as if I were driving six horses with rotten reins.p.158.
put to death without merch.
gems and stones are burned together;

 楼主| 发表于 3/17/2015 12:37:57 | 显示全部楼层
knows men is wise, and can put men into their proper offices. when he givesrepose to the people, he is kind, and the black haired people cherish him in their hearts. when a sovereign can be thus wise and kind, what occasion will he have for anxiety about a Guang-dou?what to be removing a prince of You-Miao? waht to fear any one of fair words, insinuating appearance, and great artfulness?p.70.
affability combined with dignity; mildness combined with firmness; bluntness combined with respectfulness; aptness for government combined with reverence; docility combined with boldness; straightforwardness combined with gentleness; esasiness combined with discrimination; vigour combined with sincerity; and valour combined with righteousness. when these qualities are displayed, and that permanently, have we not the good officer?p. 71.
emperor said:my ministers constitute my legs and arms, my ears and eyes. I wish to help and support my people; you give effect to my wishes. p.80

Yin having cast away the sovereignty conferred on it by Heaven.

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