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[法律法治] 马克思主义研究

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发表于 7/19/2014 19:37:18 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
马克思主义研究

全世界第一个准确预言共产主义必定灭亡的大师是上个世纪的著名社会学家赫伯特史滨塞,1898年当全球并无一个所谓社会主义国家存在时,他即宣称即将到来的社会主义是奴役制。但他坚信社会主义将取得胜利。1905年在接受采访后,他写了一信确认:社会主义将不可避免取得胜利,尽管所有的反对;它的建立将是人类有史以来最大的灾难;迟早它将被军事暴政终结。除了最后一点不太准确之外,其它各项均惊人地准确。苏联和东欧共产党政权的虽然并非被军事暴政终结,但是所有的共产党政权本身皆变成了实质的军事暴政。吾以为史滨塞应当是伟大的预言家。
HerbertSpencer wrote an article on the coming slavery hundredyears ago, he thought the socialism will inevitable triumph. In Oct 1905, awell-known Frenchman M.G.Daveray, visited Mr.Spencer, who later wrote a letterto him confirmed that “(1)socialism will triumph inevitably, in spite of allopposition; (2) its establishment will be the greatest disaster which the worldhas ever known; (3) sooner or later, it will be brought to an end by a militarydespotism. [1]


[1]John Spargo, Socialism A Summery and Interpretation of Socialist Principles,revised ed. NY, The Macmillan Co. 1909.p.6-7. quote the English translationform the London Clarion, December 18, 1905.



 楼主| 发表于 7/19/2014 19:40:01 | 显示全部楼层
1906年普列汉诺夫辛辣地指出“一开始列宁是个布朗基主义者远盛于马克思主义者。他在挥舞着最严格的马克思主义正统旗帜的同时,却兜售着布朗基主义的私货。”[15]1917年夏天,他发文称:“列宁号召与德国议和,为了推翻克伦斯基临时政府并夺取权力,将是在俄国的土地上疯狂和播种无政府骚乱绝对危险的事”。[16]普氏指出“1917年10月列宁的政策是精神错乱的产物。”[17]作为俄国马克思主义之父,早在十月革命爆发三天后他便准确预言了苏俄革命的恶果。1917年10月28日普氏和维拉及列夫共同致彼得堡工人公开信预言:“十月革命是历史上最严重的灾难,它将引发内战,并将国家倒退到远远超出1917年2月革命业已取得的成果。”[18]普氏于1917年立下政治遗嘱并预言:布尔什维克党之所以有力量,在于其消耗我们的人民和无视我国的社会经济条件。布党将持续多年,我们的人民唯有在蒙受巨大的教训后才会觉悟。然后布党将终结,但是布党灭亡之日仍相当遥远。中国人何时能觉悟?!
G.Plekhanovin 1917 predicts that “the strength of Bolshevism lies in the weariness andignorance of our people and also in our backward economic condition. Bolshevismwill last many years and our people will only attain consciousness after thishard lesson. Then there will be an end to Bolshevism. But the day is far off. [1]


[1]Quote from D.G.Stewart-Smith, The Defeat of Communism, London Ludgate PressLimited. 1964, p.9.



 楼主| 发表于 7/19/2014 19:41:08 | 显示全部楼层
美国著名历史学家史德华史密斯早在1964年写了一部类似《共产主义黑皮书》的巨著指出:共产主义仅是一种完全悖离整个人类进化史的政治意识形态,且由于其实质反人性,它必将在未来无法准确测定之日,被今天仍受其统治的人民抛弃
Stewart-Smith  declared in 1964, “It is quite simply thatcommunism is a political ideology diametrically opposed to the entire historyof human evolution, and that because of its essentially anti-humancharacteristics it will at some, as yet unknown, date in the future be sweptaway by the people over whom it at present rules”. [1]


[1]D.G.Stewart-Smith,The Defeat of Communism, London Ludgate Press Limited. 1964, p.9.



 楼主| 发表于 7/19/2014 19:50:41 | 显示全部楼层
“社会主义”一词被认为是一种最高贵的曾激励众多人道主义演说家的好词。它源自拉丁语,意指同志,社会主义在英语中于1833824日由一位不知名的作家首创。1840年法国作家R在其《现代改良》发表后,每位抱怨社会不公及社会乌托邦梦想家都自称是社会主义者。
The word of ‘socialism’ is admittedly one of thenoblest and most inspiring words every born of human speech.[1] It derived from the Latin‘socius’, meaning a comrade, Coined by an anonymous writer in an English paperin August 24, 1833.  after French writerReybaud in his “Reformatories Moderns” published in 1840, everyone whocomplained of social inequalities and every dreamer of social Utopias wascalled a socialist.


[1] JohnSpargo, Socialism A Summery and Interpretation of Socialist Principles ,reviseded. NY, The Macmillan Co. 1909.p.8



 楼主| 发表于 7/19/2014 19:59:08 | 显示全部楼层
理查德在其《社会主义和考验及其优,弱点和社会改革》书中称:社会主义的渊源乃是工业技术和科学的产物。1738年飞梭问世,1769年蒸汔轮机获专利。。。这些发明创造在某种意义上可称为现代社会主义之父。“社会主义是一种宗教,马克思是其马汀路德”。马克思的《资本论》经常被称做“社会主义的圣经”。
RichardT.Ely in his Socialism and Examination of its Nature,strength, Weakness, and Social Reform[1] asserted that “the originof socialism is the invention in technical industrial and science. In 1738, Kayinvented fly shuttle, 1769 Watt patented steam engine, 1770 Hargreaves’sspinning jenny,1769, Arkwrigth invented his water frame; 1779  Crompton invented the “mule”; 1787 Cartwrightinvented a “power loom”, 1793, cotton-gin, these inventors may in a sense becalled the fathers of modern socialism. “socialism is a religion and Marx isits Luther.” Marx’s Capital frequently called ‘the Bible of socialism’.[2]


[1]Richard T.Ely, Socialism and Examination of its Nature, Strength, Weakness, andSocial Reform,NY, Thomasy Cowell & Publishers 1894.p.51. Ely was theprofessor of political science and history at university of Wisconsin.

[2]Richard T.Ely, Socialism 1894.p.96.



 楼主| 发表于 7/19/2014 20:08:33 | 显示全部楼层
莱布尼慈写道:社会进化的观念作为“现在是过去之子,但是现在是将来之父”。万事皆变;任何事务皆千变万化没有任何东西是永恒的。无论地理学还是天文学或生物学或社会学,皆是无数不可避免的变化的结果。唯有变化的规律是永恒不变的。用理查德教授的话来说则是:“人类历史上所有重要的事务皆可追溯于观念”。但是观念本身均可溯源于物质。
Leibnitz expressed The idea of social evolution as“the present is the child of the past, but it is the parent of the future.”[1] Everything changes;nothing is immutable or eternal. Whatever is, whether in geology, astronomy,biology, or sociology, is the result of numberless, inevitable, relatedchanges. Only the law of change is changeless. [2] In the words of ProfessorRichard T.Ely, “all that is significant in human history may be traced back toideas,”[3]But ideas themselves can betraced back to material sources.


[1]Edward Clodd, Pioneers of Evolution from Thales to Huxley, p.1

[2]John Spargo, Socialism A Summary and Interpretation of socialist principles,NY, The Macmillan Co. 1913.p.77

[3]Richard T.Ely, Studies in the Evolution of Industrial society. P.3. quoteSpargo, 1913.79.



 楼主| 发表于 7/19/2014 20:15:19 | 显示全部楼层
受到各界人士高度赞杨的欧文是科学社会主义的先驱者,精神高贵,人格伟大,真诚单纯。
RobertOwen,whom Liebknecht called, “by far themost embracing, penetrating, and practical of all the harbingers of scientificsocialism”,[1]Engelspraised that “ a man of almost sublime and childlike simplicity of character,every social movement, every real advance in England on behalf of the workers,links itself on to the name of Robert Owen.”[2]born a humble parentage on14 May, 1771 in a town in North Wales, at seven he had familiarized himself with Miltons’s Paradise Lost,  thirsted for knowledge a passion forknowledge was the controlling force of his life, barely ten he set out to fightthe battle of life for himself in London, apprentice to a draper, from a smallpeddling business he had built up one of the largest and wealthiestestablishments in London, read prodigiously, laid the foundations of literaryculture which characterize his whole life and added tremendously to his power,rise of this poor, strange, strong lad, from poverty to the very pinnacle ofindustrial and commercial power and fame, as a successful leading manufacturer, in 1800 great experiment, toconversion of a miserable, stupid, and vicious set of people into a happy industrious,and orderly community, acting on the theory that man is the creature of hissurroundings, and that by diligent attention to the development of his naturehe can be brought to perfection. [3] according to H. B.Gibbins, the term ‘factory girl’ was an insulting epithet and it was impossiblefor a girl who had been employed in a factory to obtain other employment. Shecould not look forward to marriage with any but the very lowest of men. [4]his experiences at NewLanark ,which was entirely successful, had convinced him that human characterdepends in large part upon environment. He said of his success ‘yet these menwere my slave’. In 1815 he pressed a meeting of Glasgow manufactures topetition Parliament to short on the hours of labour in the cotton mills. 1825 Owenbegan the greatest and most splendid of his social experiments in the villageof Harmonie, Indiana in the beautiful valley of the Wabash. In Feb and March,he addressed two of the most distinguished audiences in the Hall ofRepresentatives at the national capital, the President of the USA, the Judgesof the supreme court, members of the cabinet, entire membership of both houseof congress. Lord Herbert said “a failure like Jesus Christ’s . He establishedinfant schools; he founded the great cooperative movement; he helped to makethe trade unions;..his socialism has not been realized yet, nor has Christ’sbut it will come!”[5]Owen’sdying words was “Relief has come”.


[1]Wilhelm Liebknecht, Karl Marx: Biographical Memoirs, p.101.

[2]F.Engels, Socialism, Utopian and Scientific, London, 1892,p.20-25.

[3] William Morris, E.Belfort Bax,Socialism Its Growth and Outcome, London Swan Somnen Sohein & Co.1893.p.208.

[4]H.B.Gibbins, The Industrial History of England, London, Methuen and Co.

[5]John Spargo, Socialism A Summary and Interpretation of socialist principles,NY, The Macmillan Co. 1913.p.45



 楼主| 发表于 7/19/2014 20:26:41 | 显示全部楼层
出身于贵族家庭的圣西门提出:“各依其能,按劳分配”的原则。他提出政治乃有关生产的科学,且提出政治受制于经济的观念,他承认法国大革命中的阶级斗争,认为政治问题归根结底乃是经济问题,他宣称政治乃生产的科学且预言政治受制于经济。
SaintSimon born of a noble family at Paris in 1760, admittedthe existence of classes of talent as expressed by the motto ‘from eachaccording to his capacity; to each according to his deeds’.[1] In 1816 Simon assertedthat politics were but the science of production and predicted their absorptionby economy.(P 212) it is conversion of political government of men into anadministration of things and a direction of the process of production; thus theabortion of the state, recognized the class struggle in the French Revolution,saw that the political question was fundamentally an economic question,declaring that politics is the science of production and prophesying thatpolitics would be absorbed by economics.[2]


[1] William Morris, E.Belfort Bax,Socialism Its Growth and Outcome, London Swan Somnen Sohein & Co.1893.p.211

[2]Engels, Socialism, Utopian and Scientific, p.15.



 楼主| 发表于 7/19/2014 23:10:53 | 显示全部楼层
查理付利叶认为人性可以通过自由满足人的食欲和爱欲而改善,而邪恶则根源于社会强制限制此种欲望所致。他对现代社会的批评,作为对科学社会主义的预期最有价值。他对人类历史的发展有深刻的洞察;他将人类社会发展史区分为四个阶段:野蛮残暴期,未开化状态,父权制社会和文明社会。“文明社会的贫困是过剩平衡的产物”。乌托邦哲学家们视人为一种可塑的,或是某种可上可下,可早熟也可推迟,按照煅工的意志可模压,磨砺,煅制成固体或液体或气体的东西。
CharlesFourier born in 1772, draper’s son, he elaborates theproposition that human nature is perfectible through the free play of theappetites and passions and asserts that misery and vice spring from therestraints imposed by society.[1] His criticism of modernsociety is most valuable as anticipating that of scientific socialism; he hasan insight into the history growth of mankind; he divided it into four periodsof development, savagery, barbarism, patrirchalism, and civilization. Hissaying ‘in civilization poverty is born even of superabundance ’; Owen’s ‘ourbest customer, the war, is dead’. He advocated industrial co-operation.[2]Utopian philosophers treatman as a plastic thing, or something that may be put up or down, ripened orretarded, molded, polished, made into solid or fluid or gas at the will of theleader.


[1] William Morris, E.Belfort Bax,Socialism Its Growth and Outcome, London Swan Somnen Sohein & Co.1893.p.214.

[2] William Morris, E.Belfort Bax,Socialism Its Growth and Outcome, London Swan Somnen Sohein & Co.1893.p.214



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 楼主| 发表于 7/19/2014 23:27:04 | 显示全部楼层
浦鲁东是社会主义思想家,他是居于乌托邦社会主义者和科学社会主义者之间的人物。“财产即强盗”或“财产是盗贼”是其名言。他最早使用“科学社会主义”术语。他提出了完整的互利主义体系。布朗克于1840年首次使用“共产主义”一词。一共有三十六个国家一度曾被共产党统治。马克思称资本主义包含其毁灭的种子,其实共产主义倒是真包含令其自身毁灭的种子。卡尔波普评价马克思的强烈谴责资本主义罪恶使他永远享有人类解放者的一席之地。
Proudhon,socialist thinker, link between the Utopists and scientific  socialists, in 1839 he published “What isProperty?” the famous motto is “Property is robbery” or “property is theft” ,which caused much stir and indignation. He first use the expression “scientificsocialism”. In 1858 he fully developed his system of mutualism.  Louis Blanc. And French Utopian socialistEtiemme Cabet, who first used the term of ‘communism’ in 1840.  There are thirty six states which have at onetime been under communist rule. By the late 1970s there were sixteen countries.Marx argued that the capitalism contained the seeds of its own destruction. Bynurturing a highly educated population, communism contained the seeds of itsown destruction. Karl Popper remarks that ‘Marx’s burning protest against thesecrimes (capitalism) will secure him forever a place among the liberators ofmankinds. [1]The disciples of Jesus‘were of one heart and of one soul.’


[1]See The Open Society and Its Enemies Vol. II.p.122.



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