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[法律法治] 马克思主义研究

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 楼主| 发表于 7/19/2014 23:52:05 | 显示全部楼层
马克思被视为十九世纪最伟大的思想家之一,他对经济思想的影响和发展几乎无人可及。社会主义对严格意义上的马克思主义者而言是一种宗教,文献,科学和经济哲学。马克思在社会主义中的地位就象亚当斯密在政治经济学中的地位一样,所有先前的学者均是为他作准备,所有在其后面的学者,均以他国始祖。共产主义者宣言,从未有过任何人的演说对如此众多的不同种族和不同信仰的男男女女拥有如此魔力,它有着不容置疑的天才烙印。法国伟大的乌托邦社会主义者圣西门的最后遗言是:“未来属于我们”!Ebenezer Elliott问道“何谓社会主义者?即那些愿意用一辩士换你一先令的人”。他说所有的社会主义者都是恶,妒忌之徒,他们渴望平等分配不平等的创收。愿望乃思想之父。
Marx is regarded as one of the greatest thinkers of the century, and few others have influenced the development of economics thought as he has. Socialism to the strict Marxist means a conception of religion, of literature, and of science, as well as of an economic philosophy.   It is true that in socialism Marx occupies a position like that of Adam Smith in the history of political economy, all going before him in a manner preparing the way for him, and all coming after taking him for a starting point.  the Manifesto, no sentences ever coined in the mint of human speech have held such magic power over such large numbers of men and women of so many diverse races and creeds, it bears the unmistakable stamp of genius.
The last words of the great French Utopist Saint Simon was  “the future is ours”! Ebenezer Elliott, expressed in “the corn-law Rhymer” what is a socialist? One who is willing to give up his penny and pocket your shilling. ” socialists were all sordid, envious creatures, yearning for the equal division of unequal earnings.  ‘ the wish is the father of thought’.

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 楼主| 发表于 7/20/2014 00:26:37 | 显示全部楼层
VOIGT指出,将天国搬至地球经常变成唯有通过战争,恐怖,集中营,消防队和绞刑者的绞索,才能使之适合于人类的生殖温床。美国参议院议员罗宾对委员会说:列宁曾对我说:“俄国革命可能会失败。我们尚未发展至有足够的资本阶段,我们还太原始以致无法实现社会主义国家。但是我们将保持革命的热情,直至其在欧洲爆发,记住克里姆林宫的小个子告诉你的一个无产阶级的世界革命已经诞生”。
F.A.Voigt pointed out “the kingdom of heaven onearth is always the procreation bed which can be made to fit mankind only bywar, terrorism, the concentration camp, the firing squad and the hangman’srope. It is impossible to establish the kingdom of heaven on earth without atthe same time establishing the kingdom of hell.” [1]
Mr.Raymond Robins, in American senate sub-committee,told them one of his conversation with Lenin: “Lenin in Kremlin said to me, theRussian revolution will probably fail. We have not developed far enough in thecapitalist stage, we are too primitive to realize the socialistic state. But wewill keep the flame of the revolution alive in Russian until it breaks inEurope…remember that the little man in the Kremlin told you that a proletarianworld revolution was born”[2]


[1]Normon Thomas, Socialism On The Defensive, NY,Harper & Brothers Publishers1938, p.297

[2]Paul Milinkov, Bolshevism: An International Danger, NY, Charles Scribner’sSons, 1920, p.295.



 楼主| 发表于 7/20/2014 00:40:15 | 显示全部楼层
Louis Boudin在其1907年之《马克思的理论体系》中下结论道:“马克思主义理论体系是一种完整的结构,除非作为一个整体考察,无法恰当地理解。必须从整体上审视,接受或驳斥之。它的根基源于过去,它的结构框架拥抱现在,它的高塔尖展现未来”。他辩称马克思的社会主义,既非仇恨现行社会体制下的压迫者或热爱被压迫者的产物,也非狂热想象的梦幻般的构思。而是他阅读历史和理解我们现在的文明的逻辑结论。我们可以将马克思主义作为一个整体接受或放弃,而不能采纳一部分而抛弃另一部份;因为不能抛开前提条件而得出结论。
Louis Boudin in 1907 in his The Theoretical Systemof Karl Marx[1]concluded that “the Marxian theoretical system is one solid structure andcannot be properly understood unless viewed as a whole; it must be examined,accepted or rejected in its entirety. Its foundations lie in the past, itsframe work embraces the present, and its lofty tower pierces the future”. Boudinasserted the “Marx’s socialism is neither the result solely of his hatred ofthe oppressors and love for the oppressed of the present social system, nor isit the dreamlike construction of his fervid imagination; it is the logicalconclusion of his reading of the past and his understanding of the present ofour civilisation. He further put it that “one can accept the Marxian system asa whole or leave it as a whole, but cannot take part of it, and leave the rest,for he cannot take the conclusions without admitting the premises.”[2]


[1] LouisBoudin, The Theoretical System of Karl Marx, Chicago, Charles H.Kerr & Co.1915.p.255.

[2]Louis Boudin, The Theoretical System of Karl Marx, Chicago, Charles H.Kerr& Co. 1915.p.256.



 楼主| 发表于 7/20/2014 01:04:39 | 显示全部楼层
作为一个坚定的反对教条主义者,恩格斯在他有生之年已修正了许多先前有关无产阶级为工人争权利的斗争形式和方法,激进改革社会的概念;他看到了工人阶级运动成功的例子,他将这些成功案例作为马克思有关工人阶级的历史作用的理论有效性的证明。通过运用法律手段取得的成就,加强了他对运用普选权和其他法律方法,通过和平手段为工人阶级赢得政治权力的可能性的信念。他预言各国反动势力不可避免地会违悖宪法权利,并公开使用暴力镇压,因而可能逼迫群众直接反抗,试图运用暴力夺取政权。恩格斯主张若统治者仍命令用武力镇压,任何武装起义仍是必要的。
A determined opponent of dogmatising,Engels revised many former concepts regarding forms and methods of proletarianstruggle for workers rights and a radical reformation of society in the lightof history and the major changes taking place in his own day. [1] He sawworking class movement successes as proof of the validity of the Marxism theoryon the historical role of the working class[2].  achieved by using legal methods strengthenedhis view that universal suffrage and other legal methods now made it possiblefor the working class to win political power by peaceful means. He anticipatedthe reactionary forces, inevitably involved the violation of constitutionrights and the open use of force, which might compel the masses to offer directresistance, to attempt to seize power by force, by use of arms.[3] Hecontinues to see any attempt at armed uprising as foredovural if the rulingcircus still command the armed forces.


[1] Karl Mark and F. EngelsCollected Works Vol.50. 1892-1895. NY International Publishers 2004 p.XV.

[2] Karl Mark and F. Engels CollectedWorks Vol.50. 1892-1895. NY International Publishers 2004 p.XVI.

[3] Karl Mark and F. Engels CollectedWorks Vol.50. 1892-1895. NY International Publishers 2004 p.XX.



 楼主| 发表于 7/21/2014 23:27:10 | 显示全部楼层
马克思和恩格斯最初均是自由思想者和民主革命派,他们视推翻资产阶级政治权力和建立共产主义为其历史史命。马克思有句名言:“哲学家们仅仅是用各种方法解释世界,更重要的是改造之”。马、恩实质上是政治和国家权力的斗士。他们认为:一切人类历史都是阶级斗争史,国家权力是阶级斗争发展的产物。他们揭示了(资产阶级民主)代议制及其意识形态的本质,而共产主义的最终目标乃实现人类真正自由和社会平等。马克思主义的主要论点包括:阶级斗争,暴力革命,消灭剥削阶级,消灭生产资料财产私有制,工薪阶级独裁(中共克意误译为“无产阶级专政”),由工人阶级与其他非无产阶级的劳工大众联盟,暴力夺取政权则是马克思主义的核心思想。没有革命的理论,就不会有革命的行动。
Marx and Engels Both began their adult lives as freethinkers and revolutionary democrats [1], they saw as itshistorical mission, the overthrow of the power of the bourgeoisie and thecreation of communism. Marx’s famous aphorism: “the philosophers have onlyinterpreted the world, in various ways; the point is to change it.” Bothessentially fighters, came to grips with the problems of political and statepower; they concluded that state power has always been the product of thedevelopment of class contradictions, and exposed the character of the representativeapparatus and ideology, the realisation of human aspiration for genuine freedomand social equality. the revolutionary programme ofthe dictatorship of the proletariat, the conquest of political power by the working class in alliance with the non-proletariansections of the working people, was the culminating point of Marxism. [2]Without revolutionarytheory, there can be no revolutionary movement. The economic manuscripts remaincompletely unknown to English readers.


[1] Karl Mark and F. EngelsCollected Works Vol.I NY International Publishers1975 p.XIII.

[2] Karl Mark and F. Engels CollectedWorks Vol.I NY International Publishers1975 Vol.I XV.



 楼主| 发表于 7/21/2014 23:59:49 | 显示全部楼层
马克思12岁时,有一天燕妮的父亲领着女儿和马克思做长途森林散步,途中谈及法国大革命。马克思问原因,答:社会不公。其父虽同情革命但认为革命并非解决的良方。因法国大革命带来恐怖及拿破伦独裁,他向马克思介绍了圣西门的观念:社会应对最穷的阶级负有道义责任和起码的物质条件。(15)政府应当向全社会每个成员提供工作和收入保障,并限制私有财产和继承权。马克思在给他保罗的信中写道:“你知道我已经牺牲我的全部财富致力于革命斗争。我不会为之后悔。相反,如果我不得不重新开始我的事业,我还会干相同的事,但是我将不会结婚。”
Marx wrote his son in law, Paul Lafargue, ‘you knowthat I have sacrificed my entire fortune to the revolutionary struggle. I donot regret it. On the contrary, I would do the same, if I had to start mycareer again, but I would not marry. [1]  


[1] Kapp Ivonne, Eleanor Marx (NY1972) p. 298.



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 楼主| 发表于 7/30/2014 22:47:27 | 显示全部楼层
1830年代,欧洲到处弥漫起义和革命的消烟。在波兰,意大利,法国和比利时,人民群起反抗现存统治秩序。燕妮的父亲提醒燕妮和她的朋友们:引发革命不难,但建立一个新的正义秩序非常难。马克思的父亲在给儿子的信中写道:“尽管你有许多优点,但在你心中起主导作用的乃是你的利已主义(自我中心)。”
In 1830s, Europe was in the throes of a series ofupheavals and revolutions, in Poland, Italy, France and Belgium, the peoplewere on the barricades to protest against the existing order.(17) Westphalenreminded Jenny and her friends, it was easy to start a revolution, but verydifficult to establish an new and just order. The lightning of love has notstruck her heart. Karl’s father wrote to Karl said “despite your many goodtraits, the prevailing force in your heart is egotism.”[1]


[1] MEGA II,1,P.289



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 楼主| 发表于 7/30/2014 22:52:20 | 显示全部楼层
在波恩大学,马克思选修了荷马,Propertius挽歌,艺术史,希腊和罗马神话,及若干法学课程。在大学里马克思过着传统的大学一年级新生的生活方式,每日晚间均狂欢酗酒,醉生梦死。有一次他在与同学打斗中伤了左眼,又因酗酒狂欢闹事被逮捕关入拘留所一夜,在科隆因非法持有禁止性武器被起诉,象个公子哥滥花超出其父给他的预算。
At Bonn university, Marx take homer and the elegiesof Propertius, history of art, mythology of the Greeks and Romans, also lawcourses and developing a considerable knowledge of its finer points.[1]InUniversity, Marx’s nights were filled with riotous partying, drunken revelryand dealing in the traditional style of a Germany freshman student. In a fightwith a fellow-student, had cut his left eye, he had arrested and spent a nightin jail for rowdiness and drunkenness and was accused of carrying prohibitedweapons in Cologne, cost more money than his father had counted giving him.(21)


[1] H.F. Peters, Red Jenny, A lifewith Karl Marx,  London, Allen &Unwin 1986 p.45



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 楼主| 发表于 7/30/2014 22:58:32 | 显示全部楼层
1838年马克思依法须服役一年,为避兵役他写信要求其母亲邮给他一张其身体不适合服役的证明。马父于1838510日病逝,马克思却未返家参与葬礼。他父亲曾对儿子的不屑性格表示不满:“你的心是否与你的头脑一样好使?你正受到魔鬼的控制,该魔王究竟是神还是福士德?这是令我心中最痛苦的疑虑。难道你就不能作个真正的,享受正常家庭幸福的人?”此期燕妮在给马克思的情书中称马为“我的小野猪”。
Marx have to serve in military for a year in 1838,he asked his parents to send him a certificate stating he was medically unfitto serve. (25) but his father died on 10 may 1838, and Karl did not home toattend his father’s funeral. Marx father has expressed misgivings about hisson’s character, “is your heart equal to your head? You are dominated by ademon not given to everyone, is this demon divine or Faustian? This is the mostpainful doubt in my heart, will you ever be receptive to truly human, domestichappiness? [1]Jenny: suddenly the picture of a black wild boar came to her mind and made hershiver, she called him in her love letters, her darling little wild boar[2]


[1] MEGA III,1, p.308.

[2] H.F. Peters, Red Jenny, A lifewith Karl Marx,  London, Allen & Unwin1986 p.22



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 楼主| 发表于 7/30/2014 23:01:47 | 显示全部楼层
有位俄国人Pavel Annenkov形容年轻的马克思为“一个富于活力,意志坚强和有坚定信念的人,尖锐的嗓门有某种金属灶眼般不容任何反抗的力度”。“当我们看着他处于那种颠狂的时刻,在我面前站着一位民主的独裁者的化身。”
Pavel Annenkov, a Russian, describes the young Marxas a man of considered energy, will power and unshakable conviction, whosesharp voice had a metallic ring that did not permit any objection. ‘In front ofmy eyes stood the embodiment of a democratic dictator, as we see him in momentof fantasy. [1]


[1]H.F. Peters, Red Jenny, A life with Karl Marx, London, Allen & Unwin 1986 p.47 see Nicolajcosky, Boris and DttoMacnchen, Helfen, Karl Marx: Man and Frighter (London 1976) p.125.



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