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楼主: 郭国汀

[法律法治] 马克思主义研究

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 楼主| 发表于 8/4/2014 17:52:55 | 显示全部楼层
燕妮的哥哥凡迪南成为特里尔首任总督后,要求伯林警方向他报告马克思在伯林大学的活动情况。“马克思根本不是一个严肃的法学院学生,他正在读哲学和历史的课程,但是浪费绝大多数时间在激进分子和无神论人群中争论神、人和社会问题,同时消费着啤酒、萄葡酒和香烟”。“哲学家们仅仅是解释世界,已到了改变世界的时侯了”是马克思的哲学论题。马克思虽然在伯林大学上学却未获得该大学的任何学位,而是直接获得JENA大学的哲学博士学位。因为该大学的学位仅需提交一篇论文,无需学生在该大学实际上学。事实上,在马克思寄出他的博士论文仅9天后,他即收到了其博士文凭。质言之,该大学实际上是个滥发文凭的大学。
Most members of Jenny’s family shared these doubts.Ferdinard, become the first councillor in Trier, requested Berlin police tokeep him informed about the activities of Marx. “Marx was not a serious studentof law at all, he was attending classes in philosophy and history, but wastemost of his time arguing about God, Man and society, in the among of radicalsand atheists, while consuming bear and wine by litre and smoking cigars.” “Thephilosophers have only interpreted the world, the time has come to change it”was his PhD thesis. He passed the university of Jena instead of Barlin.

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 楼主| 发表于 8/4/2014 18:05:07 | 显示全部楼层
马克思有关工薪阶级独裁(通译:无产阶级专政)的论证,事实上预言了共产党国家迷信暴力。阶级斗争必然导致无产阶级专政是马克思对阶级斗争理论最原创的贡献;按马克思的说法无产阶级专政是指:统治权力将落入贫农、非熟练工人及半熟练工人手中;贵族,资产阶级(中产阶级)和熟练工人将被剥夺权力,占人口绝大多数的穷人将继承地球;然后无产阶级专政将让位于一个无阶级社会。马克思的“the proletariat 原指“工薪阶级”主要是指原手工工匠因资本主义大生产而失业,沦为按工时出卖劳力的工人,及沦为工人的失地农民,而不包括熟练工人;因为当年美国熟练工人日薪达1.25美元,可购卖上好土地一英亩(约等于六市亩)。
Marx’s proofs concerning the dictatorshipof the proletariat were in fact prophecies state with great force andconviction. The class struggle must necessarily lead to the dictatorship of proletariatwas his most original contribution to the theory of class struggle, and hemeant by the dictatorship of the proletariat precisely what he said: The rulingpower would fall into the hands of the poor farmers and the unskilled andsemi-skilled workers. The aristocrats, bourgeoisie, and the skilled workerswould be dethroned, and majority poor, would inherit the earth. Then in thecourse of time the dictatorship of the proletariat would give way to aclassless society. [1]


[1] Robert Payne, The Unknown Marx,NY university Press 1971,p.6



 楼主| 发表于 8/4/2014 18:17:28 | 显示全部楼层
恩格斯与马克思在思想灵魂上一拍即合。他们是“两个灵魂一个思想(两位一体),两颗心却一同跳动。” 是恩格斯创造了马克思永不犯错的神话,而恩格斯非常清楚马克思时常犯错,老马有时瞎胡闹,时常自相茅盾,由于缺乏智能饱受折磨;马克思是人而非神,具有太多人的劣质与弱点。恩格斯最先,然后由各国共产党人,简化马克思主义几乎使之不再存在,使之变成一种图腾,标志,便于崇拜万能的神。工薪阶级独裁(无产阶级专政)被简化成简单的专政;实质上,几乎无须考虑咨询工人阶级的需要决不允许工人阶级参与分享国家权力。无产阶级变成了那些坚信其有权利以无产阶级名义行使专制权力的教条主义的革命党的工具,而与马克思设想的政府完全背道而驰。
Engels found in Marx a twin spirit. They were “twosouls with but a single thought, two hearts that beat as one.” The legend ofMarx’s infallibility was created by Engels, who was well aware that Marx wasfallible, sometimes fumbled, contradicted himself, suffered atrociously from alack of intellectual discipline, he was human , all too human, heir too many ofnormal vices of mankind. [1]Engels first, then the communists, simplified Marx almost out of existence, hebecome a totem, banner, a set of easily remembered apothegms. Thedictatorship of the proletariat was simplified to simply a dictatorship whichrarely consulted the needs of the proletariat and never permitted them tooccupy the state of power. The proletariat merely become the instruments ofdoctrinaire revolutionary who believed firmly that they had the right todictate in the name of proletariat. Marx has envisioned a government of anentirely different kind.[2]


[1] Robert Payne, The Unknown Marx,NY university Press 1971,P.8

[2] Robert Payne, The Unknown Marx,NY university Press 1971,P.8-9



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 楼主| 发表于 8/4/2014 18:26:03 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 郭国汀 于 8/4/2014 18:35 编辑


“马克思实际上对宗教经验怀有深沉的敬意,对宗教有相当宽容的理解”。马克思虽然对什么是宗教从未说清楚.他说:“宗教的苦难表达的是尘世生活中的苦难,同时,也是抗议现实的苦难。恰如在缺乏灵性的状态中的精神一样,宗教对受压迫的可怜的人们而言是一种显灵和奇迹,是冷酷无情世界中的感情,是人民的鸦片.要求放弃对现实处境的幻想,就是放弃需要幻想的处境本身。[1]马克思还说:“是人类创制宗教,而非宗教创造人。确实,宗教乃是那些尚未发现自我或虽已发现自我但再次失去自我者的自我意识和自我感觉。但是人并非占用尘世外某处以期永远占有该处的抽象实在,而是生活在这个世界,国家,社会之中的具体的人。这个国家、社会创制宗教,制造某种使人堕落的意识世界,因为他们(指国家和社会)是使人堕落的世界。宗教乃这个世界的一般概括性理论,其百科全书式的概要,其在普通状态中的逻辑...因此,反对宗教的争战就是反对宗教成为灵性芳香的世界之直接战役.” [2]马克思言及:“人民除非废除宗教,剥夺其骗人的幸福感,否则不可能获得真实的幸福.人民应当自已摆脱上当受骗作为其自身条件的要求,正是其应当放弃需要骗人的条件的要求”.[3]马克思进一步论述:“因此,在其他尘世的真理消失后,建立这个世界的真理便是历史的使命.随后,在那些自我疏远人类,名声良好的圣人的真实性质被 披露之后,揭露这种自我疏远的所有非神圣性则是哲学家的使命。所以,对天堂的批判转化为对尘世的批评,对宗教的批判演变成对法律的批评,对理论的批评则变成对政治的批判”。[4]最后马克思认为:“对宗教的批判止于‘人是人类最高级的实在’的学说;亦即,其终结依不容置疑的绝对(概念),必须彻底变革全部有关人是一种被贬低,奴役,遗弃,卑劣的实体的学说...激进的说法乃斩断事物的根。如今,对人而言,该事物之根就是人类自身.”[5]

而共产主义者们将马克思的宗教理论简化支解变成几乎毫无意义,例如,毛泽东曾亲口对达赖啦嘛说:"宗教是毒药"!中共党控教育从小学到大学言及宗教无一不是“迷信、谎言”等诋毁,经典描述是:"宗教是统治阶级麻醉人民的精神鸦片!共产党通过杀掉所有异议反对派人士而简化国家。他们以马克思的名义,引入强制劳动,集中营,酷刑室;马克思本人亦将成为其第一个受害者。因此,马克思对共产党人以他的名义所犯下的滔天罪孽或围绕着他聚集的传说并没有责任。马克思是一个建立起真理宝库的人。但是马克思不应当对我们生活的时代是一个充满暴力革命的事实负责。是否有马克思无关紧要,他并非第一个愤怒抨击社会不义和财富分配极度不平等的人,世界仍然将会是一个革命狂热的世界。”
Marx had spoken with a deep respect for religiousexperience, was considerably more merciful and understanding.  The communists simplified Marx’s doctrinesuntil become almost meaningless they simplified the state by killing all thosewho opposed them. In the name of Marx they introduced forced labour,concentration camp, torture chambers, Marx himself would have been their firstvictims. [6]Marxis not responsible for the legends which accumulated around him or the crimescommitted in his name. [7]Marx is a man who set great store by the truth. (Payne 1971.5) But Marx was notresponsible for the fact that we live in an age of violent revolution. With orwithout Marx the world would be in a revolutionary ferment. He was not thefirst to rage against social injustice and vast inequalities of wealth.


[1]   "Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, thefeelings of a heartless world, just as it is the spirit of unspirituralconditions. It is the opium of the people." See, Otto Ruhle, KarlMarx his life and Work Translated by Eden and Cedar Paul,The New Home Library New York 1929, P.157原译之[宗教是受压迫者的叹息]令人莫名其妙,应译成[宗教对受压迫的可怜的人们而言是一种显灵和奇迹]才符合原文.[宗教是无情世界的良心]也不准确,准确的译文应当是:[宗教是冷酷无情世界中的感情].

[2]     "Man makes religion; religion does not make man.Religion, indeed, is the self-consciousness and the self-feeling of the man whoeither has not yet found himself, or else(having found himself) has losthimself once more. But man is not an abstract being, squatting down somewhereoutside the world. Man is the world of men , the State, society. This State,this society, produce religion, produce a perverted world consciousness,because they are a perverted world . Religion is the generalized theory of thisworld, its encyclopadic compend, its logic in a popular form...The fightagainst religion is, therefore, a direct campaign against the world whosespiritual aroma is religion". See Otto Ruhle,   KarlMarx his life and Work Translated by Eden and Cedar Paul,The New Home Library New York 1929, P.157.
   

[3]    "The people cannot be really happy until it hasbeen deprived of illusory happiness by the abolition of religion. The demandthat the people should shake itself free of illusion as to its own condition isthe demand that it should abandon a condition which needs illusion." See,Otto Ruhle, Karl Marx his life and Work Translated by Eden and CedarPaul, The New Home Library New York 1929, P.158.

[4]        "Thusit is the mission of history, after the other-worldly truth has disappeared, toestablish the truth of this world. In the next place, it is the mission ofphilosophy, having entered into the service of history after the true nature ofthe reputed sainthood of human self-estrangement has been disclosed, todisclose all the unsaintliness of this self-estrangement. Thus the criticism ofheaven is transformed into a criticism of earth, the criticism of religion intoa criticism of law, the criticism of theology into a criticism ofpolitics." See,  Otto Ruhle, Karl Marx his life and WorkTranslatedby Eden and Cedar Paul, The New Home Library New York 1929, P.159.

[5]"the criticism of religion ends with the doctrine that man is the highestbeing for man; it ends, that is to say, with the categorical imperative thatall conditions must be revolutionized in which man is a debased, an enslaved,an abandoned, a contemptible being... a radical is one who cut at the roots ofthings. now, for man, the root of things is man himself." See, OttoRuhle,   Karl Marx his life and WorkTranslated by Eden and Cedar Paul, The New Home Library New York 1929, P.159.

[6] Robert Payne, The Unknown Marx,NY university Press 1971, P.9

[7] Robert Payne, The Unknown Marx,NY university Press 1971,p.10



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 楼主| 发表于 8/4/2014 18:44:48 | 显示全部楼层
马克思对历史并无特殊天赋其数学亦相当差。在波恩大学就读一年期间,马克思放任自流,象个花花公子似地胡乱花钱,时常酗酒寻欢作乐,写狂热的情诗,并参加了一个秘密革命会社。参加过一次决斗,代表一个革命会社出差科隆时因非法携带武器被警察逮捕。一年后其父因担心他在波恩大学玩世不恭而毁了前程,因而让其转入学术严肃的伯林大学;但他一直处于能否成为全职学生的边缘,变成一位放荡不羁在各门课程之间游荡不定的学者。他什么书都读,过着一种波西米亚人的生活。渴望成为诗人,他写了三本诗集和一部OULANEM长篇悲剧诗,他的毁灭世界的渴望,使他感受到人类被精神枷锁,导致精疲力竭,空虚,恐惧之感。由于大量阅读哲学和创作诗篇,导致他精神崩溃不得不休学半年,在斯波利河畔的一个小村子里修养。并于1843年被迫辞去学报总编辑。
Marx had no particular  gift for history or mathematics. At BonnUniversity Marx sowed his wild oats, drank hard, wrote seams of poetry, spentmoney at a prodigious rate, and joined a secret revolutionary society. Hefought a dual, and on a visit to Cologne, on behalf of the revolutionarysociety, he was arrested for being in possession of a pistol. Marx enjoyed theUniversity of Berlin, in danger of becoming a permanent student, one of those undisciplinedscholars who wander from class to class and never settle down. He readomnivorously, lived the life of a bohemian. Desire to be a poet, he wrote threebooks of poems and a poetic tragedy Oulanem, his desire to destroy the world,thus freeing mankind, which is chained, shattered, empty, frightened. [1]Somuch reading of philosophy and writing of poetry brought on a nervous breakdown and he spent some months recuperating at Stralau, a small village on theriver of Spree.  He was forced to resignthe editor-in-chief in March 1843.


[1] Robert Payne, The Unknown Marx,NY university Press 1971,P.12



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 楼主| 发表于 8/4/2014 18:53:09 | 显示全部楼层
在“武器的批判和批判的武器”文中,马克思和恩格斯相信“如果无产阶级取得胜利,并不意味着他们取得全社会绝对主人的地位,因为唯有消灭无产阶级自已及其对手资产阶级,无产阶级才能取得最终胜利;然后,无产阶级及其对手的私有财产一道消失。”
In Critique of Critical Critique, Marx and Engels believed that: “If the proletariat is victorious, it does not at all mean that it gemes the absolute master of society, for it is victorious only by abolishing itself and its opposite. Then the proletariat, and its determining opposite private property, disappear.”
 楼主| 发表于 8/4/2014 18:55:42 | 显示全部楼层
1948年三月,一位德国诗人Herwegh告诉马克思在巴黎的德国人正在组织武装队伍,他计划训练一支四、五千人的敢死队,通过武装暴力建立一个共和国。马克思问他谁是领导人。Herwegh说他和Herr von Bornstedt已建立一个德国民主会社,他是该社的头,希望马克思加盟。但是马克思不能接受在即将到来的革命中的老二地位,因此,马克思与恩格斯,磨尔,鲍尔,史切波等人组建了德国工人联盟。
Herwegh, a poet, in March 1848 told Marx thatGermany in Paris were beginning to rally and arm themselves, he planed todispatch to German a force of 4-5000 well-trained volunteers, who wouldestablish a republic by force of arms. Marx asked who the leader was. Herweghdeclared that he, Herr von Bornstedt, had established a union of GermanDemocratic Society, of which he is president, he hope Marx join them. But Marxwould not accept a secondly role in the coming revolution, with Engels andSchapper, Bauer and Moll, he founded the Germany workers union.[1]


[1] H.F. Peters, Red Jenny, A lifewith Karl Marx,  London, Allen &Unwin 1986 p.79



 楼主| 发表于 8/4/2014 19:17:28 | 显示全部楼层
马克思在写作批判黑格尔法哲学原理一文时,他引述Borne关于宗教的论述:“天堂被创造出来给那些在地球上一无所有的人们…此种创造而来的宗教向那些受苦受难的人们提供了在生活的苦难之杯中的一点甜蜜,(失眠者的)安眠药,(精神病人的)鸦片,及社会底层人们的少许法律和慈善。”亦即马克思的名言“宗教是人民的鸦片”及相关宗教的不少论点实质上并非马克思原创,而是源自Borne的论述。
While Marx was writing Hegel’s philosophy of law, heremembered a passage in Heine’s essay about Borne concerning religion:’ Heavenwas invented for people to whom the earth has nothing to offer…hail to thisinvention, hail to a religion that offers suffering human kind in the bittercup of life a few sweet, sleep producing drops, mental opium, a few drops oflaw loops and charity.48. [1]


[1] Heine Heinrich, SamtlicheSchriften,ed Klans Briegleb (Munich 1974) p.103.



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 楼主| 发表于 3/17/2015 18:21:26 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 郭国汀 于 3/17/2015 18:22 编辑

I study Marxism with a purpose of critisize its ridicule idea only, I dnnot think we should use Marxism as a weapen to fight the CCP regime, for We do not have enough time and resource than the CCP has. If we use the Marxlism against the CCP regime, We have little chance to win the fighting, we are not the expert of Marxism, neither as professional scholar in this area, the CCP has hundred and thousand so-called Marxism scholars and experts whose main job to to poison Chinese mind and soul. To waste our enougy and time to do nothing else. Thus, as a democratic fighter, we should not spent a lots of time to study it, however, we should study western political philosophy carefully, in order to establish our own political institute in the future.

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